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HISTORY OF THE JEWS 




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HISTORY OF THE 
JEWS 



BY 

PROFESSOR H. GRAETZ 



VOL. VI 

Containing a Memoir of the Author by Dr. Philipp Bloch 

A Chronological Table of Jewish History 

An Index to the Whole Work 

AND 

Four Maps 




PHILADELPHIA 
The Jewish Publication Society of America 



Copyright, 1S9S, 
Rv The Jewish Piiu-ication Society of America. 



jIU rights reserved. 






PREFACE TO THE INDEX VOLUME. 



With the Index Volume, the yewish Publication 
Society of America brings to a close the American 
edition of the " History of the Jews " by Professor 
H. Graetz. A glance at the title-page and the 
table of contents will show, that the celebrated 
historian cannot be held directly responsible for 
anything this volume contains. The History proper, 
as abridged under the direction of the author and 
translated into Eno^Iish from the eleven volume 
German edition, is complete in five volumes. In 
compiling this additional volume, the Publication 
Committee was prompted by the desire to render 
the work readily available for pedagogical purposes. 
To be of value to the general reader as well as to 
the scholar, a work containing upwards of three 
thousand pages needs to be equipped with indexes, 
tables, and helps of various kinds. 

The importance of indexes can hardly be over- 
estimated. The English jurist and writer who con- 
sidered them so essential that he " proposed to 
bring a Bill into Parliament to deprive an author 
who publishes a book without an Index of the 
privilege of copyright " was not too emphatic. In 
books of facts, such as histories, indexes are in- 
dispensable. This has been fully recognized in 



VI PREFACE. 



the Society's edition of Graetz's " History of the 
jews." Each of the five vokimes, as it appeared, 
was furnished with an adequate index. Yet there 
are two reasons justifying- and even requiring the 
compilation of a general index to the whole work. 
The first is the reader's convenience. All who use 
books to any extent know the annoyance of taking 
volume after volume froni the shelf to find the 
desired information only in the last. In fact, the 
separate indexes were compiled onl)- because 
circumstances compelled the publication of the 
sinofle volumes at rather lonijf intervals. The 
other consideration is that Professor Graetz is the 
historiographer par excellence of the Jews. His 
work, at present the authority upon the subject 
of Jewish histor\-, bids fair to liold its pre-eminent 
position for some time;, perhaps decades. A com- 
prehensive ind(;x to his work is, therefore, at the 
same time an index to the facts of Jewish his- 
tory approximately as accepted b)' contemporary 
scholars — a suflicient reason for its cxistt-nce. 

To make it a worth)' guide to Jewish history in 
general, the ind(tx necessarily had to be more 
than a mere compilation of the five separate 
indexes. In ili<t matter of the nam(!s of persons 
and places, accordingl\-, tht; gcMicral index excels 
the others in the fullness and coin])lelen(-ss of the 
references. Hut its chit^f tilh; to superiority over 
them li(,*s in its character as an Inchtx of Subjc'cts, 
illustrated by such captions as JUood .Iccusation ; 
Conversions, forced; Coins; Emancipation of tJie 



PREFACE. Vii 

Jews ; BtUls, Papal ; Apostasy and Apostates , Mes- 
siah and Messianic ; Bible under the headines Law, 
Old Testament, Pentateuch, Scriptures, Septuagint, 
Translations, and Vulgate; Education under the 
headings, Colleges, Rabbinical and Talmudical, Laiv, 
Schools, Talmud, and Talmud Torah. These sum- 
maries will be suggestive, it is hoped, to the teacher 
of Jewish history and to the student with sufficient 
devotion to the subject to pursue it topically and 
pragmatically as well as in its chronologic sequence. 
As an illustration of what use may be made of it, 
the compiler has prefixed to the index a guide to 
the study of Jewish history by means of the biog- 
raphies of its great men, an apostolical succession, 
as it were. Under the class-names there given, 
the names of all persons of each class will be found 
grouped in the index. Again, if it is desirable to 
trace out a topic, as, for instance, the develoi3ment 
of Hebrew grammar, or the cultivation of medicine 
among Jews, etc., the index is helpful by means of 
its lists of names of grammarians, physicians, astron- 
omers, historians, poets, etc., under these and sim- 
ilar heads. 

To facilitate its use, the student is urged to read 
the directions preceding the index. Great difficul- 
ties attach to the systematic arrangement of the 
names of persons connected with ancient and 
mediaeval history of all kinds. In Jewish history, 
even down to recent times, these difficulties are 
largely increased by the comparatively late intro- 
duction among Jews of family names in the accepted 



Vni PREFACE. 

modern sense, and by their introduction among 
Spanish Jews earHer than among the others. The 
scheme adopted by Zednc-r. in his British Museum 
catalogue, has been followed as far as the peculiari- 
ties of our author and his subject, and its presenta- 
tion in a modern language, permitted it. The 
arrangement is not ideal, but every effort has been 
made to minimize the difficulties. 

In this preface, precedence has b(;(m given to the 
index, because, in spite of the consensus of opinions 
among connoisseurs, the importance of indexes and 
their usefulness are in some quarters still held to 
stand in need of vindication. In the book, however, 
the first place is occupied by a contribution Avhose 
value will be disputed by none, namely, the Memoir 
of the author, the greatest historian of the Jews. The 
Committee believes, not only that the public has a 
taste for biographical studies, but that in this in- 
stance it will be pleased with the choice of bio- 
grapher, Dr. I'hilipp lUoch. rabl)i of Posen, a dis- 
ciple of Gra(;tz and for niorc than a quarter of a 
century his intiniate friend. Although not ([uite 
seven years have elapsed since Graetz passt;d away, 
and many that were clos(;ly associated with hini are 
still among the li\i ng, it was not easy to find the 
man f[ualified for the task of writing his biography. 
Graetz was not inclined to be communicative about 
his early WUt or his emotional exi)eriences. He 
had met with disai)pointments that emphasized the 
reticence of his nature. The venerable wife of the 
deceased historian was kind enougli to put all her 



PREFACE. IX 

husband's literary remains at the disposal of the biog- 
rapher, who herewith acknowledges his deep obliga- 
tion to her for the help thus afforded his work. The 
greater part of material of this kind, especially 
in the form of letters, Graetz burnt before his last 
change of residence. But his interesting diary was 
spared. It was kept with more or less regularity 
from 1832 to 1854, though for the latter part of this 
period it is hardly more than a bald summary of 
events, and the disappearance of loose leaves cur- 
tails the information that might have been gathered 
from it. The biographer's thanks are due also to 
the Board of Curators of the Frankel Bequests 
for kindly putting at his service the documents in 
their archives bearing on Graetz's connection with 
the Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary, thus 
enabling him to verify facts long in his possession. 
Dr. Bloch furthermore availed himself of Dr. B. 
Rippner's interesting brochure, " Zum siebzigsten 
Geburtstage des Professors Dr. Heinrich Graetz," 
and of Professor Dr. David Kaufman n's eloquent 
eulogy of his teacher, " H. Graetz, der Historio- 
graph des Judenthums." The Committee believes, 
that in securing the co-operation of Dr. Bloch it 
has been the instrument of eliciting an important 
original contribution to Jewish biographical litera- 
ture. 

The Chronolosfical Table is another feature of 
the volume to which attention must be called. In 
the eiofhth volume of the German edition of the 
" History," Professor Graetz introduced a similar 



PREFACE. 



table, recitini^r tlic succession of events from the 
Maccabrean stru<^gle to the Expulsion of the Jews 
from Spain and Portugal. The present analysis 
includes the whole of Jewish history up to the year 
1873 of this era. It assumes to be nothing more 
than a sunimar\- of the " Histor)- of the Jews" by 
Graetz. As no attempt has been made to indicate 
whether his conclusions an; endorsed by the scholars 
of our day, it beconu;s a duty to refer to the 
ve.xed question of Riblical chronology. Since the 
time of Archbishop Ussher (15S0-1656) — not to 
mention the Talmudic Seder Olam Rabba — it 
has been the subject of dispute, which is compli- 
cated by the various eras, the Seleucidaean, the 
Roman, and the Era of the World, in use among: 
the Jews at different times. Even now the most 
diversified opinions are held by scholars, and no 
system has met with general acceptance. Graetz 
discusses the matter exhaustively in Note 19 of Vol. 
I of the German original of his "History." His 
researches led him to oppose the results of the his- 
t(3rians Niebuhr, luvald, and Movers, and of the 
Assyriologists Brandes, Smith, and Schrader. He 
inclines to the views of Oppert, who applied the 
information derived froni the Assyrian inscriptions to 
the vindication of the Biblical chronology nearly as 
determined by IJsshcr. Since Graetz wrote his note 
(1873), almost amouiuing to a treatise, evidence for 
the one or the oilier opinion has 1)(:(mi strengthened 
or invalidat(-'d by the morct minute and extended 
study of the monuments, inscriptions, and other 



PREFACE. Xi 

records of Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria. The 
reader interested in the subject is referred to the 
works of such scholars as Duncker, Oppert, Kamp- 
hausen, and Eduard Meyer. 

Finally, it is hoped, that the four maps accom- 
panying" the Index Volume will meet with favor and 
frequent use. They have been inserted in a pocket 
and not bound with the book, so that they may be 
removed readily for reference in connection with 
any volume the student may be reading. The two 
maps of Palestine and that of the Semitic World 
are reproduced, with modifications, from Professor 
George Adam Smith's forthcoming Bible Atlas. 
The one of the Jewish-Mahometan World was made 
for the Society by Mr. J. G. Bartholomew of the 
Edinburgh Geographical Institute, the cartographer 
who drew the other three maps. The maps of the 
Jewish-Mahometan World and the Semitic World 
are general reference maps ; the two of Palestine 
represent the political divisions of the land, the one 
at the time of the Judges, the other at the time of 
Herod the Great. 

The Committee expresses the hope that this 
sixth volume, an epitome of Jewish history, may 
"manifest its treasures," *' facilitate the knowledge 
of those who seek It, and invite them to make 
application thereof." 

March, i8g8. 



CONTENTS. 



Memoir of Heinrich Graetz I 

Tables of Jewish History. 

Chronological Table 89 

Table of the Kings of Judah and Israel . . . .127 
Table of the High Priests (from the Captivity to 

the Dispersion) 128 

Genealogical Table of the Hasmonsean Dynasty . 130 
Genealogical Table of the Herodian Dynasty . .134 

Index. 

Index to the whole work 139 

Index to the Maps 633 

Maps (in the pocket). 

1. Semitic World. 

2. Palestine at the Time of the Judges. 

3. Palestine at the Time of Herod. 

4. Jewish-Mahometan World. 



MEMOIR OF HEINRICH GRAETZ. 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



MEMOIR OF HEINRICH GRAETZ. 
I. 

YOUTH. 

The disruption and final partition of the Polish 
kingdom by its three neighboring states occurred 
in 1795. With its dissolution a new era began in 
the history of the numerous Jewish communities in 
that part of the Polish territory which passed under 
Prussian and Austrian sovereignty. The event 
that thus ushered them into the world of Western 
civilization may justly be considered as marking for 
them the transition from the middle ages to modern 
times. Prussia allowed no interval to elapse be- 
tween the act of taking possession of her newly 
acquired domain and its organization. It was incor- 
porated into the state as the provinces of South 
Prussia and New East Prussia. But after 18 15 
the Prussian crown remained in possession only of 
the Grand Duchy, or the Province, of Posen, the 
district that had constituted the kernel of Great 
Poland. This piece of land was of extreme import- 
ance to the Jews, being the home of the most 
numerous, the oldest, and the most respectable 
congregations. It was situated at only a short 
distance from the Prussian capital, to which it ap- 
peared to have been brought still nearer by the 
organic connection established with the older parts 
of the state. It was natural to expect that, in con- 
sequence of the political union, the economic rela- 



2 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

tlons with Berlin, always close, would become more 
intimate and more numerous, and would develop 
new business advantages. On the other hand, the 
capital was viewed with distrust as the home of the 
movement radiating- from Mendelssohn and his 
school, which aimed at something beyond the one- 
sided Talmud study then prevalent, and strove to 
bring modern methods of education and modern 
science within reach of the younger generation. 

The rigorous system of organization by which 
the Polish districts were placed upon a Prussian 
basis induced so radical a transformation of all the 
relations of life that the Jew^s experienced great dif- 
ficulty in adjusting themselves to the new order of 
things. Opposition to the state authorities and the 
economic conditions was futile ; there was nothing 
for it but to try to adapt oneself without ado. By 
way of compensation, the efforts to keep religious 
practices and traditional customs pure, untouched 
by alien and suspicious influences, in the grooves 
worn by ancient habit, were all the more strenuous. 
Talmudic literature was to continue to be the center 
and aini of all study and science, and religious 
forms, or habits regarded as religious forms, were 
not to lose ai. iota of their rigidity and predomi- 
nance. The urgent charge of the Prussian govern- 
ment to provide properly equipped schools to 
instruct and educate the young in a manner in 
keeping with the spirit of the times was evaded, 
now by subterfuges, now by promises. But in the 
long run the iniluences of the age could not fail to 
make themselves felt. Sparks from the hearth of 
the emancipation movement were carried into the 
Province, and burst into flame in one of the great 
congregations, that of the city of Posen, particularly 
proud and j(.'alous of the Talmudic renown and 
the hoary piety of its Ghetto. 

The position of rabbi in Posen had become 
vacant, and in 1802 it was proposed to fill it with 



MEMOIR. 3 

Samuel ben Moses Pinchas from distant Tarnopol, 
the brother of the deceased rabbi. He was the 
author of jnnx !?NiotJ' nn, and an arch-Talmudist of 
the old stamp. Under the shelter of assumed 
names, a number of the younger men ventured to 
send the government a protest against the choice 
of an " uncouth Poiack." It was alleged that the 
mass of the people favored him on account of 

" the Kabbalistic fable which constructs a genealogy for this Podo- 
lian that makes it appear that he belongs to the stock from whicli 
the Jewish Messiah is to spring, etc." 

The government took the petition into considera- 
tion, and so informed the signers. On account of 
the fictitious names the answer went astray. In- 
stead of reaching the petitioners, it fell into the 
hands of the directors of the congregation and into 
those of the deputy rabbis, the B'7ie Yeshiba. 

" They immediately assembled all so-called scholars and Talmud 
disciples after the manner of the ancient Synhedrin, and invited 
the parents, parents-in-law, and relatives of all persons suspected 
of harboring heterodox ideas. Then they summoned each of us 
singly, put him into the center of a terrifying circle of rough 
students, and upbraided him in the following words, accompanied 
by the most awful curses: 'Thou devilish soul that hast vowed 
thyself unto Satan! Thy appearance gives evidence of thy antipathy 
to our statutes; thy shaved beard, thy apparel (thy Jewish garb is 
only a sham), everything proves thee, thou impious one, a betrayer 
of Jewish mysteries to Christians. Thou readest German books. 
Instead of holy Talmud folios, thou keepest maps, journals, and 
other heathenish writings concealed in thy attic. Therefore, confess 
thy sin, that thou art one of the authors of the accursed memorial! 
Do penance as we shall direct. Deliver up to us thy unclean books 
immediately. Subscribe without delay to this sacred election of our 
rabbi; else, etc., etc.'"' 

The hotly contested election of the rigidly Tal- 
mudic yet none the less gentle rabbi was carried, 
but no effort availed to check the spread of the new 
spirit. Steadily though slowly modern views gained 
the upper hand, and in i8t6 a Jewish private school 

'The above quotations are extracts from the original ocument: 
Gcheimes Staatsarchiv Berlin, General Direktorium Siidpreussen, Ort- 
schaften, No. 964, Vol. II. 



4 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

of somewhat advanced standing was successfully 
established in Posen. Now and again men of inde- 
pendent fortune mustered up courage to send their 
children to the Gymnasium or to the higher Chris- 
tian schools, of which, to be sure, not a large num- 
ber existed at the time. In 1824 the state inter- 
fered, and ordered the establishment of German 
elementary schools in all the Jewish communities 
of the Province giving evidence of vitality. The 
situation now assumed a peculiar aspect. General 
culture, acquaintance with the classic literature of 
Germany, France, and England, came to be es- 
teemed an accomplishment and a personal charm ; 
yet beyond the three R's the rising generation was 
not given the opportunity of acquiring a general 
education. Ow the contrary, the desire was to 
limit study to that of rabbinic and Hebrew 
writings. In the larger communities, like Posen 
and Lissa, the ccmters of lalmud study, a conscious 
effort was made to frighten off young people, 
especially Talmud disciples, from the acquisition of 
secular culture. It should be mentioned, however, 
that in many of the smaller communities the long- 
ing for education was encouraged as much as 
possible. So it came about that the highly en- 
dowed, ambitious spirits of that generation in the 
Province had to struggle most bitterly and painfully 
to make headway. But their hardships were coun- 
terbalanced b\' tlie advantages they derived from 
the conflict. Thcnr intellectual energy and self- 
reliance came forth from the contest steeled. Im- 
pregnated as almost all of them were with the 
spirit of the Talmud, tiiey had pierced to its es- 
sence, and, filh^l with enthusiasm for the rabbinical 
heroes, th(;y had breathed in devotion to the ideals 
of Judaism. 

This was the soil ui)on which Heinrich Graetz 
grew up, and such w(;re the conditions and agencies 
moulding the; d(;v(;loj)m(;nt of a man destined to 



MEMOIR. 



create an historical work, at once monumental and 
popular ; embracing thousands of years, the most 
widely separated regions, and the most diversified 
fields of human activity; retracing with all the 
resources of learning and ingenuity the magic, 
faded, illegible characters of the evolution of Juda- 
ism, and illuminating them with colors of fairy-like 
brilliance ; — an historical work, which, by reason ot 
the warmth of its narrative style, has come to be a 
book of edification, in the best sense of the word, 
unto the author's brethren-in-faith. 

Heinrich Hirsch Graetz was born October 31 
(Cheshwan 2 1 ), 1 8 1 7, in Xions (pronounced Kshons), 
a wretched little village of 775 inhabitants in the 
eastern part of the Province of Posen. In a family 
of two brothers and one sister he was the first- 
born. His father, Jacob Graetz, was a man of tall 
stature, who, dying in 1876, reached an age of over 
ninety years. His mother, Vogel, of the family of 
Hirsch of Wollstein, was of average heiofht and 
robust physique, with lustrous gray eyes. She died 
in 1848 only fifty odd years old. To her the son 
showed most resemblance, both spiritually and 
physically. A little butcher-shop yielded them an 
honest but paltry livelihood. In the hope of improv- 
ing their material condition, the family removed to 
Zerkow, a few miles off, some years after Heinrich's 
birth. At the time the village contained not more 
than 800 inhabitants, among them a single person 
able to read, a real estate owner, to whom all let- 
ters were carried to be deciphered on the open 
street in solemn public assembly.^ But the Jewish 
conofreg-ation consisted of one hundred members, 
and a remarkable increase in the population of the 
little town seemed to give fair promise of a pros- 
perous future. It is worthy of mention, besides, 
that the scenery of Zerkow, wreathed round with 

' Wuttke, St'ddtchiich dcs Landcs Poscn, p. 434. 



6 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

hill and stri-am, forest and meadow, is not so flat 
and unattractive as that of most parts of the Pro- 
vince. 

Here the boy received his first impressions, and 
here he enjoyed his first instruction in a school dis- 
tinguishable from a genuine Chcdcr only inasmuch 
as it began in a m(*asure to accommodate itself to 
the modest demands made by the government upon 
a Jewish primary school. He was taught reading, 
writing, ciphering, and the translation of the Bible. 
Great love of study and marked talent became ap- 
parent in him ; he was therefore introduced to a 
knowledge of Hebrew and the Talmud. When he 
was confirmed at thirteen, the age at which the 
boys of that period were in the habit of deciding 
definitely on their careers, his j)ar{;nts did not for a 
moment qu(;stion the propriety of continuing their 
son's intellectual trainincf. It would have been- 
most natural to send him to Posen, where a popular 
Talmud school was flourishing under the direction 
of the highly esteemed Chief Rabbi Akiba Eger. 
But his parents' means were too slender to suffice 
for his maintenance, and shync^ss and pride pre- 
vented young Graetz from making his way after 
the fashion of beggar students. There was but one 
course, to send him to Wollstein, where his mother 
had sisters and other relatives. Though by no 
means possessed of great wealth, they were willing 
to give him assistance. The Wollstein sojourn 
proved eminently favorable to his development. 
The town, situated in the western part of the Pro- 
vince, was not destitute of natural charms, to which 
the boy's impressionable mind eagerly responded. 
The population, chiefly German, numbered 2258 
persons, among them 841 Jew^s,^ by no means an 
inconsiderable congregation. Besides, it was in 
fairly comfortable circumstances. It had always 

' Staatsarchiv Poscn, Wollstein C. 13. 



MEMOIR. 7 

taKen pride in maintaining a Talmud school, which, 
at the time of Graetz's advent, was distinguished 
for the liberal, enlightened spirit pervading it and 
the active encouragement accorded its students in 
their desire for culture. Rumor had it that the 
rabbi, Samuel Samwel Munk, who had been called 
from Bojanowo to Wollstein at the beginning of 
the century, knew how to read and write German, 
and was in the habit of reading German books and 
even journals in the hours that are " neither day 
nor night." At all events, he did not put obstacles 
in their way, when his disciples, spurring each other 
on in the impetuous rivalry of youth for pre-emi- 
nence, sought to slake their thirst for secular knowl- 
edge. 

Graetz arrived in Wollstein at the end of the 
summer of 1831, fourteen years old. At that 
youthful age, the BacJnir had ventured to under- 
take, in a Hebrew far from perfect, it must be con- 
fessed, a work on the calendar entitled, " DTirn jintrn, 
Jewish and German Chronology."^ He was a zeal- 
ous attendant upon the rabbi's Talmudic lectures, 
and derived great profit from them. His teacher 
conceived a lively and kind interest in him, as well 
as a high opinion of his ability, though he did not 
suspect his future eminence. Rabbinic studies did 
not occupy his mind to the exclusion of other pur- 
suits. Inextinofuishable thirst for knowledee had 
taken possession of him, and all books that fell in 
his way were read with avidity. Most of the avail- 
able literature consisted of romances of chivalry, 
of the kind in vogue at that time. Among them 
" Raspo of Felseneck," now completely forgotten, 
made a particularly deep impression upon him. 
Reproved by one of his patrons, and provided with 

' The booklet, copied out in a fair, neat hand, was found among 
the author's papers after his death. He states that he began it in 
Zerkow, on Wednesday, Ellul 27 (September 15), 1830, and finished 
it in Wollstein at about the age of fifteen. 



HISTORY OF THE lEWS. 



more suitable books b)' him, he read with keen 
enjoyment Campe's narrative and moral writings. 
At the same time historical books began to attract 
him strongly. Though he had to confess to himself, 
somewhat crestfallen, that he did not understand 
the greater part of what lie rc-ad in them, he studied 
Hredow's sliort compendium of universal history, 
Becker's large work on the same subject, and a 
biography of Napoleon. He soon realized the 
necessity of acquiring Latin and T^rench. Without 
teacher, without guidance, without counsel other than 
that afforded by like-minded companions, he devoted 
himself to Meidinger's bVench grammar and later tc 
Broder's I>atin grammar, until he had gotten all 
between their covers by heart, tie was overjoyed 
when he could beofin to read the classic writers of 
foreign countries in their own languages. In his 
zeal, he permitted himself to be governed by chance. 
Whatever fortune played into his hands, he grasped 
at with instantaneous ardor, and pursued with 
sporadic industry. He picks up a translation of 
luiclid, for instance. At once he devotes himself to 
it heart and soul, difficult though he finds it to gain 
a clear notion of geometric concepts and uK^thods. 
An itinerant rabbi from I'oland, offc-ring his own 
commentary upon the Book of Job for sale, comes 
to Wollstein, and meets with appreciation and 
respect. Reason (mough for the (enthusiastic and 
ambitious Talmud disciple to take interest in noth- 
ing but Bible exegesis and Hebrew grammar for 
months thereafter. Keen, chscriminatinor love of 
nature, to whose attractions he remained suscep- 
tible until liis last days, develops in him. He 
spares no effort to acquaint himself with the flora of 
his native province and with the mysteries of the 
starry heavens. Success was a foregone conclusion 
with one whose equipment consisted of miraculously 
quick comprehension, a retentive memory, and in- 
dustry oblivious of all but its object; coupled with 



I 



MEMOIR. 



an iron constitution and indestructible working 
powers, not in the least impaired by lack of food and 
sleep. 

Despite his modest demands, he constantly had 
to battle against want and distress. His nature 
was proud, self-reliant, and, it must be admitted, 
unpractical. An exaggerated sense of honor for- 
bade his seeking help even when a petition would 
have been justified. He preferred to conceal his 
troubles. For example, he ate dry bread on many 
a Sabbath, a day on which it was considered a privi- 
lege to entertain Talmud disciples. Regardless of 
wind and weather, he would slip off into the country, 
a book in his pocket, in order not to reveal his help- 
less condition. Finally, in spite of his secretiveness, 
some friend or other discovered his plight, and 
found ways and means of relieving his distress. Of 
sanguine temperament, he sought and found conso- 
lation in books. Graetz managed to read and study 
an amazing quantity in the four years and a half of 
his Wollstein sojourn. His most determined efforts 
were applied to the acquisition of the French lan- 
guage and literature, his favorite studies, at that 
time ranking high in the scale of accomplishments. 
The more important works of Fenelon, Voltaire, 
Rousseau, and others, and the dramas of Racine and 
Victor Hugo he knew thoroughly. He had read 
Lessing, Mendelssohn, Schiller, and other classic 
writers of Germany, and was attracted particularly to 
Wieland, to whose works he devoted earnest atten- 
tion. It is curious that the diary which he then kept 
does not contain a single reference to Goethe, as if by 
chance or for some reason he had remained in igno- 
rance of the great poet's works. On the other 
hand, he became acquainted towards the end of the 
Wollstein period with the writings of Borne, Heine, 
and Saphir, which vivified the proneness to irony and 
satire dormant in him. The Latin authors gave him 
most trouble. Yet he mastered Cornelius Nepos, 



10 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

Curtius, and several books of Ovid's Metamor- 
phoses and of Virgil's yEneid. That he accom- 
plished extensive reading of rabbinic literature at 
the same time, and did not neglect his Talmudic 
studies, is attested by the distinction with which 
Rabbi JNIunk honored Graetz, much to his surprise. 
At New Year 5595 (October, 1834), he was invested 
with the title C/iaber, a degree conferred only upon 
most worthy and most rarely endowed Talmud 
disciples of his youthful age. 

But now fermentation set in, and white flakes 
began to rise to the surface of the young wine. 
Wholly self-taught, he had devoted himself to read- 
ing without plan or method, following blind chance 
or humoring his whims. In this way he had laid up 
a store of knowledge, promiscuous as well as rich. 
A chaotic mixture of irreconcilable, disparate ideas 
and 0[)inions surged through his head, and excited 
tumultuous commotion in his world of thought and 
feeling. In November, 1835, the following entry 
was written in his diary : 

" By the various contradictory ideas that perplexed my brain — 
heathen, Jewish, and Christian, Epicurean, Kabbalistic, Maimonidian, 
and Platonic — my faith was made so insecure that, when a notion 
concerning God, eternity, time, or the like, assailed me, I wished 
myself into the abyss of the nether world." 

Although his humor and his opinions were some- 
what unsettled, he by no means had drifted from 
his moorings. The existence of God and the im- 
mortality of the soul were the fixed poles of his 
(•motional world to which he clung. Another entry 
a little further on in his diary says : 

" Like furies such thoughts tugged at my heart-strings, when, as 
often happened, they arose, suggested by my poverty as well as by 
certain classes of books. Only the clear, star-studded sky, upon 
which my eyes were wont to rest with delight on Saturday evenings 
after sundown, renewed the blessed comforting consciousness in me: 
Yes, there is a God beyond the starry canopy! " 

On the other hand, he began to chafe against the 
daily religious practices of Judaism, which he had 



MEMOIR. II 

always observed with scrupulous conscientiousness, 
as he had been taug-lit to do. Even then he did 
not neglect them, but he was offended by the multi- 
plicity of ceremonies and still more by the petty, 
poor-spirited, unsesthetic manner in which the people 
among whom he lived observed them. They no 
longer were religious observances ; they were 
habits. Attributing the responsibility for these 
conditions to the Talmud, he bore it ill-will. His 
repugnance grew whenever he contrasted its style 
and method with those of the great works of litera- 
ture with which he had recently become conversant. 
Comparisons of this kind did not serve to enhance 
the credit of the rabbinic collection with him. 
There was another cause for irritation. Up to 
that time he had lived, or rather studied, heedless 
of practical concerns. Now his parents and rela- 
tives were probably beginning to urge upon him 
the necessity of considering the choice of a vocation 
or of turning to professional studies. So just a 
demand he could not disregard, especially in the 
sensitive state of mind in which he then found 
himself. Often he brooded over the question, 
"What next?" and elaborated the most bizarre 
plans only to reject them. A seemingly slight 
incident occurred which quelled the commotion in his 
breast. His craft, helplessly driving among perilous 
crags, was guided into smooth waters by a little 
book appearing just then under the title, " pav mjx. 
Nineteen Letters on Judaism, published by Ben 
Usiel."^ 

The partisans of the reform movement, who pro- 
posed to remodel or set aside religious customs 
and traditional observances of historical Judaism as 
incompatible with modern life, had up to that time 
maintained the upper hand in the literary discussion 
of religious affairs. They were exerting constantly 

^ Neunzehn Brief e iiber Jiidenthum, herausgegeben von Ben Usiel. 



12 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

increasing- attraction upon the yoiuiger generation, 
and were growing- bolder and more impetuous in 
their propaganda tor the obliteration, as far as pos- 
sible, of religious peculiarities. Iient upon tlu> pre- 
servation of old faitli and custoni unimjxiired, their 
opponents had at first refused to make any conces- 
sion whatsoever to the modern demands, and had 
even failed to pnnide themselves with new weapons 
of defense. When the movement assumed threat- 
ening dimensions, the conservatives faced it unpre- 
pared and im|)otent. bewildered strangers in the 
great world, habituated to the social forms of the 
Ghetto, enmeshed in the web of Talmudic ideas, 
they were wholly unable to put up an efficient 
leader or regenerator. Suddenly that which had 
long been painfully lacking seemed to incorporate 
itself in a young theologian. In the above-men- 
tioned anon\nious work, " Nineteen Letters," Sam- 
son Raphael llirsch, ral)bi at Oldenburg, cham- 
j)ion(;d the undiminished value of all religious usages 
with skill, (eloquence, and intrepidity. His manner 
held out the hope that he w^ould breathe a new 
spirit into the old forms. The boldness of the 
work in frankly presenting this point of view with 
all the consequences springing therefrom produced 
the effect of a sensational occurrence upon the 
Jewish public. Into the mind of Graetz, casting 
about for an anchor for his disturbed feelings, it fell 
like a flash of lightning, revealing the path to be 
followed in the search for his ideals. He reports : 

" Often I spoke of it [religious doubt] to B. B., the only one to 
whom I could tell my thoughts on such subjects. Then he would 
allege the urgent necessity for reforms in view of the gradual decay 
of religion. But I realized, that reform, that is, the omission of a 
number of laws organically interwoven with the rest, would abrogate 
the whole Law. How delighted I therefore was with a new book, 
' ]12V n~i;x. Nineteen Letters on Judaism, anonymous,' in which 
a view of Judaism I had never before heard or suspected was de- 
fended with convincing arguments. Judaism was represented as 
the best religion and as indispensable to the salvation of mankind. 
With avidity I devoured every word. Disloyal though I had been 



MEMOIR. 13 

to the Talmud, this book reconciled me with it. 1 returned to it as 
to a mistress deemed faithless and proved true, and determined to 
use my utmost effort to pierce to its depths, acquire a philosophical 
knowledge thereof, and, as many would have me believe that I 
might become a so-called ' rabbi-doctor of theology ' (studirtcr 
Rabbincr), publicly demonstrate its truth and utility. I set about 
my task at once, beginning with the first folio ni3"l3 and the first 
Book of Moses. I dwelt upon every point with pleasure, treating 
them not as remnants of antiquity, but as books containing divine 
help for mankind. My endeavor was materially advanced by the 
knowledge I had acquired here, among other things of theology, 
which only now I learned to esteem as a branch of science; of 
geometry — I had studied nearly the whole of the first three books 
of Euclid; and of history." 

After that he could not content himself with life 
in Wollstein ; the place had nothing more to offer 
him. The resolution to quit the town, which had 
grown into his heart as his second home, was facili- 
tated by the removal of an uncle, depriving him of 
his strongest support ; by the usual disappointment 
and revulsion of feeling following the usual extrava- 
gance of a youthful, fantastic love-affair ; and by 
conflicts with companions and patrons, caused to 
some extent doubtless by the disharmonious state 
of his mind and aggravated by tittle-tattle. But 
whither was he to turn to satisfy the yearnings of 
his soul ? He decided on Prasfue, the Mecca of 

<z> ' 

the young Jewish theologians of the day, " a city 
most famous for learning, hospitality, and other 
virtues." 

II. 

THE APPRENTICE. 

Graetz left Wollstein in April, 1836, and went to 
Zerkow to acquaint his parents with his intentions 
and consult with them. Letters of recommenda- 
tion to families in Prague were obtained, and his 
parents and other relatives made up a small purse 
for him. Graetz secured a passport, packed his 
modest belongings in a handbag, and set out on 
his journey in high spirits. Partly afoot, partly by 
stacje when the fare was not forbidding, he made 



14 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

his way to Breslau, and thence through the Silesian 
mountains to the Austrian boundary, which he 
reached not far from Reinerz. Here, though he 
was fortified with a passport, the frontier inspector, 
hke a cherub with a flaming" sword, opposed his 
entrance into Austria. He was unable to produce 
ten florins ($5) cash, the possession of which had 
to be demonstrated by the traveler who would gain 
admission to the land of the double eagle, unless 
he came as a passenger in the mail-coach. Dis- 
mayed our young wanderer resorted to parleying, 
and appealed to his letters of recommendation. In 
vain ; the official would hear of no compromise. 
Too proud and inilcxible to have recourse to 
entreaty or trickery, Graetz grimly faced about, 
and much disheartened journeyed as he had come, 
over the same road, back to Zerkow. His parents 
were not a little astonished at his return, and 
equally rc^joiced to have their son with them for 
some time longer. The adventure may be taken 
as typical of the curious mishaps that befell him in 
practical life, particularly at the beginning of his 
career. They often cut him to the quick, but never 
shook his belief in his lucky star. His originative 
and imjjressionable nature carried with it the power 
of discerning important points of view and valid 
aims, but he seems to have been too far-sighted and 
impetuous to lay due stress upon the means and 
levers necessary for the attainment of ends. 

Por the moment he sought to drown remem- 
brance of his abortive journey in study. He became 
absorbed in Latin works ; he read Livy, Cicero's 
de natiira (leonu)i, whicli compelled his reverential 
admiration, Virgil's yltneid, and the comedies of 
Terence. Besides, he busic:d himself with Schrokh's 
universal history and with his Wieland, whose " Sym- 
pathies." "Goldcm Mirror," and other works "de- 
lighted, r(:frcshed, and fascinated" him "inexpress- 
ibly." The Talmud and I b^brcw studies claimed no 



MEMOIR. 15 

less attention ; he was especially zealous about the 
exegesis of the Earlier Prophets. Downcast by 
reason of the uncertainty of his future, and his 
scorn piqued by the pettiness and narrow-minded- 
ness of his provincial surroundings, he found an 
outlet for his restlessness in all sorts of wanton 
pranks, such as high-spirited youths are apt to per- 
petrate in their "storm and stress" period. He 
ridiculed the rabbi, played tricks on the directors 
of the congregation, annoyed the burgomaster, 
always escaping unpunished, and even horrified his 
parents by accesses of latitudinarianism, such as the 
following. On the day before the eve of the Atone- 
ment Day, it is a well-known custom for men to 
swing a living rooster and for women to swing a 
living hen several times about their heads. At the 
same time a short prayer is recited, pleading that 
the punishment due for the sins committed by the 
petitioner be transferred to the devoted fowl. At 
the approach of the holy season, Graetz announced 
that he would certainly not comply with the Kapores 
custom, but his words were taken to be idle boast- 
fulness. The fateful evening came, and the serio- 
comic celebration was long delayed by the non- 
appearance of the eldest son. The father's wrath 
was kindled, and he threatened to burn all books 
other than Hebrew found in the possession of his 
heretic offspring. The mother set out to search 
everywhere for her erring son. When she finally 
found him, he went home with her in affectionate 
obedience, but nothing could induce him to manipu- 
late the rooster in the customary way. Unswung 
and uncursed the bird had to be carried to the 
butcher, and only on the following day a touching 
reconciliation was effected. 

After the Fast, a bookdealer at Wollstein, a 
friend of his, who usually kept him informed about 
new books on Jewish subjects, sent Graetz the 
" Nineteen Letters by Ben Usiel," which he had 



l6 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

longed to possess. The book again electrified him, 
and he conceived the idea of offering himself as a 
disciple to its author, whose identity had meantime 
been revealed. Samson Raphael f lirsch appeared 
to him to be the ideal of a Jewish theologian of the 
time and of the confidence-inspiring teacher for 
whom he had yearned, to obtain from him guidance 
and, if possible, a solution of the manifold problems 
occupying his mind. Accordingly, Graetz wrote to 
the District Rabbi {Landesrabbincr') of Oldenburg. 
He did not conceal his views, but clearly and frankly 
laid bare the state of his feelings and the course 
of his intellectual development. 1 le was successful. 
After a short time, Hirsch addressed the following 
letter to him : 

" My dear young Friend: — With pleasure I am ready to fulfill, as 
far as in me lies, the wish expressed in your letter to me. You know 
the sentence of our sages, ^'<:^rb Hi'n mSH p^h nVn '?U''L;'?3-inr.' and 
if, as I should gladly infer from your letter, the views therein expressed 
are more than an evanescent mood; if it is your resolute determi- 
nation to study Torali for its own sake, you are most cordially 
welcome, and I shall expect to see you after ^i^p nDD-"^ But I have 
one request to make. In the ardor of your feelings, you have con- 
ceived an ideal picture of the author of the ' Letters ' by far exceed- 
ing the real man in size. Reduce the picture by half, by three- 
fourths, indeed, and ask yourself whether you are still attracted by 
it. Do not expect to find an accomplished master, but a student 
occupied with research. If your heart still says yes, then come. I 
should like to be informed as soon as possible, whether I may 
expect you after Pessach, as I shall have to modify another relation 
accordingly. Be kind enough, too, if you have no objection, to let 
me know how you expect to support yourself here. I trust that you 
will neither take umbrage at this question nor misconstrue it. It 
was put only because I wanted to express my willingness to assist 
you as much as I can during your stay here, if it should be neces- 
sary. Therefore. I beg you to be as frank and unreserved in your 
answer as I ventured to be in my question. With kindest regards, 
etc. 

Oldenburg, December 26, '36." 

To this letter Graetz replied, that he did say 
"yes" from the bottom of his heart; that it was 

' Pcssachim 112": p.jn^ rT:;n i-nD pih 7^'i\-\ hlvr^\^* nnonnv " More 
than the calf will suck, the cow de-ires to suckle." 
' Next happy frs^arh 



MEMOIR. 17 

his dearest ambition to devote himself to genuine 
Judaism and its doctrines ; that he especially desired 
to learn the methods of Talmud study, particularly 
of the Halakha, pursued by a man whom he admired 
profoundly ; that as for his livelihood, the satisfac- 
tion of the most elementary needs sufficed for him ; 
and that his parents would give him a small allow- 
ance. 

In answer thereto, the formal Invitation to come 
to Oldenburg was extended by HIrschon Februar)' 
I, 1837. He offered Graetz board and lodging in 
his own house, with the understanding that his 
parents would provide for other needs, and he ex- 
pected his disciple after Passover (In May). Wish- 
ing to visit relatives on the way and see the 
sights of Berlin and Leipsic, Graetz set out as early 
as the beginning of April. In Berlin the museum 
and the picture-gallery made a deep impression 
upon him. That he was a remarkably sharp ob- 
server is shown in the following accurate character- 
ization of the preacher Solomon Flessner, with 
whom he became acquainted in Berlin : 

" This famous man I also visited, and I found attractive features 
indicative of acuteness, but a neglected exterior and careless, un- 
granimatical speech, not guiltless of the Jewish sing-song {mau- 
scliclii). This surprises me, for his language in his sermons is pure 
and choice. He is between forty and fifty years old, wears a beard, 
and seems to be honestly and genuinely religious. But his manner 
is excited; he speaks with rapid utterance, all the while running to 
and fro and arranging his books absent-mindedly." 

In Leipsic he visited his countryman Furst, con- 
cerning whom he reports : 

" A little man whose face was familiar to me from my childhood 
days came towards me. I handed him the letter given me by his 
mother. He said indifferently: I shall write in a few days. But 
when I told him the goal and purpose of my journey, and showed 
him the letters [from Hirsch], his attitude changed, and he talked 
with me in a very friendly way. Finally, when he recognized that 
I was not an ignoramus, he confided several matters to me, told me 
about his scientific adversaries, and boasted that he had taught 
Gesenius, that he had become reconciled with Ewald, that the 
greatest scholars corresponded with him, etc. . . . Our conversation 



l8 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

grew more and more confidential, and finally we parted as friends. 
He invited me to visit him again, if 1 changed my mind and staid 
over nca ... In case I did not remain, I had to promise that I 
would enter into correspondence with him. ... 1 was particularly 
pleased to find, that Fiirst has no intention of accepting baptism, 
and that he means to promote the cause of Judaism. ... To work 
for Judaism, he says, is the prime obligation of every Jew that 
devotes himself to study, by which he means strictly scientific, pos- 
sibly also philologic study." 

In order not to fritter away all his time while 
traveling, Graetz began to study Greek, and the 
Greek conjugations served to beguile dreary hours, 
banishing rcmeml:)rance of the mishaps that could 
not fail to befall one with straitenc;d means on so 
long a journey, and counteracting the despondency 
which In consequence often seized upon him. In a 
miserable village, In which he was forced to spend 
a whole day on account of the Sabbath, he found a 
copy of the New Testament, and read It for the first 
time. He describes the Impression made upon him 
by this first reading In the following words : 

" Despite the many absurdities and inconsistencies, the mildness 
of the character of Jesus attracted mc; at the same time I was 
repelled, so that I was altogether confused." 

On May 8, fin;ill\% h(^ arrived in Oldenburg, where 
a new world opc;ned bc^fore him. 

In Samson Ra])ha('l llirsch hn met a man whose 
sijiritual elevation and noblci character compelled 
his prolound reverence, and who fully realized all 
the exp(tctations that he had harbored conc(u-ning 
him. Mirsch was a man of modern cultur(^ and 
his manner was distinguished, even aristocratic, 
although he kept aloof from all social intercourse. 
He was short of stature, yet those who came In 
contact with him were strongly impressc^d by his 
e.Kternal ap[n^arance, on accotmt of his grave, digni- 
fied demeanor, forbitlding familiarit)'. With great 
intellectual gifts and rare ciualities of the heart, he 
combined varied th(;ological attainments and an 
excellent classical education. Comprc-henslve or 



MEMOIR. 19 

deep ideas cannot be said to have becMi at his dis- 
posal, but he scintillated with original observations 
and suggestive sallies, which put his new pupil into 
a fever of enthusiasm. He was the only teacher 
from whom Graetz's self-centered being received 
scientific stimulation ; perhaps the only man to 
exercise, so far as the stubborn peculiarity of 
Graetz's nature permitted it, permanent influence 
upon his reserved, independent character. 

On his arrival in Oldenburg, the new-comer was 
most kindly received by Hirsch, and was at once 
installed in his house, of which thenceforth he was 
an inmate, bistructlon was begun on the very 
next day. The forenoons were devoted to the 
Talmud, the late afternoons to the Psalms, The 
disciple was singularly attracted and stimulated, 
fairly elevated by the brilliant, penetrating method 
applied to the exegesis of these works. Plan, order, 
and coherence were now imposed upon his scientific 
acquirements. Hirsch took true fatherly interest 
in his protege ; he exerted himself to discipline his 
mind and fix his moral and religious standards. At 
the same time, as though even then a suspicion of 
the unusual force and talent of this youth panting 
for knowledge and instruction had dawned upon 
him, he guarded against assuming the airs of a 
domineering pedagogue. Despite the difference 
in age between them he treated him as an equal. 
He was endowed with truly marvelous power to 
stir his disciple's soul-life to its depths. Every 
chord of Graetz's beingr was set In vibration, and 
he solemnly vowed to remain a true son and an 
honest adherent of Judaism under all circumstances. 
Added years may have contributed to the result ; 
but at all events it is certain that Graetz developed 
visibly under this master's guidance. 

The services required of him in the house of his 
teacher were mainly those of an assistant. He 
accompanied the District Rabbi on his tours of 



20 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

inspection, the tedium of their journeys beinj^ re- 
heved with discussions on Tahuudic and liibhcal 
subjects. He revised with Hirsch tlie last part of 
the latter's " Horeb," helped him read the proof of 
the last sheets of the book, which delighted and 
thrilled the young man, and assisted him in various 
similar ways. 1 low Mattering an opinion the punc- 
tilious rabbi must have held of his assistant is 
proved by the fact, that when he had to go to a 
resort for the restoration of his undermined health, 
he authorized him to render decisions on questions 
of religious law (ni*?s*J') during his absence. The 
assistant fulfilled his duties so conscientiously that 
the resi^onsibility oppressed him. He confessed 
that he had imagined the rendering of correct de- 
cisions much easier. His enthusiasm burst into 
flame when he received the following affectionate 
letter from I lirsch : 

" My dear Graetz: — I still owe you cordial thanks for your kind 
lines. I am delighted to hear that you are industrious, and that you 
keep to my time-schedule so well. Continue to study, for I, on 
my part, shall soon have forgotten how to study, and literally shall 
have to begin to learn all over again. Before my departure, I 
wanted to call your attention to something, and I do now what I 
then forgot. I have frequently seen you read the works of Bayle. 
They are a treasury of learning, and much information can be 
derived from them, but the man takes peculiar pleasure in laying 
stress upon niiy n31 ;' things of that kind are {^-^^ and K?2t3D'- Pass 
lightly over such passages; they are unprofitable and harmful; read 
only what is purely scientific. Follow my advice, etc., etc." 

Such fricmdly and tactful admonitions, permitting 
the pupil to follow out his own bent, were always 
employed by Hirsch, and they but served to en- 
kindle Graetz's enthusiasm anew. In spite of the 
young mail's critical propensities combined with a 
sanguine tcmiperament, his devoted attachment to 
his mast('r by no means waned under the strain of 
daily iiuimale intercourse, not even wlicn he could 
no longer doubt his ideal's lack of historic depth 

' Erotic matters. ' Unclean and contaminating. 



MEMOIR. 21 

and scientific, or rather philosophic insight. Graetz's 
nature strongly impelled him to form friendships, 
and his attachments were fervent. He always felt 
a lively interest in what went on about him, and 
even at that early time he was fond of taking an 
active part in shaping the occurrences of the day, 
whenever he thought, that by assuming the role of 
Providence he might be useful to his friends in the 
ordering of their affairs — a disposition that re- 
dounded later to the benefit of many of his pupils. 
In January, 1837, for instance, the belated news 
reached him from his home, with which he kept up 
a steady correspondence, that the Chief Rabbi 
Akiba Eger had died in Posen. Without being 
commissioned to do so, he wrote to the directors 
of the Posen conQfrecfation, and brouirht Hirsch, 
whose yearning for a wide sphere of activity he 
knew, to their notice. When the directors entered 
into negotiations with Hirsch he broke out into 
jubilation. In fact, a party favoring the pretensions 
of the Oldenburg District Rabbi formed in Posen, 
but nothing more resulted. The procedure was re- 
peated when the Wollstein rabbinate fell vacant in 
1840, except that Hirsch, to his disciple's great dis- 
appointment, would not share Graetz's enthusiasm 
for Wollstein. From this it appears that Graetz 
was not a recluse nor a bookworm. In Oldenburg, 
as everywhere, he sought to meet people and culti- 
vate friendly intercourse with them, and his joyous 
nature readily yielded to the innocent gayety of 
social pleasures. 

At the same time he neglected neither his duties 
nor his studies. While with Hirsch he acquired the 
English language, and finding some Syriac books 
in the rabbi's library, he began to devote himself to 
Syriac. The study of the former language his mas- 
ter seems to have encouraged, but not of the latter. 
Hirsch met his disciple with uniform kindness, and 
returned his enthusiastic devotion with fatherly 



22 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

benevolence. Graetz was treated as a member of his 
family. In the third year of his Oldenburg so- 
journ, his relations with the mistress of the house 
were disturbed by slight discords, such as cannot 
fail to arise in long-continued, familiar intercourse, 
and tend now to strengthen, now to abridge inti- 
macy. With Graetz's proud sense of independence 
they finally sufficed to rufiie the tranquillity of a soul 
wholly absorbed by the present. Anxiety about 
his future began to disquiet him. The desire to 
decide definitely upon a career and the longing 
to see his parents, who in the meantime had re- 
moved from Zerkow to Kosten near Posen, a some- 
what larger town, united to make his departure from 
Oldenbure seem advisable. 



III. 

THE JOURNEYMAN. 

The adieux were, said with touching cordiality, 
and after an absence of more than three years 
Graetz set his face homeward, and arrived in Kos- 
ten in the middle of August, 1840. The younger 
people everywhere received Hirsch's disciple with 
joyous welcome, and induced him to preach at Woll- 
stein, Kosten, and Zerkow. His sermons, to be 
sure, did not transport his audiences with enthu- 
siasm, but they were ample guarantees of the 
preacher's fund of knowledge and originality. All 
his friends, therefore, agreed, that it would be ad- 
visable for Graetz to " study." in the technical sense 
of th(; German word, tliat is. otq through the uni- 
versity and obtain a degree. They adduced the 
fact that th(; smaller congregations at least, such 
as \Vr(;sch(n, W'ollstein, and Kosten, in part had 
a[)pointed "graduate rabbis" {studirte Rahbiucy^, in 
part had resolved to fill their rabbinates with them. 
To secur(! means for a university course, he 



MEMOIR. 23 

agreed to accept a position as tutor in Ostrowo, 
and entered upon his work at the end of 1840. 
Ostrowo is a httle town in the south-eastern part 
of the Province, the seat of a large Jewisli commu- 
nity, which at the time was still completely under 
the sway of the graceless habits of Ghetto life. 
Graetz felt thoroughly uncomfortable. His posi- 
tion in the house at which he was engaged to teach 
did not please him, and in the town he found no 
one with whom he cared to cultivate friendly inter- 
course. He had submitted to tutoring, by no 
means an arduous occupation, in order to lay by 
money, but he lacked financial talent and the ability 
to economize. In fact, his devotion to his family 
connections, his good nature, and his improvidence 
involved him in pecuniary embarrassments so seri- 
ous that the monologues in his diary overflow with 
pessimistic, melancholy reflections. He sought in- 
demnification in frequent excursions to neighboring 
towns, in composing a Hebrew biography of Mishna 
teachers under the title nins m'^in,^ and, it appears, 
in reading the works of the Fathers of the Church. 
On one of his little trips, the occasion being the 
betrothal of a friend of his, he met the sister of the 
Jianccc, a very young girl, who attracted and pleased 
him, and wlio was destined to exert decisive and 
salutary inlluence upon his life. The meeting acted 
like a soothing charm upon his ill- humor, though he 
was far from anticipating the consequences it bore. 
He remained in his position at Ostrowo for one 
year and a half, until July, 1842, when a trivial oc- 
currence ruptured the irksome relation in a manner 
not altogether pleasant. 

Now he went straightway to Breslau to the Uni- 
versity. As he had not been graduated from a 
Gyninasiuvi, Graetz had to obtain ministerial per- 

' This biographical work was not printed, and the manuscript 
could not be found. 



24 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

mission to attend the University. His petition was 
granted, and, in October, 1842, he was matricu- 
lated. With reverential awe and expectation the 
self-taught student entered the mysterious lecture 
halls consecrated to pure science, only to leave 
them shrugging his shoulders at the wisdom pro- 
claimed, disappointed, his longings unsatisfied. The 
knowledge of which he was master when he began 
his University course was richer and more varied 
tlian ordinary students are likely to start with, and 
though it was not systematically ordered nor well- 
balanc(;d, it formed a unit, and had already begun 
to crystallize about a center. His apprenticeship 
years, in short, were over ; the maturity of his views 
and his judgment is unmistakable. 

While at tlie University, he heard lectures on a 
wide variety of subjects — on history, philosophy. 
Oriental languages, even physics — but it does not 
appear that any left deep traces upon his mind. 
Even Professor Bernstcnn, an Orientalist of consid- 
erable reputation, who drew him into th(! circle ot 
his clos(i associates, did not understand how to 
kindle his pupil's zeal, usually so impetuous, for the 
thorough study of Syrlac and Arabic. Apparently 
Graetz had rctlincpiished tlui ambition to gain mas- 
tery of tlu-m. The only one to have success was 
Professor Praniss, a philosopher in high esteem in 
his day, with whom also (iraetz cultivated intimate 
relations. 1 le at all events must have been instru- 
mental in accpiainting him with the 1 legelian system 
of philosophy, and in imbuing him with the recog- 
nition, that even in the world of liberty, that is, 
man's world of mental endeavor, |)hases of de- 
velojiment succeed ea( h other in conformity with 
absolute laws, chiefly of an ideal, non-mechanical 
nature ; that therefcjre the spiritual i)owers that 
produc(i the history of mankind by the realization 
of ev(;r high(;r id(;as not only follow their indwell- 
ing laws, but at the same time submit uncondition- 



MEMOIR. 25 

ally to the law of cause and effect ; and that the 
paradox of opposites, the principle of thesis, anti- 
thesis, and synthesis, is particularly helpful in. the 
consideration of historical phenomena, 

Thougli Graetz was immersed in his studies, he 
did not fail to give close attention to the occur- 
rences in the Breslau Jewish community. The 
events happening there in those days were not 
merely of local interest. They cast their light and 
their shadow far beyond the Silesian frontier, and 
were the cause of intense excitement in all Jewish 
circles of Germany. In Breslau the orthodox and 
the reform views of Judaism for the first time rushed 
at each other with full force in the struggle for 
supremacy. Storm and conflict raged violently be- 
tween the old and the new. Blind to the conditions 
of the time, orthodoxy stubbornly opposed a non 
possunuLs to every offer looking to an adjustment of 
difficulties. The representatives of the two parties, 
the orthodox Solomon Tiktin on the one side and 
the progressive Abraham Geiger on the other, 
sought to get the better of each other with remorse- 
less acrimony. Geiger won the upper hand, and 
even the disruption of the Breslau congregation 
caused by Tiktin 's defeat did not derogate from the 
reform champion's victory. 

Dr. Abraham Geiger should be classed among the 
most prominent rabbis of his time. The modern 
development of the religious life had been proceed- 
ing quietly though steadily, when it was convulsed 
to its depths by the storm announced by his first 
appearance upon the rabbinical scene. As a 
speaker and as a writer he handled a popular 
style with masterful skill, which manifested itself in 
felicitous copiousness rather than in the concen- 
tration of precise, forcible language. One of the 
best pulpit orators among Jews, he succeeded in 
holding attention and stimulating thought by his 
simple manner and brilliant turns of expression. 



26 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

His published sermons, very limited in nuniber, give 
not even an approximate idea of the powerful im- 
pression produced by his spoken words, totally un- 
aided though they were by charms of person/ His 
scholarly contributions to Jewish science are of 
pre-eminent and of permanent value. He has ren- 
dered particularly valiant service by his researches 
into the history of literature, a field in which he was 
master. On the other hand, one sometimes misses 
thoroughness of scholarly culture in his early pro- 
ductions, especially those of the first part of his 
Breslau period. Besides, he was fond of obtruding 
his reform bias. In spite of his scientific attain- 
ments, his historical sense lacked profundity, and in 
spite of his great achievemcMits in the province of 
modern liturgy, his appreciation of the needs and 
emotions of the people's spiritual life was neither 
sufficiently delicate nor sufficiently intense. At 
bottom he was a doctrinaire rationalist. His reli- 
gious program and aims, too, were not clearly and 
definitely put forth. For example, his attitude to- 
wards the radical currents at that time rolling their 
destructive waves over Judaism amounted to more 
than benevolent neutrality. The observer cannot 
ward off the impression, that he was inclined to 
steer straight for ethical deism, and was restrained 
only by oj^j^ortunist reasons. At this above all 
Graetz took umbrage, and by and by his antipathy 
to Geig(*r was complete. A good deal of sham and 
tinsel had probably slipped into the various tenta- 
tive organizations which Geiger endeavored to call 
into existence ; perhaps they were unavoidable con- 
comitants of such efforts. It is possible, too, that 
the unpleasant impression was reinforced by a ten- 
dency to officiousness observable in Geiger — at 

' Tlie writer speaks from personal experience, though it is proper 
to add, that he heard Geiger's sermons in his youth, when one is 
inchned to enthusiasm and admiration; yet he thinks that the judg- 
ment expressed above can be sustained. 



MEMOIR. 27 

worst a pardonable foible. As Graetz was constitu- 
ted, he felt so strong- a repugnance to humbug and 
pretense that he exercised neither forbearance nor 
consideration towards such faults. He visited Geiger 
only once, possibly twice. Immediately after Graetz 
had made himself at home in the lecture-rooms of 
his department, he paid his respects to the two 
rabbinical party-leaders. The entry in his diary is 
as follows : 

" I have made the acquaintance of Rabbi Tiktin. With what rev- 
erence I used to stand and look at the mail-clad names of the 
Tiktins on the first pages of D*a'l!' As Charlemagne in his iron 
armor kept all intruders at a becoming distance, so the dignity of 
those theologic knights seemed to me to be enhanced by the long 
beards and the imposing Spanish canes ^ and the Talmudic dust. 
There was I sitting next to a descendant of those rabbinical Dv^D^^ 
Ah! what a falling-off there has been! Tempora viutaiitur et nos 
mutaniur in illis. To be sure, there is still the stately stature, still 
the Spanish cane. But the ensemble, a something not to be defined 
in words, is missing. Next to the rabbi, nolentes volentes, I place Dr. 
Geiger, a spare little man. Why he was so very kind to me I do 
not know. Of Hirsch we have not yet spoken, and probably shall 
not speak. But to what depths we have sunk! In the presence of 
fifty Jews, headed by a 21, Dr. Freund-* dares utter words like " rab- 
binically erratic inferences." Cicero and Plato, then, are to be read 
as antidotes to rabbinical perversions. Zounds! And to-day Geiger 
delivered his first lecture on the Mishna. The Mishna is a collec- 
tion of religions notions, as they ivere formed and developed from the 
Exile to R. Jehuda Hanassi. What insane logic! " 

When, in March, 1843, the stiff-necked, tenacious 
champion of an effete form of Judaism, the lion- 
warrior Solomon Tiktin, last representative of a 
race of Talmudic heroes, wounded to the quick by 
his defeat, was removed from the scene by death, 
Geiger stood at the zenith of his fame. Since many 
a day no rabbi's name had been so well-known as 
Geiger's in all the extent of German Jewry, none 

^ The Talmudic works of R. Isaac Alfassi. 

^A great, heavy cane with ornamental knob was carried in Poland 
as the badge of the rabbinical office. 

^ Heroes. 

•* A philologist of repute, whose contributions to Latin lexicog- 
raphy are of considerable value. 



28 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

was SO frequently mentioned. In Silesia there was 
no more popular ral)l)i, and in I^reslau his \vord 
was potent, influential, and feared by his adversaries. 
His scientific eminence w^as generally acknow^ledged ; 
his eloquence dominated the pulpit no less than the 
minds of his h(^ar(M-s. Who dared attack him w^as 
badly used, and ])ore ridicule as well as injury from 
the fray. 

In the course of the )'ear 1844, the first signs of 
a slo\vl\- crNstallizini/ reaction became noticeable. 
V'arious irerminatino- forces lookinir to the forma- 
tion of a new theologic party on a conservative 
platform consolidated in that year under the leader- 
ship of Zacharias Frankel. From this place and 
that, single barbed arrows, followed by more and 
sharper ones, winged by irony and hard to parry, 
came whizzinof through the air, strikintj Geiofer 
and his followers in the most sensitive spots. 
A well-known weekly jcnvish journal, Dcr Orient, 
under the editorship of Dr. Fiirst, published reports 
of the more important occurrences in the Breslau 
community. The descriptions of the anonymous 
correspondent were graphic, pungent, and critical. 
The articles naturally aroused attention. In Bres- 
lau, as they continued to appear week after week, 
they created a veritable sensation. The two par- 
ties looked forward to each issue of the " Orient " 
with equal expectancy, though otherwise wath oppo- 
site feelings. In the orthodox camp thc^re was ex- 
ultation. At last an expert writer had appeared, 
who laid bare all sorts of evils fearlessly and un- 
sparingly, and \\\\o seemed to serve the cause of 
conservatism by his bold opposition to Geiger. 
!)ut who was the archer that sped his arrow with 
aim so true and poise so elegant? Guesses were 
hazarded, a narrow search w^as instituted, and espe- 
cially the ranks of the Jewish students of theology at 
that time gathered in Breslau, mostly about Geiger, 
were sharply inspected. It was established beyond 



MEMOIR. 29 

a doubt, that it was a homo noz'us, a student from the 
Province — Graetz, who, proudly independent of 
every sort of patronage, was earning a scant Hveh- 
hood by giving" lessons. The amazement grew when 
Graetz, nearly simultaneously with the just men- 
tioned contributions to the " Orient," published a 
critical review, valuable even at this late day, of 
Geiorer's "textbook of the Mishnic Langfuaofe."^ 
This critique, auspiciously ushering him into the 
scientific world," was begun in the literary supple- 
ment of the " Orient " at the end of 1844, and con- 
tinued as a series of articles in the following year. 
It gave him the opportunity of expounding his own 
views upon the subject and displaying advantage- 
ously a fund of information, mastery of the material, 
philological tact, scientific instincts, and consider- 
able talent as a stylist. His criticism of the book 
is often to the point, but rather severe and not en- 
tirely free from animosity. It was characteristic of 
Graetz to express his opinion clearly and directly. 
Geiger replied to the challenge in " The Israelite 
of the Nineteenth Century "^ in still more acrimoni- 
ous articles, which likewise are not wholly objec- 
tive. In fact, they contain approaches to personali- 
ties, and dwell upon slips and trivial details, thus de- 
monstrating the importance attached to the appear- 
ance of his young antagonist in the arena. In any 
event, Graetz had drawn the attention of a wider 
circle to himself, and in Breslau he had become at 
one bound the central topic of interest in Karls- 
strasse. The orthodox partisans made advances 
to him, although he did not for a moment leave 

^ LchrbucJi zur Sprache der Mishnah. 

' An anonymous article in the " Orient," 1843, p. 391 ff., may be 
accounted his introduction into the world of letters. It treats of the 
question then mooted, " On the Sanctity of Jewish Cemeteries " 
(Ueber die Heiligkeit der jiidischcn Begrabnissplatze), and is dated 
Breslau, November 22. The skirmish with Geiger began in the 
" Orient," 1844, p. 21. 

^ Israelii des igten Jahrhimderls. 



30 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

them in doubt about his disapj^roval of their pro- 
i^rain and his dissent trom thcnr religious views. 
He told them that he was pursuing- his own original 
ideas, and that his guiding principle was unalter- 
able loyalty to positive Judaism. However, he re- 
strained them from many a foolish and fanatic step. 
In the face of orthodox opposition Geiger had ener- 
getically organized a religious school, which was 
prospering. Graetz therefore advised the adher- 
ents of orthodoxy not to permit themselves to lose 
touch with the younger generation, but to build up 
a similar institution on conservative lines. The 
advice seems to have fallen on fruitful soil. It was 
intimated to the counselor, that the intention was 
to entrust him with the organization and superin- 
tendence of a school of that kind, provided he ob- 
tained his University degree before its opening. 
Besides, his nanie was beginning to be mentioned in 
connection with vacant rabbinates. It was therefore 
necessary to hasten his graduation. After a few 
weeks of severe application, he finished his thesis, 
De aicctoritate ct rv', qiuiui (gnosis iu yitdaisiniwi 
habitcrit, which secured him the doctorate from the 
University of Jena in April, 1845. Under the title, 
" Gnosticism and Judaism,"^ the dissertation was 
published in that year as the first original product 
of his pen. The work in every respect bears the 
peculiar stamp of his scientific character. It is dis- 
tinguished by familiarity with patristic literature ; by 
his method of explaining Talmud statements, com- 
monly taken to be general, as particular historical 
cases ; l)y lucidity of arrangement and presenta- 
tion ; and by his happy gift of divining the occult 
relation bc^twecMi things, which enabled him to shed 
the first rays of light upon the m':^*^ 12D,^ the most 
enigmatic book of rabbinical literature. The thesis 
was received kindly, and it gave him a place in the 
|(;wish world of scholarship. 

' Gttostisismus utid Judcnlhum. ' " Book of Creation." 



MEMOIR. 



31 



Such surprising successes swelled the breast of 
the literary novice, who had worked his way to the 
front by arduous toil, with justifiable and happ)- 
hopes. The halcyon days of young fame, at the 
remembrance of which his face lighted up with 
pleasure even in old age, he planned to spend 
with his parents. On his way home he passed 
through Krotoschin. There, in his friend's house, 
he met the half-grown girl of other days, now in 
the flush of young womanhood. Her image, faint 
though it had become in the background of his 
memory, had not faded entirely. She was the 
daughter of Monasch, the proprietor of the well- 
known Hebrew printing establishment. Each made 
a deep impression upon the other, and encouraged 
to believe that his future might be considered 
assured, Graetz did not conceal his feelings. They 
were requited, and the young people plighted their 
troth. Graetz did not suspect that he had won a 
strong womanly heart that would be his beacon and 
a prop to which he would cling for support during 
the dark days soon to break over him. 

All sorts of vague, undefined hopes arose before 
his view, and some of them gradually assumed 
shape. The prospect of an honorable position, 
such as he had longed for and aspired to, seemed 
about to be realized. The rabbinate of Gleiwitz, 
one of the larger congregations of Upper Silesia, 
taking rank in wealth and perhaps in size after 
Breslau, was vacant, and the authorities were looking 
out for a man equipped with rabbinic lore, standing 
upon the height of modern culture, and favoring a 
sober, moderate reform movement. All entitled to 
a voice in the matter fixed upon Graetz, whose 
reputation as a writer had spread to them. He 
seemed the most suitable incumbent. By virtue of 
his native talent and his attainments, it was thought 
that he would be able to overrule or to meet the 
manifold, rather hazy views and demands of the 



32 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

members of the coiii^regation. The leading spirits 
amone them declared themselves in favor of his 
election. Nothing more was necessary than to 
attract all the other circles of the community by 
proving his homiletic ability in several trial ser- 
mons, the success of which seemed a foregone con- 
clusion. Before the great Holy Days of 1845 
(S6o6) Graetz received a Hebrew communication 
from the directors of the Gleiwitz congregation, 
couched in the most flattering terms, assuring him 
of the reversion of the rabbinate, and inviting him 
to preach the sermons in their synagogue on the 
Day of Atonement. 

At the appointed time, on the eve of the sacred 
day, he ascended the pulpit, and the result was — a 
thoroughly unexpected fiasco, the more deplorable 
as it shattered his own confidence in his oratorical 
powers. He had forgotten his memorandum com- 
pletely. Losing his presence of mind, he had to 
leave the pulpit after saying a few words. His 
fri(;nds and followers stood by him loyally, and did 
th(Mr utmost to secure for him the opportunity of 
repairing the damage. He succeeded in rehabili- 
tating himself only partly ; the ground lost could 
not be recovered. The surprising mishap, it must 
be confessed now after the lapse of time, was a 
stroke of good fortune for the ambitious scholar 
and his life-work, ungentle though the impetus was 
that forced him into the path for which he was 
})eculiarly (^quipped and gifted. In those days of 
univcn'sal f<-rni( mutation, the religious life of Jewish 
communities was crossed and agitated by opposite, 
confused, and stormy currt^nts. A man of uncon- 
trollable impulse to be active and to exert inde- 
pendent, direct influence whenever it might seem 
n(.'cessary, and |)rone to give utterance to his con- 
victions in trnlhtul, incisive, and caustic language — 
a (juality of diiljioiis \'alue — would hardly have suc- 
ceeded in steering his rabbinical boat amonof the 



MEMOIR. 33 

t 

crags of party strife, usually carried on with fanatic 
violence. He would either have had to become 
faithless to his nature and genius, or, if that were 
not possible, eventually be wrecked. At best, in 
case he had a high degree of tact and prudence 
at his disposal, he would have consumed his finest 
powers in putting more or less salutary measures 
into effect on a restricted field. Graetz, who knew 
himself thoroughly, had always feared that he would 
not be in his proper place in a rabbinical posi- 
tion. From the first he had felt a shrinking at 
the thought of the duties and responsibilities of a 
rabbi. A few days before he left for Gleiwitz he 
wrote in his diary : 

" Of all positions I am least adapted for that of rabbi; in every 
way I lack force of manner, an imposing presence. My knowledge, 
too, is highly defective, but my will is strong, energetic. If God's 
service can be performed by an instrument of such caliber, then 
here am I ready for it, body and soul. But the preaching! " 

In very truth the preacher's Pegasus serves the 
noble enthusiasm of the elect willingly and ardently, 
and as willingly lends his back to mediocrity to 
execute more or less doubtful tricks before the eyes 
and ears of the many-headed crowd. Graetz it 
threw in the critical moment, and the fall affected 
him deeply and painfully. He who only a short 
time before, almost without effort, had won literary- 
triumphs, and who as a rule shrank from no difficult 
undertaking, now despaired of ever being able to 
wield the living word with the power with which he 
directed the pen. In fact, he had been denied tht; 
external qualifications of an orator. It cannot be 
said to have been his appearance that stood In the 
way of success ; he was of average height and well- 
knit frame. But in loud speech his voice lacked 
modulation, and his manner was Ineffectual. Above 
all, he was Incapable of posing ; In his character 
there was not the slightest trace of the actor, who, 
as Goethe says, " might give points to a preacher." 



34 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

IV. 

SCHOLAR AND TEACHER. 

The above incident put a hopeless end to all the 
prospects he had entertained. Again care for his 
daily bread stalked by his side like a specter. The 
most deplorable aspect of his case was that his 
strength did not emerge from this severe contest, 
as from former ones, steeled and braced by cheer- 
ing hopes for the future. Besides, he reproached 
himself for having drawn another and a beloved 
person into his forlorn life. Then the high-minded- 
ness and unselfish devotion of the woman of his 
choice sustained him, refreshing his weary soul with 
consolation and encouragement, and calming the 
tumult of his wounded feelings. His animal spirits 
rose again under the stimulus of an honorable invi- 
tation, extended by Zacharias Frankel, to join a 
conference of conservative rabbis called by him to 
meet at Dresden in September,^ 1846, for the pur- 
pose of discussing the religious problems of the 
day and uniting for concerted action. 

At the very beginning of his career in Dresden, 
Dr. Zacliarias Frankel had developed fruitful ac- 
tivity in connection with the removal of the political 
and civil disabilities, especially with regard to oaths, 
under which his coreligionists in Saxony were labor- 
ing. None the less he was essentially a scholar. 
Master of comprehensive knowledge of the Talmud, 
which he had acquired with critical thoroughness, he 
laid the foundations for the modern analysis of this 
work of literature. I le made it his life-task to pro- 
mote the scientific study of the Talmud and trace 
the evolution of the Halakha. The first-fruits of 
his literary endeavor betrayed the serious, thorough 
scholar by the accuracy, the scrupulous nicety, and 

' Orif^inally October 15 had been appointed. Init many of the par- 
ticipants considered September a more suitable time. 



MEMOIR. 35 

the trustworthiness of his research, and secured 
for him a high and undisputed position in the scien- 
tific world. When the reform agitation within the 
Jewish community of Germany developed into a 
rapid stream whose waters grew more and more 
turbulent ; when, on the one side, rabbinical confer- 
ences were planned for the purpose of systematiz- 
ing and sanctioning projected innovations, and, on 
the other, distrust of the progressive leaders inspired 
the fear that the resolutions and professions of such 
assemblies might throw dangerous, inflammable 
material into the different congregations ; Frankel 
deemed it prudent to give up his reserve and 
actively influence the religious movement. In 
1844, accordingly, he began to publish the quar- 
terly "Journal for the Religious Interests of Juda- 
km."^ It was to bear a strictly scientific character, 
and at the same time discuss the religious topics of 
the day. A sober, experienced, and tolerant theo- 
logian, Frankel held the position, that in matters of 
faith as in the other concerns of life the exio^en- 
cies of the times have to be considered, but that 
concessions to the modern spirit may not remove 
us from historic ground, and that all modifications 
must result from a scientific appreciation of the 
essence and traditions of Judaism. 

All this appealed strongly to Graetz, and no 
sooner had he come into public notice, in the year 
following the first appearance of the journal, than 
he souoht to establish relations with Frankel. The 
latter met his advances with cordiality, and invited 
the young scholar to become a contributor to his 
quarterly review. Graetz responded with a brilliant 
and suggestive article, " The Septuagint in the 
Talmud. "~ It affords a striking example of his 
peculiar method of comparing Talmud and Midrash 
passages with each other and with the statements 

* Zeitschrift fur die religioscn Interesscn des Judenthums. 
' Die Septnaginta im Talmud. 



36 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

and quotations of the Fathers of the Church, thus 
determining^ the historical elements of the Talmudic 
account and building theories upon it. In the same 
year (1845), Frankel had gone to In-ankfort-on-the- 
Main, to the second rabbinical conference, with the 
hope of infusing a spirit of moderation and concilia- 
tion into its proceedings and measures. But he 
abandon(;d the hope on the passage of the resolu- 
tion, that the retention of Hebrew as the language 
of the synagogue service was only " advisable," 
not " essential " {objckth-yiotJnocndig). He, there- 
fore, withdrew from the conference in a public jiian- 
ner, and justified his action in a formal declaration, 
equally dignified and firm. 

On all sides Frankel's course met with hearty 
approval. Its effect was to startle the conserva- 
tives of every shade of opinion out of their apathy. 
Numerous prominent communities sent him flatter- 
ing" addresses, conveNingf their thanks and their 
unreserved commendation of his resolute policy. 
Graetz had written an enthusiastic document, which 
was circulated in Breslau, and was quickly covered 
with signatures. In collecting them, he had not 
been able to resist the malicious prompting to 
secure the names of notorious adherents of Geiger. 
The latter had taken deep offense at Frankel's 
secession, and had been betrayed into abuse by his 
declaration. It is impossible to say now, why 
Frankel did not at once utilize the disposition In his 
favor to gather a large conservative party about 
himself. Only in the following year, 1846, he took 
steps looking to this end. 1 le issued invitations to 
the conservative theologians of modern bias, sum- 
moning them to a convention at Dresden, with the 
purpose perhaj^s of devising an effective opposition 
to the third reform conference of rabbis to meet at 
Breslau in July of the same year. But even this 
effort was not made with the energy characteristic 
of iMMukcl and n(;cessary to accomplish the desired 



MEMOIR. 37 

result. When Graetz arrived in Dresden in Sep- 
tember, 1846, he was amazed to find that no one 
else had put in appearance. Samson Raphael 
Hirsch, at that time District Rabbi of Emden, had 
from the first refused co-operation with the move- 
ment, inasmuch as he denied the authority, natural 
or conferred, of the modern rabbi to modify the 
religious cult. Rapoport of Prague had declined 
the invitation for reasons not specified. It is well- 
known that his interests were enlisted only in 
scientific pursuits. Michael Sachs of Berlin had 
excused himself on the plea of routine duties. For 
most of the others the time and place of convention 
were not convenient. To sue for support was out 
of the question with Frankel's aristocratic tempera- 
ment. It was repugnant to him, or he did not 
know how, to create sentiment in his own favor by 
agitation or self-advertisement. He could not 
attract a party to his leadership by seductive wiles, 
nor infuse fanatic factionalism into its ranks. Rely- 
ing solely on the justice of his cause, and appealing 
exclusively to the convictions of his followers, he 
scorned petty tricks and artifices. That Graetz 
was the only one to render unconditional obedience 
to his summons must naturally have produced a 
deep impression upon him. The two men, so 
different in years, disposition, and endowments, but 
at one in views and aims, were brought close to 
each other by the personal meeting. By tacit agree- 
ment they became companions in arms from that 
moment unto the end. Graetz, at all events, rec- 
ognizing that their religious principles approximated 
each other, was resolved to take his position in 
theological affairs by Frankel's side, whenever so 
doing involved no loss of independence. Frankel 
in turn evinced a sense of their religious affinity by 
conferring upon Graetz, at his request, the formal 
authorization for the exercise of rabbinical functions 
(nNnin mnn). At the end of 1846, Frankel gave up 

/ 



38 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

the publication of his journal to save his streno-th 
for a better future. To this third and last annual 
series, Graetz had contributed, besides several re- 
views, one of his important treatises, that discussing 
"The Construction of Jewish History"^ in several 
articles. Bright and vivid in style and replete with 
fine thoughts, which even homiletes drew upon in 
various ways, the essay defines clearly and sharply 
the considerations and points of view of essential 
importance in a complete presentation of Jewish 
history. But the author wms still so prejudiced in 
favor of the technically philosophic terminology and 
conceptions of his time that he was betrayed into 
giving undue prominence to the transcendence of 
God as compared with the monotheistic idea. 

Though Graetz had won high respect by his 
scholarly productions especially in theologic cir- 
cles, he vainly looked about for a position, no matter 
how modest, in which to strike root. At last the 
sky seemed to grow^ brighter ; he was cheered by 
the prospect of soon being able to establish a home 
of his owm, a prospect that proved 2, fata morgana. 
By the end of 1846 the orthodox party in Breslau 
resumed energetic operations. They had accepted 
as their rabbi Gedaliah, the son of the deceased 
Solomon Tiktin, who had inherited from his father 
only his tall stature, and they were preparing to 
open a religious school for the propaganda of 
their principles. Its organization and superinten- 
dence were c-ntrusted to Graetz.^ The Breslau com- 
munity was no longer a unit, the orthodox members 

' Die Konstrtiktion der jiidischen Geschichte. 

* To accept this trust Graetz needed the permission of the muni- 
cipal authorities, obtainable only by means of a duly accredited 
teacher's diploma. He therefore attended the Catholic Normal 
School at Breslau for some time as " student by courtesy '' (Hospi- 
tant). On November 4, 1847, after having taken an examination, he 
was ji^iven a diploma testifying to his ability to fill the position of 
teacher and rector at an elementary school. It is the only official 
certificate of examination Graetz could show. 



MEMOIR. 



39 



having separated from the congregation. But the 
seceders had no legally valid right to form a body 
corporate. Moreover, on July 23, 1847, the law de- 
fining the status of the Prussian Jews appeared, and 
it could not be determined how conditions would 
be modified by it. Wealthy individuals in their pri- 
vate capacity therefore assumed responsibility in 
the business contracts of the orthodox party, par- 
ticularly in the matter of the new school. Then 
the political storms of 1848 swept over the Prussian 
provinces. Economic disturbances occurred, and 
apprehensive of still more serious ones, the wealthy 
patrons of the orthodox party recalled their pledges. 
The complete collapse of the religious school fol- 
lowed as the first sacrifice in orthodox circles 
claimed by the political flood, whose waves carried 
destructive change to the most remote relations 
between men. Graetz was aoain left stranded, 
without an occupation, without a livelihood. 

At that time all eyes were turned towards Vi- 
enna, where the popular uprising had assumed vast 
dimensions and won surprising victories. Democ- 
racy stood in battle array, and had gained pos- 
session of the Austrian capital. It was fondly 
hoped that the fortune of war would decide there 
in favor of the democratic party. A friend of 
Graetz, Dr. B. Friedmann,^ later rabbi in Mann- 
heim, was at that time prominent in Breslau as an 
effective popular speaker, and was a member of the 
editorial staff of the democratic organ, the Odci"- 
zeitung. By his intervention the curious proposi- 

^ This same Friedmann and Graetz appear as the joint authors of 
an article in Baur and Zeller's Theologic Year-book for 1848 (Vol. 
VII, p. 338), " On the Alleged Continuance of the Jewish Sacrificial 
Cult after the Destruction of the Second Temple " (Ucber die 
angehliche Fortdaucr dcs jildischen Opferkultus nach der Zcrstdrmig des 
siveifen Tempels). Friedmann's share in the essay cannot be deter- 
mined. The introduction plainly bears the marks of Graetz's man- 
ner and style, and Graetz was in the habit of considering the work 
his own. It is the only production published by him between 1846 
and 1851. 



40 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

tion was made to Graetz to oo to VitMina as corres- 
pondent of the journal just mentioned. In his 
forlorn state he acquiesced, though not without 
reluctance. On his journey to Vienna, he felt im- 
pelled to leave the direct route and stojD off at 
Nikolsburg- to pay a visit to his former teacher, 
Samson Raphael Hirsch, who had meantime re- 
signed the District Rabbinate of Emden for that of 
Nikolsburg. Letters had passed between them 
constantly since the Oldenburg days, and although 
Graetz was not in sympathy with the rigidly tradi- 
tional point of view occupied by Hirsch, and no 
longer viewed the theologic attitude of his old 
guide with youthful enthusiasm, but rather with 
critical, sober judgment, their friendly relations of 
other times had suffered no diminution in cordiality. 
Graetz's love and reverence for Hirsch had not in 
the least evaporated, and Hirsch still felt strongly 
attracted to the younger man. He was not dis- 
posed to sanction his project of going to Vienna, 
the hot-bed of revolution, and Graetz, who had 
little love and desire for the calling of a political 
reporter, was easily persuaded to stay in Nikols- 
burg and content himself with a subordinate place 
at the religious school of the town. In the back- 
ground, to be sure, the reversion of a teacher's 
position at a theologic seminary, projected and se- 
riously consider(;d by Hirsch, loomed up before him. 
Hirsch had lono- cherished the idea of foundinof a 

T • • . . 

Jewish theologic institute. He shared this dear 
ambition with the othcn' prominent rabbis of his 
generation, who hoped thus to further their wish to 
perpetuate each one his own theologic bias. The 
establishment of a theologic sen^iinary was, in fact, 
one of the burning questions of the day. Nikols- 
burg, wh(^re a popular Talmud school had flour- 
ished from time immemorial, seemed to lend itself 
to the (execution of Hirsch's plan. It was only 
necessary to use the existing institution as a foun- 



MEMOIR. 41 

dation, make the proper changes in its manage- 
ment, and infuse the new spirit into it. Graetz 
was at once induced by his patron to give a course 
of lectures on Jewish history to the students at 
Nikolsburg, who were well versed in the Talmud, 
but whose training had been wholly dialectic. The 
character of his auditors suggested the subject to 
the lecturer. He treated the time of the Mishna 
and the Talmud, a period of which he had previously 
made a thorough study, and to which he again 
devoted serious research with a view to his aca- 
demic purpose. Despite the zeal with which he 
applied himself to his lectures and studies, his 
main expectation suffered disappointment. The 
painfulness of his precarious position became more 
pronounced as time passed. The fanatics of the 
Nikolsburg Ghetto found fault even with the scru- 
pulously religious conduct of their District Rabbi ; 
as for his disciple, he went up and down among 
them a strange, repellant figure. Denunciations 
led the local authorities to suspect him of demo- 
cratic leanings, and he was thus branded with the 
darkest stigma that could be fastened upon any 
one, but particularly upon a foreigner, in the Austria 
of that day. All the influence possessed by his 
friends had to be exerted to ward off ugly compli- 
cations and immediate expulsion. 

It became more and more evident that the 
rabbinical seminary, upon which Graetz had staked all 
his hopes, was only a bubble. Whether the cir- 
cumstances of place and time were unpropitious, 
or whether Hirsch dropped the plan for other 
reasons, is doubtful.^ Moreover, the friendly rela- 

* In his curriculum vitw (among the archives of the Board of 
Curators of the Bequests of the royal commercial councilor Frankel, 
" relative to Graetz, teacher at the Seminary "), Graetz makes the 
following statements: "In 1849 I obeyed the summons of the Dis- 
trict Rabbi of Moravia to participate in the establishment of, and to 
act as teacher at, a rabbinical seminary for Moravian and Austrian 
communities. But the institution did not come into existence; the 



42 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

tions between the two men began to be somewhat 
strained. Therefore, the proposal to undertake the 
organization and superintendence of a school, made 
him by the directors of the Jewish community of 
Lundenburg, a little town in the Nikolsburg district 
in the neighborhood of \aenna, was hailed by Graetz 
as release from an untenable position. Negotia- 
tions were quickly concluded, and on September 12, 
1850, he was appointed director and superintendent 
of the Jewish school at Lundenburg. 

Before entering upon the duties of his office he 
hastened home, and in the beginning of October, 
1850, solemnized his marriage with the loyal 
woman whose patience had never failed, who had 
never been discouraged by hope deferred, and had 
never lost confidence in his ability. He could not 
have found a truer, a braver comrade than the wife 
who shared the fortunes of the rest of his career. 
By her harmonious, temperate, and loving nature, 
she not only glorified his home and cheered cloudy 
days, but also restrained his impetuous disposition, 
and moderated his proneness to sharp, caustic, ag- 
gressive words. She understood the needs of his 
inmost soul, in the recesses of which a reverbera- 
tion was sometimes heard as of vague, unfulfilled 
longings. His personality was made up of many 
an incommensurable factor that baffled explanation. 
With all his communicativeness he was reserved ; 
the most intimate emotions of his heart were never 
revealed. To outsiders he always appeared wholly 
unruffled and serene, and no one suspected the 
thoughts and feelings stormily surging through his 
being under its placid surface. But in order to pre- 
serve his equanimity, he stood in need of frank ex- 
unsettled condition of affairs in Austria, especially the permanent 
temporarincss to which the position of the Israelites there had 
become a prey, prolonged the discussions on the execution of the 
plans for a seminary of the kind. I was therefore compelled to 
accept provisionally the superintendence of a Jewish public school 
at Lundenburg near Vienna." 



MEMOIR. 



43 



pression to sonic one or in some way. It was the 
outlet and the purification of the easily excited and 
strongly reacting emotions of a nature responding 
quickly to external pressure. Probably the leaves 
of his diary served this purpose ; most of them 
were written under the stimulus of tense passion. 
From the day of his marriage the record becomes 
more and more attenuated, until it ceases entirely. 
In his life-companion he had found the responsive 
being devoted to him in boundless veneration and 
sympathy, whose sentiments were a perfect echo, 
clearer usually than the original sound, of his 
thought and feeling. And as she took part in his 
soul-life, so she shared in his intellectual plans. 
She made her husband's scientific interests her own, 
and in his scholarly research afforded him the effi- 
cient help of a careful assistant. 

The new principal began his work in Lundenburg 
on October 15 with zeal and love for his task — he 
superintended, classified, taught, and delivered 
solemn addresses. Apparently success was not 
lacking, for he met with encouraging applause. In 
the shelter of his modest but happy home, he 
resumed his literary plans and work. While pre- 
paring his Nikolsburg lectures, he had gathered 
together an abundance of material on the Talmudic 
era, w^hich he now meant to put to use. 

Before long, however, gray clouds cast a shadow on 
his idyllic condition. The relation between him and 
Hirsch almost suffered an open breach. When the 
newly married couple came to Nikolsburg to pay 
their respects to him, Hirsch demanded that the 
young wife, in accordance with a Talmudic custom, 
cover her beautiful hair with a sort of wig, called 
Scheitel. She resisted the bidding politely but 
firmly, with the pride of an offended woman. Graetz 
upheld his wife energetically, and the two parties 
separated little pleased with each other. The low- 
hanging mist apt to develop in the atmosphere of 



44 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

narrow, undisciplined Ghetto life, particularly in a 
small Austrian community, was more oppressive 
even and harder to bear. The Lundenburg rabbi, 
a narrow-minded Talmudist, who feared to have his 
fame overshadowed by Graetz's, now and again 
asserted his official superiority unpleasantly. Small 
town rivalries were fomented to annoy the notabili- 
ties of the congregation by means of attacks upon 
the measures and the men they favored. Such 
conditions made Graetz feel by their hidden venom 
that unmixed joy is the portion of no mortal, least 
of all of the principal of an Austrian communal 
school. Denunciations of him were again rife. 
Those before the district court representing him as 
a democrat incarnate were particularly troublesome. 
Happily the charges were dismissed without in the 
least injuring him. 

The year 1851 heightened his happiness; it 
brought him the joys of fatherhood. A daughter 
was born to him, the only one in a family ot five 
children. His relation to her was always peculiarly 
close and affectionate. In the same year Zacharias 
Frankel re-entered the theologic arena with a 
monthly journal, which, unlike his earlier venture, 
the Zcitschrift, was to be devoted first and fore- 
most to scientific interests. Graetz received a most 
honorable invitation to become a contributor, and 
he gladly ranged himself under Frankel's banner. 
In quick succession he published in the first year of 
the " Monthly Journal for the History and Science 
of Judaism"^ (October, 185 i-Decembcr, 1852) a 
series of historical monographs : " Jewish Historical 
Studies ;"^ a review of Rapoport's Encyclopedia ; 
" Talmudic Chronology and Topography ;"^ and 
" The Removable Highpriestsof the Second Temple 
Period "* — all of which evinced great erudition, clear 

^ Monatsschrifi fiir Ccscliichte utid Wisscnscliaft des Jtidcnthums. 

* J udisch-gcschichiliche Studicn. 

' Die latmudische Cliro)tologic und Topographic. 

* Die absetzharen Ilohcpricstcr zciilirotd des crvciien Tcmpcls. 



MEMOIR. 45 

grasp of the subject, and mature judgment. They 
are of the nature of special studies in preparation 
and as a foundation for a connectc^d account of the 
events from the downfall of the Jewish state until 
the completion of the Talmud. He had long cher- 
ished the idea of such a work, and he now reduced 
it to writing with great rapidity. 

In the meantime, in the course of the year 1852, 
the complexion of the district court seems to have 
changfed, or the wind was blowing: from another 
quarter ; at all events, Graetz suddenly and with 
painful surprise became aware that unceasing in- 
trigues and malicious denunciations had at last 
taken effect upon the district governor. He 
found himself exposed to serious annoyances and 
humiliations. No effort to ward them off pro- 
mising success, he resigned his position at Lun- 
denburg. 

He felt impelled to return to his native Prussia, 
and determined to remove to Berlin with his family. 
The decision was inspired by the hope of easily 
finding in the capital a publisher for his history of 
the Talmudic epoch, which was almost ready for 
the press. He was furthermore actuated by the 
consideration, that in the prosecution of the plan 
of writing a complete history of the Jews, already 
taking shape in his mind, he could not well do 
without the libraries to be found only in large cities. 
In the latter half of September, 1852, he arrived in 
Berlin, and was kindly received by Dr. Michael 
Sachs and other friends willing to serve him. 
Through Dr. Sachs he became acquainted with the 
excellent Dr. Veit, who undertook the publication 
of his work. During the winter semester 1852-53 
the directors of the Berlin congregation invited 
him to deliver, for a honorarium, a number of his- 
torical lectures before students of Jewish theology, 
in a course in which the other speakers were Zunz 
and Sachs. His lectures were received with ap- 



46 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

proval.^ At the close of one of them, delivered in 
the middle of l-ebruary, he was approached by 
Joseph Lehmann, railway director and editor of a 
journal in good standing, " Magazine for Foreign 
Literature,'" a man justly enjoying high respect. 
Acting under the instructions of the Board of Cura- 
tors of the b ninkel Bequests in Breslau, Lehmann 
asked Graetz, whether he would be disposed to 
become a member of the faculty of the rabbinical 
seminary to be established at Breslau. At the 

'J. Lehmann, whose zeal in behalf of the founding of the seminary 
was highly commendable, reports (Archives of the Board of Cura- 
tors of the Friinkel Bequests. I, Vol. i, relative to the Seminary) as 
follows: " Every evening between 7 and 8, in the building of the 
Boys' School of the Jewish community, a lecture is delivered before 
Jewish divinity students. Dr. Zunz lecturing on Rabbinic Literature, 
Dr. Graetz on Jewish History, and Dr. Sachs on the Proverbs of 
Solomon. The lectures are well attended by about twenty-five or 
thirty prospective rabbis, who take notes induslriouslj-, and by a 
dozen Jewish scholars who come as visitors (Hospitantcn) . . . Zunz 
.was obviously making an inspiring impression upon his audience; 
his dry subject was rendered spicy by piquant observations on 
Eisenmenger and Karpzow, Wagenscil and Richard Simon, and 
not a few innuendoes touching the present. On the evening when 
I heard Sachs, he had just begun the introduction to the exegesis 
of the Proverbs. It seemed to me that on the whole he was a 
little too abstruse, although there was no dearth of beautiful 
thoughts expressed in a manner still more beautiful. Dr. Graetz 
is a young man, who is very much praised by competent judges. 
Report says that his lectures bristle with new data and results; I 
myself have not yet heard him. He is said to have lived in Breslau 
at one time, and he came here from Lundenburg, his last residence, 
at the suggestion of Dr. Sachs. The institution of these three lec- 
ture courses on six evenings was proposed by the school trustees 
of the Jewish community. They have appropriated the means for 
carrying them on (about 1200 Rcichsthaler) from the legacy fund 
of the T ahnud-T orah School. Their right to do this has been con- 
tested in certain quarters, but for the present they are supported by 
the authorization of the communal directors and the approval of the 
intelligent. I have made this preface to enable you to estimate to 
what extent the judgment of those consulted by me with regard to 
the Breslau project is based upon what has been done here, inade- 
quate though it be. . . . At first, Sachs, who recently received a 
letter from Frankel in Dresden inquiring into the feasibility of estab- 
lishinj,' a Rabbinical Institute for lierlin and Dresden in common, 
also intended to put down his opinion in writing for me, etc." 

* Das Magasin fiir die Litteratiir des Auslandcs. 



MEMOIR. 47 

same time he told him, that negotiations witli Dr. 
Frankel, Chief Rabbi of Dresden, were pending 
with regard to the directorship, and that Frankel, 
among other conditions of his acceptance, had 
demanded Graetz's enofaq^ement as teacher. The 
Board of Curators had assented cheerfully, and 
now desired Graetz's answer. Graetz made his 
consent dependent upon Frankel's final, favorable 
decision, which was received soon after. These 
preliminaries over, the troublesome discussions on 
the organization of the seminary began. In the 
first place, no model or scheme whatsoever existed 
that might serve as a guide in the organization of a 
rabbinical academy, with regard to such matters as 
the time-schedule, the curriculum, and the choice 
of subjects. Its creation was pioneer work, in fur- 
therance of which there was no available expe- 
rience ; yet the arrangements determined upon 
under such peculiar circumstances were to bear 
within themselves the guarantee of practical and 
immediate success. Besides, the will of the founder, 
Jonas Frankel, contained certain clauses, the exe- 
cution of which, in view of the changed times, 
might become a menace to the new institu- 
tion.^ The plan, curriculum, and methods of the 
future seminary were determined by Zacharias 
Frankel alone, who recognized the aim to be pur- 
sued with clearness and practical insight, and so 
created the basis for the Jewish theology of the 
present. His wish to secure a professionally 
trained man, whose assistance might be freely 
drawn upon by himself and the Board of Curators, 
was all the more willingly complied with, as from 
many considerations an intermediary between the 
business and the pedagogic heads seemed not 
superfluous. Frankel had parted from Dresden 

' Cmp. " The Jewish Theological Seminary founded by Frankel at 
Breslau on the 25th Anniversary of its Existence, August 10, 1879," 
P-5- 



48 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

with a heavy heart, and was inclined to seize 
the first fairly just pretense to recall his word to 
the Curators. Thus it came about that Graetz en- 
tered the service of the projected seminary on 
July I, 1853, with the assurance of being employed, 
under Frankel's directorship, as one of the princi- 
pal teachers,^ in case the statutes and the plans for 
the institution met with governmental approval, 
which seemed not at all doubtful. 



V. 

THE MASTER HISTORIAN. 

At the same time Graetz's book issued from the 
press under the title : " History of the Jews from the 
Downfall of the Jewish State to the Completion of 
the Talmud."- lliis was really the sub-title. The 
chief title-page ran as follows : " History of the 
Jews from the Earliest Times until the Present 
Day. Volume IV,"^ indicating that the author had 
conceived more than the first sketchy plan of a 
complete history of the Jews, and that the publica- 
tion of the fourth volume first was merely an acci- 
dent in the order of production. Beginning with 

' The Curators as well as Joseph Lchmann entertained the cordial 
wish and made earnest efforts to obtain a place for Geiger on the 
teaching staff of the Seminary. But Frankel met every demand 
looking to this end with abrupt refusal. Even Joseph Lehmann, 
who had a decided inclination towards Geiger, could not help 
making the following frank admission in an earlier letter (February 
3, 1853) addressed to the Board of Curators: "The communication 
of the Rabbinical Conference of 1846, which I shall return to you, 
unfortunately has no value for us, because none of the five signers 
(Geiger, Holdhcim, Philippson, Salomon, and Stein) continues to 
enjoy the authority in Germany necessary to secure the confidence 
of the class of Jews chiefly to be considered in the launching of an 
undertaking like this." 

^ Gcscliichtc dcr Judcn vom Untcrgange dcs jiidischen Staafcs bis cum 
Abschluss dcs Talmud. 

'■'Ccscliiclitc dcr Judcn von den dltcstcn Zcitcn his auf die Gcgenwart. 
Vicrier Band. 



MEMOIR. 49 

the account of the Tahiiudic time turned out a 
happy hit. If the two hterary events admit of com- 
parison, Graetz's first important work has its only 
counterpart in the biography of Rashi, with which 
Zunz, the creator of the science of Judaism, inaugu- 
rated his notable activity. The enthusiasm of 
Zunz's contemporaries is said to have been kindled 
when Rashi, the eminent interpreter of Bible and 
Talmud, familiar to them from their childhood days, 
and esteemed an indispensable guide and com- 
panion in exegesis, appeared to them divested of 
the vaporous halo of supernatural glory, and trans- 
lated into the sphere of human reality. Similarly 
the effect was electrifying when a flood of brilliam 
light suddenly scattered the mist of the dark epoch 
in which Mishna and Talmud, the authoritative 
books of post-Biblical Judaism, were composed, 
and revealed to sight life-size the rabbi-authors of 
those works, whose names and maxims were matter 
of common knowledge. The pen of our historian had 
charmed them out of the unreality of their existence. 
They had been habitually looked upon as abstrac- 
tions, doctrines incarnate. Not much more had 
been known of them than that they had said, asked, 
and sometimes wailed. At best, people had been 
inclined to imajjine them a sort of Kabbalists or 
Polish itinerant rabbis. Now it was seen that hot 
blood and throbbing life pulsated in their veins. 
Their clear-cut, mental features with their charac- 
teristic excellencies and shortcominofs distinguished 
one from the other. They stood before the reader 
in checkered array, true knights by the grace of in- 
tellect, antique figures, glowing with patriotism, of 
inflexible will and indestructible faith. With equal 
vividness the author depicted the spiritual atmos- 
phere of the time with its humors, passions, fer- 
mentation, and struggles ; the surging and seething 
of ideas, factions, opinions, and aims in wild disor- 
der and violent opposition to one another ; and the 



50 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

final evolution of the impelling" forces which deter 
mine the course of historical events by the exchange 
of thrust and counterthrust. Graetz wanted to make 
the heart-beat of the period perceptible to the 
senses. Therefore, he was little concerned about 
the technical correctness of his style and diction. 
He did not shrink from brusqueness in words, nor 
from luridncss and voluptuousness in coloring. 
Without recrard to sensitive feelinors he chose the 
plainest, the most striking expressions, that he 
might be understood by all ; that no doubt as to 
his opinion might suggest itself; that personages 
and events might appear upon the canvas in a 
clear light and in the proper position, as they were 
mirrored in his mind. 

The book naturally aroused a great sensation 
upon its appearance. It at once created an audi- 
ence for itself with which it found a rich measure 
of favor and applause. On the other hand, most 
of the author's scholarly colleagues at first reserved 
their opinions. They were taken aback by the new 
data, which — as, for instance, the formation of Chris- 
tian sects — had been boldly pressed into service to 
complete the picture, and they could not reconcile 
themselves to the description of ancient conditions 
by means of modern catchwords and turns of 
expression peculiar to the lighter forms of literature. 
For example, Graetz characterizes Nachum of 
Gimso, in whose life mishap after mishap redounded 
to his benefit, as the Candide^ of the Tanaitic world 
of legend. He seeks to reconstruct the details of 
the Har-Cochba revolt, the chapter on which is one 
of the most beautiful and touching in his " History," 
from single names and widely scattered debris. 
1 le goes so far as to s[)eak of two lines of defense, 
the Esdraelon line and the Tur-Malka line.'"^ He 

' Ccschichte dcr Judcii, Vol. IV (Ed. i), p. 22. 
Ibid. p. lOg (American Edition, II, p. 414). 



MEMOIR. 51 

charges the emhient teacher Judah ha-Nassi with 
irritabiHty and sensitivenes'^.^ Relying on Tal- 
mudic accounts, he refuses to credit the Romans 
with a civiHzing mission in Asia, and describes 
their influence in Western Asia in particular as 
destructive of culture and detrimental to morality. 
Such features of the work confounded the critics 
and judges. They did not venture to decide 
whether the boldness of genial originality was 
asserting itself, or only the uncouthness of fantastic 
sensationalism, whose tinsel would not stand the 
test of time. Moreover, the two religious parties 
looked askance and with dissatisfaction at a book 
written to serve the truth only and not available for 
any sort of propaganda. Loud and public quarrel 
between them had ceased in the face of the world- 
stirring events of 1848 and their consequences, but 
they were as sharply divided as ever. The adhe- 
rents of the reform party reproached the author with 
having glorified the Talmud and its teachers, and 
with having omitted to touch in "a single word"^ 
upon the sorest spot, " the petrifaction and ossifica- 
tion of Judaism" brought about by the code and its 
exponents. The rigidly orthodox, on the other 
hand, were incensed at the criticism, unwarranted 
in their eyes, to which he subjected the bearers of 
tradition and at his effort to prove the body of tra- 
ditional doctrine the product of historical processes.^ 
But no voice dissented from the opinion, that 
in Graetz Jewish science had gained an eminent 
promoter with astonishing scholarship at his dis- 
posal. His qualifications and achievements were 
too extraordinary to be belittled on account of the 
unavoidable errors that had slipped into his history. 
It could not be denied, that research had received a 
decided impetus, and that the sum of historical 

' Ibid. p. 236 (American Edition, II, p. 454). 

' L. Stein, Dcr israclitisclie J'olkslclirer, V, 1855, P- 37- 

' S. R. Hirsch, Jeshunin, II and III. 



52 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

knowledge had been considerably increased by 
Graetz's results, which he had obtained by his 
mastery over the two Talmuds and the Midrash 
literature ; by his close acquaintance with patristic 
works ; by his effective way of bringing these two 
widely separated literary spheres close to each 
other, permitting the one to shed light on the 
other, and thus clearing up critical points ; by his 
happy gift first of discerning, in spite of the rectifi- 
cation they frequently stood in need of, that certain 
data scattered over various by-paths of literature 
were complementary, and then of combining them 
with each other ; and by his acuteness in detecting 
with unerring glance, animating with spirit, and 
applying to good purpose, long disused geograph- 
ical names and obsolete terms lying forgotten in 
some dark corner and buried under debris.^ In view 
of the fact that it required rare courage to venture 
upon the elaboration of one of the obscurest and 
most difficult portions of Jewish history, thoroughly 
neglected at that time in the way of special research 
and monographs, even his opponents could " not 
help confessing that on the whole he had fulfilled his 
task satisfactorily."'^ There was evidence, to be 
sure, of still higher courage in Graetz's announce- 
ment, made without fear or diffidence, on the title- 
page and in the preface of his book, designated as 
the fourth volume, that he intended to publish a 
complete history of the Jews, written in the same 
spirit of critical research and in the same style. 
The promise gave occasion for ironical insinuations. 
How could a single individual hope to accomplish so 
great an undertaking? Was Graetz endowed with 
the creative, plastic powder of the genuine historian? 
Or, perhaps he expected to obtain the laurels of the 
historian on credit ! 

' Cmp. Gcschkhtc dcr Judcn. Vol. IV, Note 20 (in later editions, 
Note 16). 
"^ Der israditischc Volkslchrcr, as cited above. 



MEMOIR. 



53 



On the whole, circumstances shaped themselves 
in a way favorable to him, and facilitated the execu- 
tion of his bold undertaking. It should not be 
imagined that a community, or — still more extrava- 
gant idea — a Maecenas offered to furnish him with 
the means indispensable for the accomplishment of 
a task such as he had set himself. Brilliant as his 
achievement was, how much offeater it mioht have 
been, if he, with his genius for work, had been put 
in a position to examine and use at his leisure the 
manuscript treasures of the various European 
libraries ! Up to the present day such good for- 
tune has not befallen Jewish science. It seems as 
though the Jewish race, endowed with an under- 
standing heart and an open hand for humane 
interests in general, has not yet awakened to a 
full recognition of the debt of honor it owes its own 
past. Graetz, however, was well content to be 
relieved of the irksome care for his daily bread by 
the ratification, on April lo, 1854, on the part of the 
Prussian government, of the statutes, the plan, and 
the teaching staff of the Rabbinical Seminary. He 
returned to Breslau, where his literary star had first 
risen, and where he had once tried vainly to estab- 
lish himself permanently. Thenceforth he remained 
there in the congenial position of a regularly ap- 
pointed teacher at the first Jewish theologic institu- 
tion, which was inaugurated, with Z. Frankel as 
director, on August 10, 1854, under the name of 
"The Jewish Theological Seminary founded by 
Frankel."^ 

It must be looked upon as providential that the 
task of first impressing the modern spirit upon the 
theologic training for the rabbinical office fell to 
the share of men of such eminent distinction as 
Frankel, the director of the new institution, and 
Graetz and Jacob Bernays, its regular teachers. 
The personality of each of the three was strongly 

' liidisch-theologisches Seminar, Frdnkel'sche Stiftung. 



54 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

marked. Each one was a homo trium littcrarimt, 
in the sense that in subordination to his specialty, 
he had acquired mastery over the Hebrew-rabbin- 
ic, the classical, and the modern literature. By 
deep and earnest thou^^ht each had arrived at a 
conservative view of Judaism. C){ the three, Jacob 
Bernays,^ a scholar of far-reachini^- fame in classical 
philology, doubtless possessed greatest ability as a 
teacher, which, however, demanded talented pupils 
for its effective exercise. Frankel's forte lay in his 
tact as an organizer and in his practical gifts ; he 
exerted wholesome authority over his disciples in 
religious as well as scicMitific matters. Both desired 
to impress their scientific bias upon those that came 
untU;r thcnr influence. Graetz, on the other hand, 
heeded the individuality of his pupils, and in his 
activity as teacher had in mind especially their stimu- 
lation and encouragement. Frankel was desirous 
of transferring to the Theological Seminary the rigid 
discipline and detailed supervision of an elementary 
school,'^ because his dearest object was to turn 
out thorough Talmudists and professionally well- 
equipped rabbis. Bernays aspired to the romantic 
splendor of a theologic faculty, and wanted to 
educate scholarly theologians. With correct and 
healthy instinct, Graetz endeavored to reconcile 
these opposite aims and identify the Seminary with 
a middle course. Although T^rankel grasped the 
rudder with a firm hand, he was sensible enough to 
consider prudent counsel and kindly enough to 
give scope to the wishes and views of his colleagues. 
In this way harmony prevailed among the Seminary 
teachers, which reacted bc-nehcially upon the stu- 

' A son of the Hamburg rabbi, or, as he called himself, Chacham, 
Isaac Bernays. 

* This tendency was justified by the circumstance, that under ex- 
isting conditions admission to the Seminary had to be granted on 
attainments not more than sufficient for the second class of a Prussian 
Gymnasium, and pupils were to be received at the early age of 
fourteen. 



MEMOIR. 55 

dents. As long as he lived, TVankel justly main- 
tained what officially and morally was the dominant 
position in the Seminary. The prosperity of the 
institution he considered the consummation of his 
life-work, and being childless, he regarded his pupils 
as his children, and took a truly paternal interest in 
their fortunes. Next to him Graetz exercised the 
most generous hospitality towards the students. 
He was ever ready to serve any one of them that 
needed help and advice. Especially such as had 
aroused his interest, or had impressed him favorably 
with their ability and character enlisted his sympa- 
thy, which he manifested with all the ardor of his 
temperament. Like Frankel, he identified himself 
completely with the Breslau Seminary. After many 
thwarted plans and years of anxious uncertainty, he 
felt that, at last, through his position as teacher at 
the Seminary, his vessel had floated into deep, 
navigable waters, that he could venture to ply the 
oars with full force, unfurl all the sails, and, favored 
by wind and weather and propelled by the buoyant 
courage peculiar to his sanguine nature, steer 
straight for the destination whither impulse drew 
him. It was the first time that his official duties 
coincided with his inner vocation. Faithful, zealous 
performance of the service he was engaged to do 
promoted the work he had set himself as the goal 
of his life. In regular, uninterrupted succession, 
volume after volume of his "History" now began 
to appear in complete realization of his plan. 

In 1856 the tJiird volume was published under 
the title, " History of the Jews from the Death of 
Judas Maccabseus to the Downfall of the Jewish 
State. "^ It formed the complement and justifica- 
tion of his view of the Talmudic epoch, the one with 
which he had begun as being the period " least un- 
derstood in its inner relations." At the same time 

' Geschichte der Juden von dcm Tode Juda Makkahis his ziun Untcrgang 
des judischen Staates. 



56 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

the third vokmie distinctly bounds the spiritual ter- 
ritory in which the Jewish history of the diaspora is 
rooted. For he intended to dispose of the Jewish 
history of the diaspora down to the present time 
before bccfinninof the account of the Biblical and the 
early post-Biblical periods. Therefore, when he 
published his fifth volume, " History of the Jews 
from the Completion of the Talmud (500) to the 
Beginnings of Jewish-Spanish Culture (1027),"^ he 
had, as he said in the preface, "got back on the 
right track." Now every doubt was bound to 
vanish ; after many years a genuine historian had 
arisen unto Judaism. 

The historian must not be confounded with the 
scholar. The chief tasks of the latter are the criti- 
cal examination of historical records, the determin- 
ing and grouping of facts, the identifying and dif- 
ferentiating of persons, the demarcation of time and 
place, and the dehning and demonstrating of the 
causal relation between events, their succession, and 
their interaction. The minute details to which his 
research happens to be devoted at any moment are 
as important in his eyes as great and comprehen- 
sive principles. Style, form, and manner, moreover, 
are minor considerations with the scholar ; he aims 
only at accuracy and lucid presentation adapted to 
the subject-matter. The demands made upon the 
historian are more numerous and more exacting. 
He must constantly carry the whole in mind, he 
must have the ability to mould the historical ma- 
terial with an artist's creative power and restore the 
faded features of the past by the life-bestowing word. 
P^irst of all, he must be equipped w^ith unlimited 
mastery over the existing material and with easy 
and sure grasp of all the phases of the historical 
process, in order to be able to estimate every phe- 
nomenon duly, according to its intrinsic value and 

' Gescliiclile dcr Judcn -cvvi Abscliluss dcs Talmud (500) bis zum 
Aufbliihen der jiidisch'Spanischcn Kultur (1027). 



MEMOIR. 57 

its external effect, emphasize characteristic and sig- 
nificant points, and allot to persons and events their 
proper place in the historical succession. He can- 
not, of course, dispense with the acumen that in- 
tuitively arrives at the inwardness of every detail. 
For it is needful, not only to determine with critical 
penetration the trustworthiness of existing tradi- 
tions and documents, but also to discern and de- 
monstrate, as one traces the course of a stream 
with its tributaries and branches, the presence of the 
primal forces at work under the surface of things, 
giving them impetus and direction, and of the factors 
that impede, strengthen, or divert the action of these 
forces. From investigations of this kind the his- 
torian should derive the chief points of view, those 
which grow naturally and logically out of the course 
of events. The true historian must be endowed to 
a high degree with a faculty for presaging, amount- 
ing almost to divination, that he may, like a " back- 
ward-looking prophet," overcome the inadequacy 
and incompleteness of the material transmitted to 
him ; restore the defective parts by means of his 
plastic fancy ; and everywhere recognize as well 
as bring to the recognition of his readers, that 
historical events in their connection are develop- 
ments from within outward, the outcome, not of 
a game of chance, but of the workings of absolute 
law. For such results of his research and insight 
the historian must then find adequate expression. 
His presentation of them must serve as the clear, 
polished mirror reflecting the play of many-hued, 
chaotic details in distinct and simply grouped pic- 
tures, and permitting the peculiarities and charac- 
teristics of single persons and events to be appar- 
ent, as the warp and the woof are distinguishable 
in the finished fabric. Real life as it throbbed in 
the happenings of the past must stand renewed 
before our eyes, and its fresh, warm breath as it 
brushes us must constrain our souls to respond at 
once to its humors and passions. 



58 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

These qualities are the distinction of Graetz. By 
reason of their possession and exercise he is a 
master historian, and his art manifests itself in each 
of the twelve comprehensive volumes in which he 
has thrown lii^ht upon the history of the Jewish race 
from its early beginning- to the prc^sent, a period of 
more than three thousand years, with every part of 
the earth as the scene of its events. But we have 
not yet come to the end of Graetz's accomplish- 
ments as an historian. The lack of special studies 
in the province- of Jewish history made his attempt 
to write a history of the Jews appear untimely and 
the prospect of successful execution slight. His 
undertaking seemed to be opposed not only by 
Avell-nigh insuperable inner and outer obstacles, 
but also by stubborn prejudices. Graetz heeded 
nothing of all this. Unaided by any committee 
or corporation, simply by virtue of his exuberant 
genius, he executed the apparently impossible work. 
He created the history of their race for his brethren- 
in-faith, and awakened in the general public sympa- 
thetic interest in the past of Judaism. With bold 
hand he ventured to brush aside the layer of dust 
and mould encrusting the darkened portraits of the 
past, and restore freshness and color to the faded, 
pale contours and forms. 

The most important particulars upon which the 
value and influence of his work depend deserve 
analysis. 

Above all, Graetz, though he did not create it, 
was the first to define and occupy the point of view 
from which the historical development of Judaism 
must be judged. He cleared the w'hole historical 
field, so as to be able to examine the various phases 
of this development with ease and accuracy. As 
an historian, Graetz had had but a single prede- 
cessor^ who must be tak(m into account, Isaac Marcus 

' The Protestant clergyman and diplomat, Jacob Basnage (d. 172.3), 
historiographer of the Netherlands, was the first to write a history of 
the Jews down to his own time. The means at his command were 



MEMOIR. 59 

Jost, 111 1820, the lattcT began to publish a" History 
of the Israelites from the Time of the Maccabees."^ 
Nine years later nine volumes had appeared, bring- 
ing- the history down to his own time. Under the 
title, "Universal History of thelsraelitish People, "Mie 
published, in 1850, a two-volunie epitome with correc- 
tions and improvements, covering in addition the 
period from Abraham to the Maccabees. He did 
not prove himself a real pioneer in either work. 
Jost was a scholar, but not an historian ; a noble 
man Avith admirable qualities, whose varied knowl- 
edge gave a considerable impetus to Jewish histori- 
cal work, but he had not been sincjled out as the 
proclaimer of an historical revelation to be spread 
far and wide in joyful, vigorous utterance. In view 
of the fact, however, that no monographs on special 
phases of the subject existed at his time, Jost's 
achievement cannot be sufficiently admared. He 
sought out and arranged the more or less obvious, 
but widely scattered data, appraising their value 
and assigning to each its due place. He thus pro- 
duced a manual for the chaos of confusing details 
and facts. In respect to manner, his presentation 
of the subject makes the impression of an herba- 
rium. His work consists of a collection of persons 
and events, heaped up without reference to their 
inner relations and classified only according to 
superficial and accidental marks of resemblance. 
His speculations are prosy, and do not touch the 
essence of their subject. His style is dry, diffuse, 
and monotonous, destitute of fire and force, with 
nothing to indicate that the author had a lively 

inadequate and his historical insight hazy, yet he produced a con- 
nected account, which Jost took as a guide. The second attempt 
of the kind was made by an American woman, a Christian, Hannah 
Adams of Boston (1818), who was able to use only secondary 
sources. Cmp. for the predecessors of Graetz, his Geschichte, XI, 
p. 452 fif. (American Edition, V, p. 593). 

^Geschichte der Israeliten seit der Zcit der Makkabder. 

' Allgemeine Geschichte des israclitischcn J'olkes. 



6o HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

realization of the past. An admirer of the Roman 
system and impregnated with Christian ideas, he was 
unconsciously oppressed by the fear that he was 
not abreast of the times, and dreaded the charge 
of partiality if he gave due credit to Judaism and 
Rabbinism. This accounts for his misrepresenta- 
tion of the Pharisees and their successors, the 
Rabbis, and for his false, almost caricature-like 
treatment of the Talmud and the literature depend- 
ing upon it. He felt that the consideration of 
Judaism from the point of view of history at once 
becomes a orlorification thereof, and under no cir- 
cumstances did he care to incur the imputation of 
being its apologist.^ 

Graetz entertained no such scruples. In the 
formation of his opinions fear or timidity had no 
part ; they did not curtail the expression of his 
ludtrnient regardless of the feeliuQ^s of friend or 
foe. \{c was the first to divest himself wholly of 
Christian prejudices in the consideration of the 
Jewish past ; the first to try to explain the devel- 
opment of Judaism on inherent principles, as all 
similar phenomena are explained. He was thus 
able to distribute light and shade justly, without 
any attempt to gloss or slur facts. Graetz had 
been in Berlin but a short time when he met Zunz 
at the house of Micliael Sachs. The two visitors 
had not yet made each other's personal acquaint- 
ance. The host presented Graetz, adding in praise 
of him, that he was about to publish a Jewish his- 
tory. "Another history of the Jews?" Zunz asked 
pointed!};. " Another history," was Graetz's retort, 
"but this time a Jeiuish history."'^ And, in truth, 

' His last historical work, " The History of Judaism and its Sects " 
(Gcschiclitc dcs Judcntliums unci seiner Sekten, 3 vols., 1857-59), Jost 
wrote in a different key. Influenced by Graetz's work, he tended 
towards the adoption of the younger historian's point of view. 

''Zunz considered the attempt to write a history of the Jews pre- 
mature. When he asked the question, he probably had in mind the 
bungling " History of the Israelites" by Dr. J. H. Dessauer (1846), 
and in the allusion to it, covert though it was, lay the sting. 



MEMOIR. 6l 

Graetz was the first to vindicate the fair claims of 
Jewish history ; he did pioneer work in estabhsliing^ 
the vahdity of the Jewish point of view. Chris- 
tianity considers the behef in the Messiahship of 
the Son of God and in the miracles reported in 
connection with his birth and death the completion 
and fulfillment of the Law of Moses and of the pro- 
phetical promises. Only what springs from this 
dogma can rise to a proper conception of (iod, to 
the heights of true morality, and is capable of pro- 
motincr the advancement of civilization. Accord- 
ingly, having begotten Christianity, Judaism ful- 
filled its religious mission, and the loss of Jewish 
national independence occurring almost simulta- 
neously with the rise of Christianity, its spiritual 
importance was extinguished and its historical 
progress arrested. Its development since then, it 
is maintained, bears the marks of decrepitude and 
degeneration — is nothing more than idolatry of the 
ToraJi and religious formalism. To this consciously 
or unconsciously biased view Graetz wished to op- 
pose a faithful presentation of facts, free from partial- 
ity, personal predilections, or specious coloring. He 
held, that an objective, unprejudiced account suf- 
ficed to demonstrate the vitality of Judaism, assert- 
inor itself agfain and ag-ain in the midst of distress 
and persecution ; continuing to develop its mono- 
theistic doctrines and Its ethical system undis- 
turbed by the loss of a national background, and 
borne onward only by virtue of its spirituality and 
ideality ; producing thinkers, poets, and even states- 
men despite untold suffering ; and contributing 
zealously to the solution of the problems of human 
civilization, uprooted and dispersed though its ad- 
herents were. This point of view Graetz assumed 
energetically and applied consistently in the elabo- 
ration of Jewish history, with the result that we owe 
to him our conscious acquaintance with the various 
aspects of Judaism in all their abundance and sug- 
gestiveness. 



62 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

Besides making new sources available, Graetz 
gained fresh points of view and surprising informa- 
tion from the old ones. He was particularly success- 
ful in restoring to Jewish accounts that had become 
hazy or sounded incredible a freshly colored back- 
ground and life-like reality, or at least in laying bare 
their kernel of fact, by the discovery of hardly recog- 
nizable parallel passages and proofs in non-Jewish 
authors. He sought everywhere, and was more or 
less successful in finding and inserting in their 
place, connecting links and complementary pieces. 
When he approached his bold undertaking with the 
courage inspired by enthusiasm, Jewish history was 
a vast field of debris, over which volcanic events 
had poured out their lava, and the centuries had 
scattered their dust. Here and there a gigantic 
ruin, some literary production, towered in solitude 
over the wide str(;tchcs of the pathless, dismal 
waste, the only guide-posts to direct the wanderer 
through the labyrinth of ruins and underbrush. The 
great creators of Jewish science, to be sure, Zunz 
and Rapoport, whose extraordinary deserts are not 
yet duly appreciated by their brethren-in-faith, had 
already given the world their excellent works of 
fundamental importance ; yet the great tracts ex- 
plored and made arable by them seemed no more 
than smaller or larger islands in a vast sea of rub- 
bish. They did not afford vantage-ground from 
which the whole could be overlooked. Rarely leaving 
the domain of literary history, these scholars did not 
lead up to the positions that dominated the field. 
In this respect particularly Graetz proved himself a 
pioneer. Whatever epoch he may be considering, 
and however much he may seem to be absorbed in 
details, he never takes his eye from the grand 
whole. His purpose always is to clear a path 
through the rank underbrush, or to trace on the 
exposed surfaces of shattered remains the lines and 
veins that indicate the essential character and the 



MEMOIR. 63 

trend of the historical process. He was endowed 
with a number of qualities that enabled him to intro- 
duce light, order, system, and classificaticMi into the 
chaos of the historical material at his disposal. 
With rare energy he plunged into the consideration 
of vast systems of thought, and almost without an 
effort assimilated and grouped them. In his learned 
notes he opposes varying accounts, proofs, and hints 
to one another, and with an adroit hand and a per- 
spicacious mind grasps the main idea firmly and un- 
ravels the knotted thread. Finally, fear of error 
did not deter him from taking a decided stand 
towards events and persons and giving frank 
and vigorous expression to his views upon them. 
Let the reader examine the essays that serve as 
introductions to certain parts of his work, as, for 
instance, those in the fourth, fifth, and seventh vol- 
umes, and he will appreciate the unerring eye that 
espies and never loses from sight the motive ideas 
and the dominating points of view, which not merely 
are sketched in a general, comprehensiv^e way, but 
are applied in detail. His " History" affords numer- 
ous illustrations of the way in which Graetz pro- 
moted and enriched historical research. For ex- 
ample, Saadiah Gaon had been discovered, as it 
were, by Rapoport, and Geiger had made valuable 
contributions to our knowledge of him, but the 
chapter about him in the "History"^ first fully re- 
vealed his epoch-making importance and his rich 
literary activity. Graetz was the first to recognize 
and appreciate the notable influence exerted by 
Chasdai Crescas'^ upon philosophy and social con- 
ditions. The great Disputation of Tortosa, of 
which we have a trustworthy Jewish account, was 
nevertheless not understood in its historical bear- 
ing and political effect until Graetz ingeniously con- 

^ Geschichfc, Vol. V (American Edition, Vol. Ill, pp. 188-207). 
'Ibid.. Vol. VIII (American Edition, Vol. IV, pp. I45-I47- I9i-i93)- 



64 HISTORY OF TflE JEWS. 

fronted the Jewish source with Christian reports.^ 
The cloud of legend enveloping the enthusiasts 
David Reubeni and Solomon Molcho,^ whom students 
were inclined to regard as no more than hallucina- 
tions or phantasmagoria, he resolved into the reality 
of their fantastic adventures. In short, coupled with 
rare sagacity in perceiving the true meaning of a 
mutilated text and emending it accordingly, he had 
a remarkable instinct for piercing to the reality of 
facts, no matter how grotesque they might appear. 
Such endowarients qualified Graetz to translate 
theTalmudic method of thought and expression into 
the terms of modern feelings and views, and give a 
model illustration of the critical examination of the 
literature of Talmudic times and its use as a valu- 
able historical source. Non-Jewish scholars and 
sciolists were quick to brand the apparently un- 
intelligible or the curious passages abounding in 
rabbinic literature as evidences of Talmudic igno- 
rance or rabbinic folly, and the Jews of the emanci- 
pation period, if they did not subscribe to this 
verdict, at least hesitated vv^hether or not to endorse 
it. Graetz showed plainly that precisely the text of 
the historical narratives had become wretchedly cor- 
rupted and would have to be restored. Besides, he 
called attention to various features of the historical 
tradition as told by the rabbis. Either they were 
treated pragmatically, with their causes and results, 
or their presentation was intentionally biased, or 
layers of legend had deposited themselves about the 
kernel of fact, which awaited release from its envel- 
opes. Over and above all this, he urged that the 
concrete, figurative expressions of the rabbis, derived 
from a sphere of thought foreign to us, must be trans- 
lated into modern concepts. For instance, in an 
ancient rabbinic chronicle, the Seder olam rabba, It is 

' Ih'xd.. Vol. \'III (American Edition. Vol. IV. pp. 207-216). 
' Ihid., Vol. IX (American Edition. Vol. IV. pp. 491-51 1). 



MEMOIR. 65 

reported that the war of Vespasian is separated from 
that of Titus by an interval of twenty-two years. 
Aside from the consideration that it is neither his- 
torical nor justifiable to distinouish between a war 
of Vespasian and a war of Titus, it is impossible to 
give a satisfactory explanation of the period of 
twenty-two years. The same incomprehensible 
distinction between Vespasian's and Titus' war 
occurs in the Mishnaat the end of the tractate Sota. 
Graetz changed a single letter, n into p, and instead 
of DiD"D (Titus), he reads D'it3''p (Kitus), /. c. Quietus. 
In this way he discovered a rebellion in Palestine 
against Lucius Quietus. We know none of its 
details, but its occurrence is beyond the peradven- 
ture of a doubt. The conjecture, as simple as it is 
ingenious, has been corroborated by a manuscript 
reading.^ A narrative in tractate Sabbath i 7^* is no 
less curious : " A sword was thrust into the acad- 
emy, with the words : Whoever desires may go in, 
but none may come out," etc. Graetz explains the 
enigma thus : in the first year of the rebellion 
against Nero a terrorist synod was dominated by 
the Shammaites.^ In general, he considered the 
opposition between the schools of Hillel and Sham- 
mai not merely theoretic but also political, and he 
identified the rabid Zealots with extreme Sham- 
maites. 

" Graetz is deserving of great praise for having established this 
fact [the existence of the terrorist synod], until then not sufficiently 
appreciated. In itself it is an extremely important result, and its 
value is heightened by reason of the data growing out of it. . . . 
At all events, Herr Graetz has won a second distinction of equally 
great importance by his use of the Megilla Taanith as a historical 
source and his verification of its statements, even though many 
remain dubious." 

This is the opinion of the historian^ Jost, surely a 
competent judge in such matters. 

' Cmp. Gescbichte, Vol. IV, 2 Ed., Note 14. 
'^ Geschichte, Vol. Ill, 2 Ed., Note 26. 

3 Jost, Geschichte des Judenthums imd seiner Sekten, Pt. i, p. 437, 
Note 2. 



66 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

Where so much Hght is radiated, there cannot 
fail to be some shadows. Graetz's admirable qual- 
ities have a reverse side. He often permits sub- 
jective views to obtrude themselves too much, and 
in stating his hypotheses he is apt to clothe them in 
terms too positive and incisive, not heeding that 
events dovetail into each other; that men yield to 
changeful humors and motives, often of a contra- 
dictory nature ; and that illogical, even irrational 
turns of language and thought may occasionally 
occur in the texts. It surely is not astonishing to 
find inaccuracies, human errors, and misconcep- 
tions here and there in a gigantic work of twelve 
bulky volumes. Faults and shortcomings vanish 
into forgetfulness by the side of the multiplicity 
of his results and the grandeur of his achieve- 
ment. Perspective, life-like characterization, dis- 
tinct outline, glowing color — these Jewish history 
owes solely to Graetz's rich fancy. He opened 
up new problems, created the historical types, 
constructed the framework of Jewish history. But 
his greatest achievement, one that cannot be rated 
sufficiently high, is that of having procured a hear- 
ing with all strata of his coreligionists by means 
of his charming, easy style. He revived the con- 
sciousness of an illustrious past, glorious in spite of 
persecution and degradation, and the belief in a 
future of spiritual triumph for Israel. Energetic 
and ardent as his temperament was, he merged his 
being in the past of his race, as it were, giving 
devoted study to tlie most hidden emotions of the 
national soul. He associated with the rabbis, phi- 
losophers, and poets whose features and forms he 
draws as with companions and intimate friends. 
When storms are imminent in the course of the 
history, he is visibly swayed by hope and fear, and 
when a catastrophe has overwhelmed his people, he 
is bowed down with anguish and grief. The reader 
sees his suffering, and cannot withhold passionate 



MEMOIR. 67 

sympathy. For instance, he trembles at the thought 
of the disgrace and misfortune threatening Israel 
on account of the aberrations of the pseudo-Mes- 
siah Sabbatai Zevi, and consoles himself with the 
brilliant light of Jewish origin irradiating the world 
through Spinoza. According to his favorite method 
of settinof men and events over against each other 
and permitting them to elucidate each other by 
their very opposition, he sharply contrasts the two 
figures. He represents both as the product of the 
Jewish passion for speculation on the infinite, and 
shows how in the end both sever their connection 
with Judaism ; the one, lured on by the w^ill-o'-the- 
wisp mysticism, to sink into the abyss of deception 
and immorality ; the other, borne upward by philo- 
sophic thought, to soar to the calm but cold heights 
of an ideal sage.^ His creative, life-dispensing 
power wafted the warm, liberating breath of spring 
over the dull apathy settling like an icy crust on the 
soul-life of the Jewish brotherhood. He re-awak- 
ened general interest in the spirit and the history of 
Judaism. The most popular writer in the field of 
Jewish science, he could boast of success phenome- 
nal for a Jewish author ; in a comparatively short 
time, his voluminous work, apparently intended for 
scholars, attained the distinction of a third, in parts 
even of a fourth, edition, and in its English, French, 
Russian, and, last though not least, Hebrew trans- 
lations,^ it has become the common possession of 
all the author's brethren-in-faith. 



^ Geschichtc, Vol. X, chaps. 6 and 7 (American Edition, Vol. V, 
Chap. 4). 

2 The French, EngHsh, and Hebrew translations of the "History" 
were superintended by Graetz, and most of the proof-sheets were 
read by him. The French translation was made by his friend M. 
Hess, a Socialistic journalist, who by reason of his book, Rom mid 
Jerusalem, may be counted among the Zionists. The third volume, 
the first translated, appeared under the title, Sinai et Golgatha (Paris, 
1867). The sixth followed, and was called, Les Juifs d'Espagne 
(Paris, 1872). The Franco-Prussian war, which alienated the Ger- 
man and French Jews from each other, interrupted the work, and it 



68 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

The only help extended to Graetz in the prose- 
cution of his comprehensive plan proceeded from 
the "Institute for the Promotion of Israelitish Liter- 
ature,"^ founded in 1855 by Dr. Ludwig Philippson, 
the most genial and most productive journalist 
among rabbis. In return for a modest subscription 
price several books were issued annually, among 
which a volume of Graetz's "History" usually 
formed the chief attraction. Through the " Insti- 
tute," a large circulation was secured for the " His- 
tory " from the first. The Society in turn was so 
dependent upon Graetz's work for its popularity 
that when, on account of a misunderstanding with 
Philippson, Graetz refused to have the last (eleventh) 
volume published by the " Institute," it could not 
maintain itself long. 

On the other hand, there was not lack of hos- 
tility, jealousy, and petty annoyances. His work 
was used everywhere, but not infrequently without 
an open acknowledgment of its helpfulness. Espe- 
cially at first the faultfinders and finical critics plied 
their trade vigorously on his work, as though any 
Talmudist considered a scholar in his small circle 
needed but to dip his pen into ink to write a history 
superior to Graetz's. Even later, when recognition 
could not be withheld, praise was given grudgingly, 
in half-hearted accents. The young theologians of 
both parties, of the right and of the left wing, were 
indefatigable in picking flaws of all kinds in his 
details. They did not realize how effectually they 

was not resumed until some time in the " eighties." The first 
volume translated into English was the fourth, by the Rev. James K. 
Gutheim, under the auspices of the second " American Jewish Pub- 
lication Society " (New York, 1873). After Graetz's visit to London 
in 1887, the English translation of the complete work was under- 
taken there. Both the French and the English translations were 
revisions of the German original, in which Graetz not only incor- 
porated the results of the latest researches, but also tried to pay 
particular attention to the history of the Jews of the nations into 
whose language the work was rendered. 
' Institut 2ur Forderung dcr israclitischen Litterctur. 



MEMOIR. 69 

were thus demonstrating^ his pre-eminence, and 
failed to understand that so monumental a work 
cannot by any possible means escape blemishes 
and malformations. 

The " History " completed the breach between 
Graetz and his sometime teacher, Samson Raphael 
Hirsch. The latter had left Nikolsburg to act as 
the rabbi of a wealthy private congregation in 
Frankfort-on-the-Main. Soon after his removal, he 
began to issue a monthly journal, yeshu^^im. In 
the second and third volumes of the magazine 
appeared a passionate, violent review of the two 
parts of the "History" then published, in which 
Hirsch sat in judgment on Graetz's heresies. The 
soreness of the critic is unmistakable. It is doubt- 
ful whether his thrusts were not meant to strike the 
Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau rather than 
the "History." Personal attacks usually left Graetz 
unmoved, though he was in the habit of repelling 
them with caustic brevity. But he never forgave 
hostility towards the young institution. Thus the 
last slender ties that had still bound the two men 
to each other were snapped asunder forever. For 
the rest, active and joyous as his nature was, he did 
not trouble himself about his critics, nor did they 
thwart the success of his work ; its triumph was 
complete. On the other hand, he was frankly proud 
of the distinction conferred upon him by the Prus- 
sian government in making him, in December, 
1869, honorary professor of the Breslau University. 
This governmental recognition went far towards 
compensating him for the lack of regular profes- 
sional advancement in his academic career, the sore 
point in his life, at which spiteful antagonists de- 
lio;hted to aim their shafts. 

With the eleventh volume, published in 1870, he 
brought the history of the Jews since the Maccabean 
struggle down to the present time (1848); nine 
volumes had appeared in uninterrupted succession. 



70 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

To complete and crown the work it was necessary 
to give an account of ancient Jewish history cover- 
ing the BibHcal and three centuries and a half of 
post-Biblical times. Graetz devoted scrupulous 
care to this portion of his work. He consid- 
ered its importance paramount, and regarded the 
treatment of the early epochs as a most difficult 
task, requiring for its adequate performance exe- 
ofetical studies and orio;inal text criticism. Graetz 
thought himself particularly qualified and endowed 
for such work ; it had always been his favorite pur- 
suit. But before attacking the history of Israel and 
ancient Judaea, he determined to satisfy his longing 
to behold the Holy Land with his bodily eye, as he 
had often sought to picture it to his mental eye. 
With equal force his artistic impulse drew him to 
Palestine. He hoped to derive local color and 
inspiration for the description of hoary events from 
the sight of consecrated places, which had been 
their scenes and their witnesses. As early as 1865, 
he had formed the plan of a journey to Palestine, the 
execution of which became possible only in March, 
1872, when two friends joined him. Limited to his 
private resources and hampered by consideration 
for his traveling companions, he was not able to 
make his trip thoroughly satisfactory from a scien- 
tific point of view. After all he obtained what he 
had journeyed abroad to find ; he brought back im- 
pressions, enthusiasm, inspiration. In quick suc- 
cession the two, or more accurately, three^ parts of 
his work treating of the Biblical and early post- 
Biblical time appeared between 1874 and 1876, and 
his historical work was complete according to the 
plan he had sketched for himself. It was the bril- 
liant fulfillment of the promise " to furnish a history 
of the Jews from the most ancient times to the 

'The second volume assumed such proportions that it had to be 
divided into two parts, each of which reached the respectable num- 
ber of 500 pages. 



MEMOIR. 71 

present day elaborated from the original sources," 
which he had made in 1854, when he began his 
career as an historian with the publication of the 
fourth volume of his " History." Grand in concep- 
tion, clear and perspicuous in execution, riveting- 
attention by its charming style, the work has 
not failed to find entrance into the hearts of the 
author's brethren-in-faith. It remains unsurpassed 
in the present, and the future historian will realize 
that he cannot deviate from the great lines laid 
down in it. The little blemishes and errors of 
various kinds that disfigure all human creations do 
not affect the impression made by the work as a 
whole. The discovery of hidden sources, now un- 
suspected, may necessitate additions and changes 
in details, but the great points of view, the prag- 
matic conception, the underlying thoughts, as he 
deduces them from the intricate complexity of 
Jewish history, will never be superseded. Graetz's 
" History of the Jews," voluminous though it is, 
will forever remain an integral part of Jewish liter- 
ature. 

VI. 

THE EXEGETE. 

The first two, or rather three, parts of the ** His- 
tory" form the transition to Graetz's exegetical 
studies. In their excellencies as well as in their 
shortcomings they betray all the characteristics of 
his work in Bible exposition. Obviously Graetz 
had only awaited the completion of the history of 
Judaism from the end of the Maccabean struggle to 
the present time to enter, with all the vigor of his 
intellect, upon the second phase of his activity as a 
wj^iter, that devoted to Bible exegesis and textual 
criticism. Exegetical studies, no less than historical 
research, were a distinct life-aim with him. They 
were begun in i87i,and continued without inter- 



72 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

ruption until unexpected death snatched the pen 
from his hand. To be accurate, the second phase 
of his hterary activity should be dated from 1 869. 
In that year Zacharias Frankel, wishing to devote 
all his energ-y to his work on the so-called Jerusalem 
Talmud, transferred the JMonatsschrift to GraetZo 
He marked the beginning of his editorial manage- 
ment with an essay on "The Ebionites In the Old 
Testament,"^ the first of a series in Old Testament 
exposition and Hebrew philology. In part, they 
may be regarded as monographs in preparation for 
his history of the Biblical times. The series was 
continued uninterruptedly, year after year, until 
1887, when Graetz discontinued the publication of 
the Monatsschrift. 

In view of the narrow compass of Biblical litera- 
ture, comprising the whole residue ot ancient 
Israelitish writings and therefore the whole treasury 
of the Hebrew language at our disposal, even those 
expounders that cling to the word and to tradition 
with slavish faithfulness are granted wide scope for 
individual judgments and subjective hypotheses, 
depending for their acceptance not upon precise 
proof, but upon the incjuirer's will and disposition. 
It is natural, then, that Graetz with his strongly 
developed subjectivity, his delicately attuned ear, 
and his gift of bold conjecture, should have reached 
conclusions sharply contrasting with all accepted 
views and incapable of logical, scientific demonstra- 
tion. His results and explanations, the outcome 
of a passionate desire for clearness and consist- 
ency, are often of startling originality. All sorts 
of new questions were set on foot by him, many 
fruitful suggestions may be traced to him, and he 
bore many a trophy from the battlefields of textual 
criticism. The boldness of his exegesis is illus- 
trated by his treatment of the two Hagiographic 

^ Die Ebjoiiilcii dcs alien Testaments. 



MEMOIR. 73 

books, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs, which, 
published in quick succession in 1871, introduced 
him to the world as an exegete. He attributes the 
composition of KoheletJi (or the Preacher, transla- 
tion and critical commentary)^ to the reign of 
Herod, and places the author of SJiir ha-Shirhn 
(or the Song of Songs, translation and critical com- 
mentary)^ in the Macedonian-Syrian time. Though, 
the hypotheses concerning the time of the compo- 
sition of the two books and many other propositions 
are curious, and overwhelm the reader by their 
pronounced deviation from all opinions hitherto 
advanced ; still it must be confessed, that the con- 
jecture with regard to the origin of Ecclesiastes is 
engaging in the extreme, and it cannot be denied, 
that the translations are good and in unexcep- 
tionable taste, that the remarks and references are 
instructive, and that the older versions were used 
with care and attention. In the commentary on 
Ecclesiastes, decidedly more valuable than that on 
the Sonor of Soncrs, he offers besides interestinor- 
data with regard to the Greek translation. More- 
over, Graetz frequently adduced analogies from the 
Mishna and the Talmud, made exhaustive use of 
whatever was advantageous for textual criticism in 
the Talmudic literature, and thus brought to light 
new material in such a way as to make it available 
for the "higher criticism." This, in fact, constitutes 
his real and permanent distinction as an exegete. 

His expositions were guided by two chief assump- 
tions, both rooted in the depths of his character. 
He held that in every Biblical work an historical 
background can be discerned with more or less 
ease ; that even generalizations and reflections can- 
not conceal their connection with special facts, which 

' Kohelet {-odcr dcr salomonische Predigcr, ilbersetzt und kritisch 
erldutert). 

^ Schir-ha-Schirwi (-odcr das salomonische Hohclicd, iihersetzt und 
kritisch erldutert). 



74 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

must be deduced and determined. Again, he was 
of the opinion, that a contradiction or obscurity in 
a Biblical passage cannot be resolved by a twisting 
of words and phrases or by far-fetched analogies 
in remote though related idioms. They were evi- 
dence to him that the text had come to grief, and 
that the original text could be restored only by a 
conjecture, which might be disengaged from the 
context, or patterned on a Talmudic parallel, or 
deduced from older translations. He did not doubt 
that catastrophes, the centuries, and perhaps also 
the incompetence of copyists, had mutilated the 
original I^ible text, and wrenched it out of shape, 
and he thought that even later, when it had been 
fixed with scrupulous care, all sorts of errors might 
have crept in. 

According to these principles Graetz treated the 
Psalms. In iS8i he published a German transla- 
tion of them, and in 1882-83 followed a " Critical 
Commentary to the Psalms with Text and Transla- 
tion. 2 vols."^ The commentary is designed on a 
generous scale, and gives abundant evidences of 
ripe scholarship. But by the side of its excellent 
features it contains many hazardous guesses and 
vague, even though ingenious hypotheses. Justus 
Olshausen, an Orientalist highly esteemed on 
account of his learning and his sobriety, who was 
occupied with the critical examination of the Old 
Testament text for philological purposes, says the 
following about the commentary on the Psalms in a 
letter to the author -^^ 

" On account of its i)oldness your commentary will certainly arouse 
serious objections with the larger number of exegetes, themselves 
overbold in exegesis, but weak in criticism. As for me, you know 
that I am not affrighted by boldness in criticism when coupled with 
knowledge of the language and the subject-matter, with acumen, and, 

^ Kritischcr Kommcntar cu den Psalmen ncbst Text und I'cbersetzung. 
^ Quoted in Rippner, Zum sicbcigsten Gehurtstag des Professors Dr. 
H. Graets, p. 31. 



MEMOIR 



75 



above all, with sound common sense. Doubtless, I shall not be 
able to agree with you in every case in which, overconfident per- 
haps, you may b'elieve that you have hit upon the correct solution 
of a difficulty. That, however, does not prevent me from recogniz- 
ing that your book, by reason of its abundance of excellent emenda- 
tions, is a valuable addition to exegetical literature." 

Graetz undoubtedly hit upon many a happy guess, 
and applause was not lacking, but in general his 
results met with opposition so decided that we may 
surely expect a later generation to review the judg- 
ment of our time and separate the chaff from the 
wheat. Not in the least intimidated by the adverse 
criticism upon his exegetical methods, he was 
resolved to remove the difficulties attaching to the 
Old Testament language by all the means at his 
command. He thought himself justified in his con- 
fidence in himself in matters of textual criticism, 
upon which chiefly he concentrated his explanations 
in the course of time. He grew more and more 
unrestrained in his efforts to restore approximately 
the original text of the Bible by means of audacious 
conjectures, which his sympathetic mind was never 
weary of devising. In other fields he was always 
careful to keep in connection and in touch with tra- 
dition ; destructive tendencies were not at all charac- 
teristic of him. But in his textual criticism he per- 
mitted his zeal to run away with him, until he lost 
the solid ground of the Bible text and of reality 
from under his feet. His acumen displayed and 
dissipated itself chiefly in the blinding pyrotechnics 
of rocket-like emendations. Of this character are 
his exegetical studies on the prophet Jeremiah,^ on 
the Proverbs of Solomon,^ and his fine essay on 
Bible exeeesis.^ 

This kind of work was so attractive to him, that 
in the latter years of his life he set about the 
execution of a long-cherished and widely compre- 

^ Monatsschrift, 1883, vol. 32. 'Ibid., 1884, vol. 33. 

' Ibid., 1886, vol. 35. 



76 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

hensive plan for the critical examination and the 
emendation of the text of the whole Bible. The 
realization of this plan was to be the consummation 
and crown of his life's labors. But he was not des- 
tined to celebrate such unquestioned and brilliant 
successes in this field as in that of history, where 
he had earned and received the laurels due a 
pioneer. Yet, we must be careful not to underrate 
his exeeetical and critical achievements as to 
their intrinsic value and their influence. His exe- 
getical works and essays are replete with new 
points of view and interesting suggestions. Many 
a germ that has since proved fruitful can be traced 
to them, and they have had a lasting effect upon the 
development of Bible exegesis. His works of this 
class, original and important enough to fill a life 
of scholarly research, would suffice to secure to their 
author an honorable name and a prominent place in 
the history of Jewish science. 



VII. 

LAST YEARS. 

From year to year Graetz received an increasing 
number of proofs of the recognition and veneration 
paid him by a large circle of readers and admirers 
and a growing band of friends and aspiring dis- 
ciples. But the enjoyment of his success was not 
to be unalloyed. In 1879 the feeling against Jews 
in Germany, always on the point of breaking out, 
was set free in the shape of an anti-Semitic move- 
ment, to serve as an unfailing instrument for political 
agitation. Heinrich von Treitschke, an historian 
characterized by patriotic ardor rather than scrupu- 
lous adherence to word and truth, a writer with affect- 
ing, oratorical pathos and a brilliant style at his 
command, soon assumed the role of challenger in 
the fray. He was scandalized by the boasting 



MEMOIR. 



77 



spirit which, he alleged, was in the ascendant in 
Jewish circles, and was to be regarded as a menace 
to the German empire. He illustrated his strictures 
by references to Graetz, who, he maintained, made 
use of intemperate language in his polemics against 
Christianity, and in his " History " had been guilty 
of applying disrespectful expressions to the German 
nation.^ Graetz replied, and Treitschke in turn made 
him the subject of an article,^ in which he tried to 
prove his allegations. He quoted passages from 
the " Historyj" tearing them from their context, and 
resorted to all sorts of sophistry. The leaders of 
the intelligent portion of Berlin Jewry probably did 
not realize the gravity of the situation. At all 
events, they were far from having a clear idea of 
the means necessary for stemming the rapidly 
swelling tide. They were disinclined, however, to 
suffer Treitschke's attacks to pass unrejDulsed, for 
they had reason to suppose them to be more than 
the venomous utterances of a professor. There- 
upon H. B. Oppenheim, a well-known politician and 
writer on political economy, and highly esteemed for 
his disinterested and noble character, adopted the 
mistaken course of sacrificing Graetz to Treitschke's 
aggressive charges without examining them. Con- 
fessedly he had not read Graetz's works, yet he dis- 
posed of their author summarily as "a man without 
tact and fanatically one-sided, whose great learning 
has been rendered nugatory by the absurdity of his 
practical deductions."^ This peculiar defense of 
Judaism, to be sure, did not excite distressful feeling 
in any one, but later events prove it to have been 
symptomatic of the opinions and the mental consti- 
tution of the intellectual notabilities of the Berlin 
Jewish community. 

A Berlin Jew had been put at the head of the 

' Preussische Jahrbilchcr. 1879, vol. 44, p. 572 fif. "^ Ibid., p. 660. 
'^ Die Gegenwart, edited by Lindau, 1880, vol. 17, p. 18 ff. 



78 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

"Union of German Israelitish Congregations,"^ when 
its headquarters had been moved from Leipsic to 
BerHn. Active and clever in practical affairs, he in- 
vested the "Union" with dignity, and stirred it up 
to work and enterprise. With his help all sorts of 
useful undertakings were executed ; among them, 
in 1885, a plan to promote the science of Judaism, 
hitherto wholly neglected, along definite lines. /\ 
commission was to be appointed to make means 
and sources for research into the history of the Jews 
of Germany available under the protection of the 
" Union." The project was hailed with satisfaction 
by Jewish scholars. It was hoped that it would 
eventually furnish the center from which other 
scientific endeavors might radiate. All hopes of 
this kind were early doomed to grievous disap- 
pointment. The leaders of the "Union" lacked 
perception of the needs of the situation ; they per- 
mitted an ambitious young scholar of the Jewish 
faith, an " extraordinary" professor at the University 
of Berlin, to become the governing spirit. He was 
familiar with the mediaeval government offices, and 
did valiant service in the study of documents. But 
he was destitute of the most elementary knowledge 
of Hebrew, and therefore could have no conception 
of the peculiar difficulties the writer of Jewish his- 
tory has to grapple with. Besides, he had so com- 
pletely identified himself with his specialty and with 
the academic world of professors that a realizing 
sense of the condition and needs of German Judaism 
was out of the question. Under these circum- 
stances serious mistakes were inevitable. In the 
first place Graetz was disregarded, completely 
ignored, when the commission which \vas to organize 
and superintend the historical investigations was 
made up. The arbitrary exclusion of the only or, 
at all events, the most eminent historian the Jews 
can boast of must be considered a gross offense 

^Dcr (Icutsch-israclitisclic Cemcindcbidid. 



MEMOIR, 



79 



against good manners. What is more, the good 
work was thereby deprived of the best and most 
valuable guarantee of success. Personal animosity 
may have contributed to bring about the deplorable 
action, but that does not alter the fact that Graetz 
was most familiar with the field of work to be culti- 
vated. None recognized more clearly than he the 
desiderata^ that occupied the attention and guided 
the efforts of the scholars interested in Jewish history 
at the time. Besides, he was an indefatigable, im- 
pulsive worker, and his name was one to conjure 
with. The slight put upon Graetz called forth 
decided ill-humor among his numerous friends and 
disciples, a large portion of whom were the rabbin- 
ical heads of respected congregations. Their irrita- 
tion could not long remain without tangible effect. 
Moreover, though the commission was composed 
of highly esteemed scholars, among them Christians 
who were master historians of the first rank, there 
was not one member who had attained to more than 
respectable dilettanteism in his acquaintance with 
Jewish literature, a thorough knowledge of which 
was indispensable for the proper realization of the 
plan, and only one member who had given evidence 
of his special interest in Jewish history by a work of 
note. This exception was Professor Stobbe, a hu- 
mane Christian scholar and eminent jurist, who has 
described the historico-legal status of the German 
Jews in " The Jews in Germany during the Middle 
Ages,"^ a book that has not yet been superseded. 
The absence of Jewish scholars, specifically of Jewish 
historians, awakened distrust in the ability of the 

' One of these desiderata, but dimly discerned at the time, because 
its value was not in the least realized, was the publication of the 
" Memoirs of Gliickel von Hameln," since published in an excellent 
edition, without the help of a commission and without any ostenta- 
tion by a pupil of Graetz, the learned Professor D. Kaufmann of 
Buda-Pesth. This remarkable book, which no one should fail to 
read, was fairly rediscovered by Professor Kaufmann. 

" Die Juden in Deutschland wdhrend des Mittelalters. 



80 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

commission. In fact, its achievements, as displayed 
in the "Journal for the History of the Jews in Ger- 
many"^ and in separate publications, are far from 
realizing- the expectations awakened by the boast- 
ful, arrogant tone of scientific conceit in which the 
leaders announced the undertaking, and are out of 
all proportion to the expenditures incurred. The 
most ambitious production, " Documents on the 
History of the Jews, etc.,"' is a fragment. Quietly, 
unnoticed, the experiment died one day in the year 
1892.=^ 

The inconsiderate treatment accorded him by 
the Berlin coterie or other circles did not cause 
Graetz much heart-ache, and whatever soreness it 
may have produced was completely healed by 
London, whence he received the flattering invita- 
tion to open the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibi- 
tion with a lecture. The honorable reception ac- 
corded him in the English capital, the persons 
whose acquaintance he made, and the Impres- 
sions he carried home with him, all this refreshed 
him, and put him into a buoyant frame of mind. 
The visit to England he accounted one of the 
happiest and most enjoyable events of his life. 
The experiences gathered there strengthened the 
hope, to which he had often given expression, that 
salvation would arise for Judaism out of England 
and America. 

On October 31, 1887, he celebrated the seventieth 
anniversary of his birth. His disciples and friends 
made it the occasion for an extraordinary ovation, 
and from all countries and climes homage was laid 
at his feet. An overwhelming number of addresses, 
gifts, congratulatory letters, and poems proved that 
his achievements were in the mind and his honor 
in the keeping of the whoh; body of intelligent Jews. 

* Zeitschrift fiir die Gcschichtc der Juden in Deutschland. 

^ Regesten cur Geschichte der Juden u. s. w. ^ Src Note p. 86. 



MEMOIR. 8l 

A particularly gratifying surprise came in the shape 
of a diploma announcing that on October 27, 1888, 
he, the Jew, who had not dealt leniently with the 
Spanish nation in his historical writings, had been 
elected an honorary member of its section in history 
by the Spanish Academy at Madrid. 

Until the very last his body and mind retained 
remarkable elasticity and vigor ; time seemed to 
pass him by unnoticed. His indestructible working 
powers and his literary fertility continued to be 
astonishing.^ Even after concentrating his efforts 
on exegetical research, he was a vigilant reader of 
the monographs in whatever civilized language, 
bearing, however remotely, on problems of the 
science of Judaism. He gave the conclusions 
reached in them a critical examination, and either 
noted them for the enrichment and correction of a 
new edition of his " History," or refuted them in 
special articles, if they seemed sufficiently important. 
For, besides his historical and exegetical works, in 
number and bulk an imposing array, he published 
numberless essays and ProgrannuscJiriften on the 
most various subjects, many of them real gems, 
models of clear writing and deep scholarship. In 
some of them daring theories are advanced, as, for 
instance, the one which he would never abandon 
that the Massora oris^inated with the Karaites, from 
whose literary works the Rabbanites derived it. 

' As late as 1888 he published a I'olksthmnliche Geschichtc der Judcii 
(" Popular History of the Jews ") in three volumes, in response to 
numerous and frequently repeated requests for a short and popular 
history. He put all his historical matter into a concise form, con- 
stantly bearing in mind the needs of the intelligent laity. At the 
same time he did not fail to make use of newly determined data. 
The shorter work has peculiar value, inasmuch as Graetz lays down 
in it his opinion of men of his own generation whoin he had passed 
over in silence in his eleventh volume published in 1870. He had 
adopted the rule of not considering living persons in his historical 
presentation. But from 1870 to 1888 many prominent figures had 
been removed from the arena by death, and he was left free in the 
later work to express his judgment upon their character and 

achievements. 
6 



82 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

The conjecture was received with, a great display 
of indignation, but its refutation was not equally 
emphatic, and it cannot be denied that certain e\a- 
dences may be interpreted in its favor. 

Among his Pro^^raiiwiscJiriftcn the following de- 
serve to be sinfrled out : " Visiofothic Legislation 
with Regard to the Jews,"^ in the annual report of 
the Jewish Theological Seminary for 1858 ; " Frank 
and the Frankists,"- in that for 1868; and "The 
Kingdom of Mesene and its Jewish Population,"^ 
in that for 1879. In the JMonatsscJiriftfilr Gcschichte 
und Wisscnschaft dcs yndcntliuius, of which, as men- 
tioned above, he was the editor from 1869, the 
greater part of the articles issued from his pen. 
There is but one way of accounting for his numerous 
achievements : he understood to perfection the art 
of utilizing every moment. 

Five o'clock in the morning found Graetz at his 
desk. Until nine he gave uninterrupted attention 
to his literary work. After that hour he was in the 
habit of devoting himself to his lectures. He carried 
on an extensive correspondence, found leisure for 
all sorts of things, and was fond of the innocent 
gayeties of social life. He retired late, and in 
general needed but little sleep. His sound, almost 
invincible nervous system was supplemented by a 
constitution calculated to supply his extraordinary 
capacity for work with a proper physical basis. He 
was of average height, and habitually bent forward 
his lean and spare, but sinewy, muscular figure, built 
upon a strong bony frame. His face was some- 
what marred by pock-marks, but his head made a 
massive, unusual impression. Soft, chestnut-brown, 
later gray hair, in fair though not clustering abund- 
ance, crowned his board-like, scjuare forehead. His 
sharp, observant eyes, grayish-brown in color, be- 

' Die wcstgotJiische Ccsctzgcbxing in Betrcff dcr Juden. 

^ Frank nnd die frankistcn. 

"Das Konigvcich Mcscnc und seine jiidische Bevolkcrung. 



MEMOIR. 



83 



tokened the owner's enjoyment of life, and a some- 
what large, prominent nose with its delicate nos- 
trils, quivering- like " feelers," gave his long, oval, 
bony face its characteristic searching expres- 
sion. Sometimes sadness played about his lips, but 
usually they were curled by mockery, irony, and 
defiance, as though sarcastic words might dart out 
at any moment. In point of fact, sharp satire occa- 
sionally spiced his conversation, which, as a rule, 
however, was far from fulfilling the expectations 
aroused by his writings. In his younger years 
happy moments found him full of jokes and pranks 
for the delectation of his domestic circle, and at all 
times he displayed unquenchable zest for life and 
cheerful optimism. Love of family was a dominant 
trait in him. Towards his wife his bearing was always 
tender and attentive, as though the honeymoon had 
not passed ; towards his daughter it was marked 
by the perfection of gallantry ; towards his sons he 
exercised forbearance and self-sacrificing devotion, 
and his aged father he met with the filial respect of 
Talmudic times. He enjoyed and cultivated inter- 
course with friends. For a friend, for any person 
or cause that had enlisted his sympathy, he was 
ready to pledge himself. Deeply moved by the 
sad conditions prevalent in Palestine, he had brought 
thence a plan for the education of Jewish orphans 
in Jerusalem. He and his traveling companions 
founded a society, and he exerted himself to secure 
a fund, small though it might be, for the promotion 
of its object. For this purpose he took journey 
after journey, delivered lectures, at first much 
against his inclination, in many cities, and even 
accepted an Invitation to go to Galicia, where he 
was received with joyful demonstrations and over- 
whelmed with flattering homage. Encouraged by 
such successes, he persisted, until he had put the 
society upon a modest but secure basis, which 
enables it to continue its good work to this day. 



84 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

Robust and vigorous as he felt himself, he under- 
took in his old age a work in which he meant to 
sum up his Bible studies of a critical and exegetical 
character. He counted, not upon the sympathy of his 
contemporaries, but upon the appreciation of a late 
posterity. All subordinate occupations were drop- 
ped. In 1888 he even discontinued the publication 
of the Monatsschrift, none of his pupils being able 
then to assume the editorial management. In order 
to give a clear, comprehensive review of the results 
of his Biblical text studies, he proposed to print the 
Hebrew Bible in its entirety with emendations and 
short notes justifying them. In 1891 all preparatory 
work was completed, and the printing was begun. 
How he cherished this life-work of his is evident 
from the prospectus. Contrary to his custom, he 
addresses himself to his friends, and requests them 
to assist him in his venture. 

" At the end of my life," he says in the prospectus, " I have un- 
dertaken the laborious task of summarising the emendations of the 
text of the Holy Scriptures, the admissibility and justification of 
which no less than the necessity for which the accompanying pros- 
pectus sets forth. ... I beg you to aid my efiforts ... in order that 
the pecuniary risk incurred may not too far transcend my means." 

This prospectus appeared in July, 1891, and it 
was the last word that issued from the author's 
untiring pen for publication. 

Although he was escaping the infirmities and 
ailments of the old, and considered himself perfectly 
well, and certainly felt vigorous, age had crept 
upon him insidiously. The action of his heart 
was so much impaired that his physicians became 
anxious about his condition. According to his 
annual custom he went to Carlsbad for the cure of 
minor indispositions. Thence he had planned to 
go to Munich on a few days' visit to his oldest son, 
who occupied the position of "extraordinary" pro- 
fessor of physics at the University there, and then 
spend some time resting at Reichenhall with his 



MEMOIR. 85 

son's family. Shortly before the time set for his 
departure from Carlsbad, where he had not taken 
care of himself, he had a fainting spell of so serious 
a nature that the physician urged Mrs. Graetz to 
return to Breslau without delay. He considered 
the precaution exaggerated, and when he finally 
yielded, he refused to forego the trip to Munich. 
There, at his son's house, he suffered, in the night 
between the sixth and the seventh of September, a 
violent attack of colic. Under the influence of 
opium administered by a physician the pain passed 
away, and he dropped to sleep. When his wife 
arose early in the morning to observe his condition, 
she found him lying in bed lifeless. His heart had 
ceased to act, and so a life replete with work and 
rich in attainment had too soon come to an end. 
His remains were transported to Breslau, and three 
days later, in the presence of a numerous gathering 
of his pupils and friends and amid demonstrations 
of general sympathy, they were consigned to the 
grave in the Jewish cemetery. 

His wife, whose days are devoted to the memory 
of her celebrated husband, considered it incumbent 
upon her to publish his last work, the manuscript of 
which was all but complete, but of which only a few 
sheets had issued from the press at the time of 
Graetz's death. The editor is Professor W. Bacher 
of Buda-Pesth, one of Graetz's disciples, who has 
won honorable repute by his editions and his studies 
ill the history of Hebrew grammar and exegesis. 
Besides the editorial work proper, he has been 
forced to supply from memoranda a considerable 
piece in the Prophets, which by some mischance had 
gone astray. On the whole, this critical Bible edi- 
tion, by which the departed author set great store, 
has been pursued by peculiar ill-luck. Unlike his 
other productions it must miss the author's pruning 
and correcting hand as it passes through the 
press. It is doomed to appear as an incomplete 



86 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

because a posthumous work. The title is : Emeu- 
dationes in plcrosquc Sacrce Sa'iptiwcs Vetei^is Testa- 
77iente libros secundum veterum versiones nee non 
auxiliis criticis ccEteris adhihitis. Ex delicto defuncti 
auctoris vianusci'ipto edidit Guil. Backer, j Pts. 
Breslau, i8g2-i8g4. The Hebrew text of the Bible 
is treated boldly and subjectively. But it remains 
for a later generation to pass final judgment upon 
the value of Graetz's contributions to the critical 
determination of the Bible text. There can be no 
doubt that Graetz was as much a master in the field 
of exegesis as in that of history. 

The time will come when his contemporaries will 
be envied for the privilege of having stood face to face 
with one so great and noble. Those days, to be 
sure, will not know the grief and sorrow that befell us 
when unexpectedly and without warning the revered 
teacher was removed from our sight. Still less 
will there be a suspicion of the self-reproaches that 
assail us too late for having frequently had a 
keen eye for the detection of minute shortcomings 
and inadequacies, the inherent foibles of the human 
kind, rather than a willing, attentive ear to listen to 
the suggestions and solutions so lavishly offered. 
After all, the most beautiful blossoms put forth by 
him, the best fruits produced by his mind, are in 
his writings ; he that can read may enjoy them. 



Note. — While this Memoir was passing through the press, the 
commission on the history of the Jews of Germany, spoken of on 
pp. 78-80, after five years of inactivity again showed signs of Hfe 
in the form of a valuable publication by a rabbi: Das Mariyrologium 
des Nurnberger M emorbuches by Dr. S. Salfeld. At the same time, 
the promise of the completion of Die Regesten sur Geschichte der 
fudeii, etc., is held out. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY, 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF JEWISH HISTORY. 

PAGE 

Period I. The Patriarchal Age 90 

II. The Exodus 90 

III. The Conquest of Canaan 90 

IV. The Era of the Judges 90 

V. The Kingdom ( 106r-977 B. c. E.) 91 

VI. Judah and Israel until the Capture of Samaria 

(977-719 B. C. E.) 92 

VII. Judah until the Destruction of Jerusalem (719- 

586 B. c. E.) 94 

VIII. The Captivity (5S6-516 B. c. E.) 95 

IX. The Age of Ezra, Nehemiah, and the Scribes (51G- 

332 B. c. E.) 96 

X. The Age of the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae to 

Antiochus IV (332-175 B. c. E.) 97 

XL The Age of the Maccabees (175-140 b. c. E.) 98 

XII. The Hasmonsean Dynasty (140-37 B. c. E.) 100 

XIII. The Herodian Dynasty (37 b. c. E.-72 c. e.) 102 

XIV. The Epoch of the Mishna and the Tanaites 

(72-219 c. E.) 104 

XV. The Epoch of the Talmud, the Amoraim, and the 

Saboraim (219-550 c. E.) 106 

XVI. From the Completion of the Talmud to the End of 

the Gaonate (550-1038 c. e.) 108 

XVII. The Age of Gebirol, Halevi, Rashi, and Maimonides 

(1038-1204 c. E.) : Ill 

XVIII. From the Death of Maimonides to the Expulsion 

from Spain (1204-1492 c. E.) 114 

XIX. From the Expulsion from Spain to the Persecution 

in Poland (1492-1648 c. E.) 120 

XX. From the Persecution in Poland to the Present Time 

(1648-1873 C. E.) 123 



90 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

„ ^ ^ I. THE PATRIARCHAL AGE. 

1500 (about). Abraham leaves Ur of the Chaldees. 
Supreme power of Joseph in Egypt. 
Jacob and hi.s household occupy (jloshen in Egypt. 

II. THl'^. EXODUS. 

Birth of Moses. 

The Exodus. 

Revelation at Mount Sinai. 

Worship of the Golden Calf. 

Rebellion of Korah. 

Death of Miriam and Aaron. 

The Israelites defeat the Emorite king Sihon at Jahaz. 

Og, king of Bashan, defeated at Edrei. 

The prophecj^ of Balaam. 

Reuben, Gad, and half of IManasseh settle in the land 

east of the Jordan (PeriEa). 
Death of ]\rosEs. 

III. THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN. 

Leadership of Joshua. 
Passage of the Jordan. 
Capture of Jericho. 
Submission of the Gibeonites. 
Division of the land among the tribes. 
The Jebusites and others permitted to keep their terri- 
tory. 
The Tabernacle at Shiloh. 
Death of Joshua. 



IV. 


THE 


ERA OF THE JUDGES. 
Judges. 




1. Othniel, 




6. Abimclech, 


11. Ibzon, 


2. Ehud, 




7. Thola, 


12. Elon, 


3. Sharapar, 




8. Jalr, 


13. Abdon, 


4. Dcboi'ah and Barak, 


9. Jephthah, 


14. EH, 


5. Gideon, 




10. Samson, 


15. Samuel. 



Othniel delivers the southern tribes from an Idumaean 

king. 
Ehud routs Eglon, king of ^loab. 
Shamgar opposes the Philistines. 
Deborah and Barak defeat Sisera, Jabin's general, at 

^fount Tabor. 
Gideon routs the Midianites under Zebah and Zal- 

munna. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY, 9I 

B.C.E. 

Abimelech leader of the Shechemites. 

Jephthah repulses the Ammonites in the trans- 

Jordanic provinces. 
Samson keeps the I'hilistiiies at bay. 
Eli, priest and judge. 

The Ark captured by the Philistines at Aphek. 
Samuel, judge and jirophet. 
Levitical and prophetical schools formed. 

V. THE KINGDOM. 

(1067-977 B, C. E.) 

Kings. 

Saul, David Solomon. 

1067. Saul anointed king. 

The Philistines defeated at Michmash. 

Jabesh-Gilead saved from the Ammonites. 

Agag, king of Amalek, defeated. 

David anointed king. 

The Gibeonites massacred by order of Saul. 

David slays Goliath. 

David flees before Saul, and leads the life of an outlaw. 

He is on friendly terms with the king of Moab, 

with Nahash, the Ammonite king, and Achish, the 

Philistine king. 
Zadok high priest. 
1055. Saul and Jonathan die in a battle with the Philistines 

near Mount Gilboa. 
1055. David king of Judah; Ishbosheth king of the trans- 

Jordanic tribes. 
1051-1049. Civil war between the houses of Saul and David. 

David sole king of the whole people; reigns at Hebron 

for seven years. 
Nathan and Gad prophets. 
Jerusalem made the capital after the conquest of the 

Jebusites. 
The Philistines defeated at Mount Baal-Perazim. 
Abiathar high priest in Jerusalem; Zadok in Gibeon. 
The descendants of Saul, except Mephibosheth, killed 

by the Gibeonites. 
David victorious over Moabites, Ammonites, and others. 
Revolt of Absalom. 
Sheba's insurrection. 
Solomon anointed king by Nathan. 
1015. Death of David; snccession of Solomon. 

1014. Solomon begins the first Temple. 

Zadok sole high priest. 



92 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

B.C.E. 

1007, The first Temple consecrated. 

Solomon establishes a fleet. Roads built. Commerce 

extended. Foreign alliances. 
The kingdom at its greatest extent. Literature flour- 
ishes. Idolatrj' introduced. 
Eebellion of Jeroboam. 
977. Death of Solomon. 

VI. JUDAH AISD ISRAEL UNTIL THE CAPTURE OF SAMARIA, 

(077-719 B. c. E.) 
{See .the Tahle of the Kings of Jiidnh and Israel, p. 127.) 

977. Rehoboam king of Judah. 

Jeroboam king of Israel; rules at Shechem. 

Rehoboam allies himself with the king of Damascus. 

Shemalah, i^rophet, averts a civil war. 
972. Shishak, king of Egypt, ally of Jeroboam, enters 

Jerusalem. 

Jeroboam institutes calf-worship at Bethel and Dan; 
Ahijah prophet. 
960. Abijam, son of Rehoboam, king of Judah. 

957. Asa, son of Rehoboam, king of Judah. 

955. Nadab, son of Jeroboam, king of Israel. 

954. Baasha destroys the house of Jeroboam, and rules at 

Tirzah. 

Asa forbids the wor.ship of Astarte in Judah. 

Baasha, assisted by Ethiopians and Sj'rians, makes war 
upon Asa. 
933. Elah, son of Baasha, king of Israel. 

932. The house of Baasha exterminated by Ziniri, 

932-928. Civil war between Omri and Tibni. 

928. Omri, the first king in Samaria, introduces the worship 

of Baal and Astarte. 

Alliance between Israel and Phoenicia. Jezebel marries 
Ahab. 
922. Ahab king of Israel. 

920 (about). Elijah and the prophets per.secuted by Jezebel. 
918. Jehoshaphat king of Judah. 

!Micah (I) (^lichaiah) jjrophesies. 
904. Ahab victorious over Ben-hadad II, king of Aram 

(Syria). 

Alliance between Jehoshaphat and .\hab. 
901. Ahaziah, son of Ahab, king of Israel. 

899. Jehoram, son of Ahab, king of Israel. 

Jehoram and .Jehoshaphat defeat Mesa of Moab. 
894. Joram, son of Jehoshaphat, king of .Tudah. 

888. Ahaziah, son of Joram and Athaliah, king of Judah. 

EUsfta and .Tehu. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 93 

B.C.E. 

887. Jehu kills Jehoram and exterminates the house of 

Omri; his followers kill Ahaziah. 
Jehu king of Israel. 

Athaliah queen of Judah; she has male members of the 
house of David executed. 
881. JoASH, son of Ahaziah, only surviving male descendant 

of David in the direct line, king of Judah. 
864. The Temple repaired. 

Hazael, king of Syria, conquers the trans-Jordanic prov- 
inces of Israel. 
860. Jehoahaz, son of Jehu, king of Israel. 

Joash submits to Hazael. 
845. Jehoash, son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel. 

Samaria besieged by Ben-hadad III; Jehoash victorious. 
843. Amaziah, son of Joash, king of Judah. 

Amaziah victorious over the Iduma?ans. 
840. Death of Elisha. 

Amaziah of Judah taken prisoner by Jehoash of Israel 
at Beth-Shemesh; Jerusalem ransacked and its 
walls destroyed. 
83C. Jeroboam II, son of Jehoash, king of Israel. 

Jeroboam II re-conquers districts taken by the 

Aramaeans. 
Jonah prophesies. 
815. Amaziah killed at Lachish. 

The IdumfBans invade Judah, and sell Judaean captives 
as slaves. First dispersion of Jmlceans. 
805. Uzziah, son of Amaziah, king of Judah. 

Earthquake and drouth. 

Uzziah re-conquers districts lost since Solomon's time. 
Jeroboam II takes Damascus and Hamath; peoples be- 
come tributary to him. 
Luxury in Samaria under Jeroboam II. 
800(about). Amos, Joel, and Eosea (I) prophesy. 
769. Zechariah, son of Jeroboam II, king of Judah. 

768. Shallum kills Zechariah and exterminates the house of 

Jehu. 
Shallum king of Israel. 
768. Menahem kills Shallum and reigns over Israel. 

Uzziah usurps the offices of the high priest in the 

Temple. 
Pul, king of Assyria, invades the kingdom of Israel, acquires 
booty, and carries oflP prisoners. 
757. Pekahiah, son of Menahem, king of Israel. 

756. Pekah kills Pekahiah. 

755. Pekah king of Israel. 

Isaiah utters his first prophecy. 



94 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

B.C.E, 

754. Jothani, son of Uzziah, king of Judah. 

Zivhariuh (/) prophesies. 
739. Ahaz, son of Jothaui, king of Judah. 

Pekah allies himself with Eezin of Damascus against 

Tiglath-pileser II. 
Ahaz disregards the warning of Isaiah and offers to 
become a vassal of Tiglath-pileser II. 
738. First deportation of Israelitish captives to Assyria 

by Tiglath-pileser IT. 
Ahaz introduces Assyrian worship into Judah. 
Micah {II) prophesies. 
736. Pekah killed by Iloshea. 

727. HosJiea last king of Israel. 

Shalmane.ser IV, king of Assyria, invades Israel. 
Hosea (II) prophesies. 

Hoshea refuses the yearly tribute to Shalmaneser IV. 

724. Hezekiaii, son of Ahaz, king of Judah. 

719. Shalmaneser IV captures Samaria, puts an end to -^.he 

kingdom of Israel, and deports most of its 

subjects — THE so-called Ten Lost Tribes — to 

Assyrian provinces. 

VII. JUDAH UNTIL THE DESTRUCTION OF JEEUSALEM. 

(719-586 B. c. E.) 
{See the Table of tlie Kings of Judah and Israel, p. 121.) 

Hezekiah tries to banish idolatry. 

Isaiah advises neutrality between Assj'ria and Egypt. 

Shebna dictates the foreign policy. 

Micah and Isaiah predict a glorious future for Israel. 
711 (about). Sennacherib invades Judah and demands tribute. Des- 
truction of the Assyrian army. 

Hezekiah makes a treaty with Merodach-baladan, king 
of Babylon. 

Literature flourishes. 
695. Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, king of .Tudah. 

Idolatry flourishes. 

Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, takes Manasseh captive. 

!Manasseh restored. 

Esarhaddon colonizes Samari.\ with Cutileans. 
G40. Amon, son of Manasseh, king of .Tudah. 

638. JosiAii, sou of Amon, king of Judah. 

Zephaniah ])rophcsies. 

Scythian invasion of .Tudah. 
627. .Tosiah repairs the Temple. 

Jeremiah (b. 645-640, d. 580-570) prophesies. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 95 

B.C.E. 

621. Hilkiali, high priest, finds a coi^y of the Book of the 

Law in the Temple. 
Huldah prophesies. 
608. Necho, king of Egypt, defeats Josiah at Megiddo; Josiah 

killed. 
Jehoahaz (Shalliim), second son of Josiah, king of 
Judah. 
607. Jehoiakim (Eliakim), oldest son of Josiah, made king 

by Necho. 
Idolatry flourishes. Uahaklatlc proi^hesies, 
607-604 Uriah, prophet, beheaded. 

Jeremiah's life imperiled* Baruch his secretary. 
600. Jehoiakim pajs tribute to Nebuchadnezzar, king of 

Babylon. 
598. Jehoiakim allies himself with Eg^pt against Nebu- 

chadnezzar. 
596. Jehoiachin, youngest son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. 

Judah overrun by Nebuchadnezzar, Jerusalem besieged 
by a Babylonian general, Jehoiachin taken pris- 
oner. First deportation of Jtjd^ans to Baby- 
lonia. 
596. Nebuchadnezzar makes Zedekiah (Mattaniah), young- 

est son of Josiah, king of Judah. 
593. Jeremiah advises submission to Nebuchadnezzar. 

591. Zedekiah renounces allegiance to Babylonia. 

587. The final siege of Jerusalem begun. 

The siege of Jerusalem interrupted by the battle be- 
tween the Chaldsean army and Hophra, king of 
Egypt. 
586, Tammu2 9 First breach in the walls of Jerusalem. 

Zedekiah taken prisoner and blinded; Seraiah, high 
priest, and others beheaded by Nebuchadnezzar at 
Riblah. 
586, Ab. 9. The Temple razed, and Jerusalem destroyed by Nebu- 
zaradan, general of Nebuchadnezzar. 
Second deportation of Jud.^ans to Babylohia. 

VIII. THE CAPTIVITY. 

(586-516 B. C. E.) 

Babylonian Kings. Persian Kings. 

605. Nebuchadnezzar, 558. Cyrus, 

561 Evil-merodach, 529. Cambyses, 

559. Neriglissar, 522. Pseudo-Smerdls, 

556. Laborosoarchod, 521. Darius I Hystaspls. 
555. Nabonad and Belshazzar. 

586. Gedaliah appointed governor of the remnant of Judah 

by Nebuchadnezzar. 



96 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

B.C.E. 

586. Jeremiah at Mizpah with Gedaliah. 

Gedaliah murclered bj^ Ishmael, son of Nethaniah. 
Obadiali prophesies against Edom, which possesses 

itself of southern Judaea. 
Jeremiah and Baruch in Egypt with Johanan, son of 
Kareah. 
582. Third deportation of Jud.eans to Babylonia by 

Nebuchadnezzar. 
Ezekiel (620-570) prophesies. 
561(about). .Tehoiacliin honored by Evil-merodaeh. 

Descendants of the Ten Tribes deported hy the Assyriafi 
kings mingle with the captives from Jiidah. 
555(about). The historical books of the Bible compiled in Baby- 
lonia; literature flourishes. 
Nabonad of Babylonia persecutes the exiles. 
The Babylonian Isaiah prophesies. 
538. Cyrus takes Babylon, and permits the exiles in 

Babylonia to return to Palestine. 
537. Zeuubbabel and Joshua ben Jeiiozedek lead the 

first return. 
Foundation of the second Temple laid. 
520. Haggai and Zechariah (II) prophesy. 

516. The Second Temple consecrated. 



IX. THE AGE OF EZRA, NEHEMIAH, AND THE SCRIBES. 

(516-332 B. C. E.) 

Persian Kings. 
521. Darius I Hystaspis, 425. Darius II Nothus, 

486. Xerxes I, 405. .Artaxerxes II INlnemon, 

465. ArtaxerxesI Longiinanus, 359. Artaxerxes III Oclius, 

425. Xerxes II, 338. Arses, 

425. Sogdianus, 336. Darius III Codomannus. 

The Samaritans acciise the .Tudaeans of disloyalty to 

Persia. 
The .Tudaeans contract marriages with their heathen 
neighbors. 
459. Ezra leads thic second return with the permission 

of Artaxerxes I Longimanus. 
457(about). Ezra prevails npon the people to repudiate their heathen 
irires. 
The Samaritans under Sanballat engage in hostilities 
against the Juda'ans. 
444. Nehemiah leads the third return. 

The Samaritans intrigue against Nehemiah. 
Internal reformis by Nehemiah. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 97 

B.C.B. 

Ezra reads the Law to the people at Jerusalem. 
The wall of Jerusalem rebuilt. 

Beginnings of the Great Assembly (Keneseth ha- 
Gedolah). 
432. Nehemiah returns to Persia. 

Malaciii the last of the Pugpiiets. 
430-424. Nehemiali returns to Jerusalem, and continues his 

reforms. 
420 (about). The Samaritan Temple built on Mount Gerizim. 

Synagogues established; the Law studied, and the present 
form of divine service introduced, piobably by the 
Council of Seventy (Synhedrion) {Dibre Sopherim). 
361-360. Artaxerxes II banishes Judceans to Ilyrkania. 

338 (about). Bagoas, general of Artaxerxes III, lays the Juda>aiis 
under tribute. 
The Books of Chronicles written. 
333. Alexander the Great in Judwa. 



X. THE AGE OF THE PTOLEMIES AND THE SELEUCID^ TO 
ANTIOCHUS IV. 

(332-175 B. c. E.) 

{See the Table of the High Priests, p. 128.) 

Egyptian Kings. Syrian Kings. 

323. Ptolemy I Soter, 312. Seleucus I Nicator, 

285. Ptolemy 11 Philadelphus, 280. Antiochus I Soter, 

247. Ptolemy III Euergetes, 2(51. Antiochus II Theos, 

222. Ptolemy IV Philopator, 246. Seleucus II Callinicos, 

205. Ptolemy V Epiphanes, 226. Seleucus III Ceraunua, 

181. Ptolemy VI Philometor. 223. Antiochus III the Great, 

187. Seleucus IV Philopator. 

323. Death of Alexander the Great. 

320. Jerusalem entered by Ptolemy I Soter. A large 

number of Judaean prisoners carried to Eg3'pt. 
312. The beginning of the Seleucid^an Era (Battle of 

Gaza). 
301. Judsea, a subdivision of Coelesyria, tributary to Egypt 

(Battle of Ipsus); the high priest the political 

chief. Judfean colonies in Graeco-Macedonian 

countries; Greek colonies in Judaea. 
300(about). Simon the Just high priest and the last of the Men 

OF THE Great Assembly. 
240. After a struggle between the Ptolemies and the Seleu- 

cidae, Coelesyria again adjudged to Egypt. 
Onias II, high priest, refuses to pay tribute to Egypt. 



98 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

B.C.E. 

230(abont). Joseph, son of Tobiah, and grandson of Simon the Just, 
represents the Juda^ans at the court of Ptolemj' III 
Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator, and is made 
farmer of taxes. 
Joseph introduces Greek feasts and games at Jerusalem. 

218. Judaea sides with Egypt against Antiochus III the 

Great. 

209 (about). Hyrcanus, son of Joseph, Judaean representative at the 
court of the Ptolemies. 
The " Song of Songs " composed. 

203. The Tobiades, the elder brothers of Hyrcanus, S^yrian 

partisans. Judaa tributary to Antiochus III the 
Great. 
The Hellenists and the Chassidim (Assidseans) begin 
to oppose each other. 

200(about). Jesus Sirach writes the apocryphal book Ecclesiasticus. 

176 (about). Heliodorus, treasurer to Seleucus IV Philopator, at- 
tempts to confiscate the Temple treasures. 



XI. THE AGE OF THE ^MACCABEES. 

(175-140 B. C. E.) 

(See the Table of the High Priests, p. 128.) 

Egyptian Kings. Syrian Kings. 

181. Ptolemy VI Philometor, 175, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 

146. Ptolemy VII Physcon an'2 164. Antiochus V Eupator, 

Ptolemy VIII Lathurus. 162. Demetrius 1 Soter, 

150. Alexander I Balas, 
146. Demetrius II Nicator and 

Antiochus VI (son of Alexander 

Balas), 
Diodotus Tryphon, and 
Antiochus VII Sidetes. 

175. Antiochus IV Epiphanes ascends the throne of Syria. 

174. The Hellenists induce Antiochus IV to divest Onias III 

of the high-priestly dignity, and under Jason obtain 

citizenship for Judaeans trained for the Greek 

combats. 
Gymnasiums and the Greek games at Jerusalem. 
172. -Vlenelaus (Onias) the Benjamite made high priest by 

Antiochus IV. 
171. Death of Onias III; Menelaus guilty of Temple robbery. 

but exonerated by Antiochus IV. 
168. Antiochus IV attacks Jerusalem, and desecrates the 

Holy of Holies. 
168, Tammuzl? A STATUE OF JiPiTER PLACED IN THE Temple by the 

Syrians. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 99 

B.C.E. 

The Chassidim suffer martyrdom. 
Mnttathins the Husmonwan rcnsts the ISyriitn overseer. 
167. Judas Maccabgeus victorious in his first battle with 

the Syrians under Apollonius. 
166. Judas Maccaba^us victorious over Heron at Beth-horon. 

The Book of Daniel written. 

Judas Maccabn^us victorious over Gorgias at Emmaus. 
165. Judas Maccaba^us victorious over Lj'sias at Bethzur. 

165, Xislev25. The Temple ke-dedicated (Chanukah). 

Judas jMaccabseus and his brothers victorious over the 
Idumasans, Ammonites, and Philistines. 
164. Death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. 

163. Judas Maccabaeus retreats before Lysias at Beth- 

Zachariah; his brother Eleazar Ilauran killed. 
Jerusalem besieged by Lysias. 
Judas MaccabjBus high priest. 
162(about). The Onias Temple built at Leontopolis in Egypt by 
Onias IV, son of Onias III, the first Aldlxireh. 
The Hellenists calumniate Judas Maccabieus before 
Demetrius I. Alcimus made high priest. Factions 
under Judas and iVlcimus. 
160. Judas Maccaba?us victorious over Nicanor at Caphar- 

Salama and Adarsa. He makes overtures to the 
Romans. 
The Judwans defeated at Eleasa bj^ the Syrians under 

Bacchides; Judas Maccab.eus killed. 
Parties in Judaea: Chassidim, Hasmonteans, Hellenists. 
Jonathan Haphus, brother of Judas, defends himself 
unsuccessfully against Bacchides; his brother 
Johanan Gadi killed in a skirmish with the Bene 
Amri. 
159. Judasa evacuated by the Syrians. 

157. The Syrian war renewed at the instigation of the 

Hellenists. 
152. Jonathan Haphus high priest; his friendship sought by 

Demetrius I and Alexander Balas. 
152-143. The Judspans under Jonathan Haphus participate in 

the struggles between Alexander Balas, his son 
Antiochus VI, Diodotus Tryphon, and Demetrius II 
for the Syrian crown. 
150(about).The Pentateuch translated into Greek: the Septuagint. 
143. Jonathan Haphus executed by Diodotus Tryphon. 

143. Simon Tharsi, last of the Hasmonaean brothers, made 

high priest and leader by the people. 
141. End of the Hellenist party. 

140. Jud^a and Rome allies. 



lOO HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

XII. THE HASMOXiEAX DYNASTY. 

(140-37 B. C. E.) 

{See the Genealogical Table of the Basmonccan Dynasty, p. 130.) 

Egyptian Kings. Syrian Kings. 

146. Ptolemy VII Physcon and 137. Antiochus "VII Sidetes {alone,, 

Ptolemy VIII, 128. Demetrius II (.restored) and 

117. Ptolemy VIII Lathurus and Alexander II Zabina, 

Alexander I, 125. Seleucus V, 

81. Alexander II, 125. Antiochus VIII Grypus and 

80. Ptolemy IX Auletes, Antiochus IX Cyzlcenus, 

51. Ptolemy X ami 95. Seleucus VI, Antiochus X Euse- 

Cleopatra VI, bes, Philip, Demetrius III 

47. Cleopatra VI [aiul Eucasrus, Antiochus XI Epi- 

Ptolemy XI and phanes, Antiochus XII Dio 

Ptolemy XII], nysius, 

30. Egypt a Roman Province. 83. Tigranes, king of Armenia, 

69. Antiochus XII ^\^iaticu8, 
64. Syria a Roman Province. 
B.C.E. 

140. Simon made hereditary high priest and Nassi (Prince). 

139. Simon stamps coins by permission of Antiochus "VII 

Sidetes. 

Cendeba?us, general of Antiochus Sidetes, makes war 

upon Simon. 

135. Simon slain by his son-in-law; accession of John 

Hyrcanus I. 
135-123. Wars Avith the rulers of the Seleucidsean house. 

133 (about). Embassy to Rome. Rome calls upon Antiochus VII to 

make restitution to Judaea. 
120 (about). Samaria reduced; the Temple on Mount Gerizim des- 
troj'ed. 
Conqiiesi of the Idumccans and their conversion to Judaism. 
John H3'rcanus again appeals to Rome in his difficul- 
ties with Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. 
John Hyrcanus victorious over the allies, Antiochus IX 
Cj'zicenus and Ptolemy VIII Lathurus. 
109. Samaria destroyed; Judfca at the height of jirosperitj^; 

John Hyrcanus has coins struck. 
Formation of the three sects: Pharisees, Sadducees, 
Essenes; outbreak of hostilities between the Phari- 
sees and the Sadducees. 
106. Acces.sion of Aristobulus I. Discord in the family of 

the king. 
War with the Tturaeans and Trachonites; Judaea en- 
larged. 
105. Accession of Ah;rand?r (!) Jannwus. 

98-96. The seaport towns taken by Ptolemy VTTT Lathurus 

regained with the help of the Egyptian king's 
mother. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 1 01 

B.C.E. 

94-89. Contentions between the Pharisees and the Saddiicees; 

Alexander Jannaeus opposed to the Pharisees. 
800 Pharisees executed. 
Alexander Janneeus adds trans-Jordanic territory to 
JudEea. 
79. Salome Alexandra, wife of Alexander Jannaeus, ascends 

the throne. 
Simon ben Shetach and Judah ben Tabbai, Pharisee 
leaders, reorganize the Synhedrion, and exclude 
the Sadducseans. The queen favors the Pharisees. 
70. Accession of Hyreanus II. 

69. Aristobulus II co-regent; quarrels between the broth- 

ers. 
Antipater the Idumcean becomes the counselor of Hyrea- 
nus II. 
66. Aretas, king of the lN"abathreans, ally of Hyreanus II 

against Aristobulus II, takes Jerusalem. 
Scaurus, the Roman legate, at the instance of Aris- 
tobulus II, forces Aretas to raise the siege of 
Jerusalem. 
63. Pnmpey captures Jerusalem; Hyreanus II made Ethnarch; 

Aristobulus II a prisoner. 
Alexander (II), son of Aristobulus II, enters Jeru- 
salem; subdued by Aulus Gabinius, Roman governor 
of Syria. 
60. Shemaya and Abtalion presidents of the Synhedrion. 

56. Aristobulus II escapes from Rome, opposes the Romans 

in Judaea, and is taken captive a second time. 
55. Alexander (II) routed by the Romans at Mount Tabor. 

53. Cbassus plunders the Temple. 

Aristobulus II, set free by Julius Csesar, is poisoned by 
the followers of Pompey; Alexander (II) decapi- 
tated. 
47. At the petition of Antipater, Caesar proclaims Hyrea- 

nus II high priest and Ethnarch. 
The Judccans of Alexandria governed by their own 

Ethnarch, or Akibarch. 
Phasael, oldest son of Antipater, governor of Jeru- 
salem; Herod, second son of Antipater, governor 
of Galilee. 
Ezekias of Galilee decapitated by Herod. 
Herod before the Synhedrion, protected by Hyreanus 
II; made governor of Coelesyria by Sextus Caesar, 
Roman governor of Syria. 
43. Antipater poisoned. 

42. Herod and Phasael made Tetrarehs by Mark Antony. 



I02 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



B.C.E. 

40. Barzaphernes, Parthian general, takes Jerusalem, pro- 

claims Antigonus king, and incapacitates Hyrca- 
nus II for the high-priestly office by mutilating 
his ears. 
Herod proclaimed king by the Roman Senate. 
37. Herod marries Mariamne, granddaughter of Hyrcanus II. 

Jerusalem besieged and taken by Herod and Sosius, 
Mark Antony's general; Antigonus executed. 

XIII. THE HEEODIAN DYNASTY. 
(37 B. c. E.-72 c. e.) 

(See the Genealogieal Tabic of the Tlcrodian Dynasty, p. 134, «"<^ ^'^e 
Table of the Uiyh Priests, p. 129.) 
Emperous of Rome. PROcrRATORS of Judjea 

(Subalterns to the Roma.a Legatee or the Governors of Syrla)i 

C. E. 6. Coponius, 



B. C. E. 31. Augustus, 
C. E. 14. Tiberius, 
37. Caligula, 
41. Claudius, 
54. Nero, 

68. Galba, 

69. Otho, 
69. Vitelllus, 

69-79. Vespasian. 



9. Marcus Ambivius, 
13. Annius Rufus, 
15. "Valerius Gratus, 
26. Pontius Pilate, 

36. Marcellus (?) 

37. Marullus (?) 
[41. Agrippa Ihing], 

44. Cuspius Fadus, 

47. Tiberius Julius Alexander, 

48. Cumanus, 
52. Feiix, 
60. Festus, 
62. Alclnus, 

64-66. Gessius Florus. 

37. Herod I king. 

35. Aristobulus (III), brother of Mariamne, high priest, 

killed by order of Herod. 

31. Hyrcanus II executed. 

30 (about). HiLLEL president of the Synhedrion; Shammai deputy. 
Herod in favor with Augustus, the first Koman 
emperor. 

29. Mariamne executed. 

20 (about). Herod rebuilds the Temple. 

Asinai and Anilai found a small Jewish state in 
Nahardea. 

6. Execution of Mariamne's sons, Alexander and Aris- 

tobulus. 

4. Deafh of Herod. ArcJwlaus possessor of Judaea and 

Samaria; Herod Anfipas Tetrarch of Galilee and 
Pera^a; (Herod) Philip II Tetrarch of Gaulanitis, 
Batangea, Trachonitis, and Panias. 

3. Revolt against Archelaus; the "War Period of Varus," 

governor of Syria. Leadership of Judas the 
Galilean, founder of the Zealots. 

2. Archelaus recognized as Ethnarch by Augustus. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. IO3 

C.E. 

6. Archelaus deposed; Judaea a Roman province; Coponius 

the first procurator; Quirinius, governor of Syria, 
takes a census for j)urposes of taxation. 

18 (about). Izates and Helen of Adiabene embrace Judaism. Con- 
versions to Judaism in Home. 

26. Pontius Pilate procurator. 

John the Baptist. 

30(about). Jesus of Nazareth. Rise of Christianity. 

33. Philip's tetrarchy falls to Rome. 

37. Agrippa I, favorite of Caligula, made king of Philip's 

tetrarchy. 

38. The .Tews of Alexandria persecuted by Flaccus. 

40. Piiir.o JuD.^rs, ambassador to Caligula. The emperor's 

statue set up in the Temple. 

Herod Antipas deposed; his tetrarchy added to King 
Agrippa I's territory. 
.41. Claudius restores the Alabarchate in Alexandria to 

Alexander Lysimachns, brother of Philo. 

Agrippa I receives Judjea and Galilee, Archelaus' pos- 
sessions, from Claudius, and is king of the whole 
OF Palestine. 

Gamaliel I the Elder, president of the Synhedrion, 

43. Helen of Adiabene in Jerusalem. 

44. Death of Ag-rippa I. Herod II, prince of Chalcis, titular 

king of Judiva. 
Theudas, a false Messiah. 

48. Saul of Tarsus, the apostle Paul, converts the 

heathen to Christianity. Death of Herod II. 

49. Agrippa II, prince of Chalcis, titular king of Jud.ea. 
The Zealots and the ^iearii commit depredations. 

52. Hostilities between Jews and the heathen at Csesarea. 

53. Agrippa II king of Philip's tetrarchy. 

63. Joshua hen Gamala, high priest, establishes elementary 

schools in Judaea. 

64. Oessius Florus, the last of the procurators. 

66. The census taken by Cestus Gallus, governor of Syria, 

at Jerusalem; the Passorer of the Crushing. 
Renewed hostilities between the Jews and the heathen 

of Caesarea. 
Rebellion against Gessius Florl*s in Jerusalem; the 

Zealots under Eleazar ben Ananias. 
End of the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. 
Race hostilities between the Jews and the heathen in 

Judaea, Syria, and Alexandria. 
Cestius Gallus besieges Jerusalem. 
Cestius Gallus retires from Jerusalem; Judaea ruled by 

the Synhedrion, Simon II ben Gamaliel president. 



' i'.. 

' '. 7 li"- (,(',)/)i,iii'/n ',t " Thf; /Hf/htcm 'I'fiinyH" t'.uwA.fA \>y 

til' .' )i',')) of !i}/(i./;i;/i;ii in vjiufMi^MfitVA: <t1 tJi«j 

</,»iti/j(]«-.rl JiO>-,tilit.l<rc. \f:iv/i-»:ii Uif. .J«v/^, ;ifi'l f.Jiir 

W«r irt (lalitii:; K/,avm-'k Joh/'j'iit.M (^ov<;riior of OaliI«;<;. 
<W). ./o/m '/^ (Jlitcfuila tmcunfM Joc.'-fdiUM of <Jijj<li';i>,y hofon; 

U/«'. Hyiih«trlrWm. 
<»7. ';(it)iu:i (nl'<-t) hy \'t'Mp(i,u\i).u. 

I'lill hi ./'iln/iuta, .)oMt|i}illM K(jrr<ii'l<-f i! to t)i<-, ICofniuii'.. 

I;.)l <,) f;.'i/;,;,Iu. 
'Dm- I.iII of (,];:<:i,u\:i roiopNI <•;•. tin- ronfjun-t of (lallUr, \,y 

l)i< l!,0)i)(U)i-., 
'J li< I'iiiiiilfiilii'. i-hUi Ji ; ii;.;i)<i/) ;i;; tli<- :i\\'it-;', <,f Un- 
Zcdlo*/^; rivll war in ./(tnK.(il<-(/i; if'ty;ii of terror 
luxlcr the. /,c(i,)f;t,M; fli<' HyiilK'Iriou r<;ii-.<!', to <-.<J«i. 
*'/>{. I'l-rH'ti. (akcn hy VfMjxic.iiui. 

Hinum liur (Jlmn <-;if.<TM .Icniii.'il'ifi, .u/'l i<ii<// •, tli<- 'ivil 

''/{>. V<*)'.j>Ji(-.iii;i f);o'-l;iiffi<-'l <uij)'-ioi ; li"- )<-;i,vf!'. .hniit-.ti. 

'It'll f, conim.Ki'l' ; ol l)i'- rniiiy in J ii'l.'»rii. 
<jvJI di:,:.' iM.ion <o/iti»jii<-i', i;i ,U-nif',it\i-in. 

70. 'Irii :• )ii <,(■.:. niK H(K';i'; ok .iKunMAf.KM. 

I;, II ',1 l|,<- omI.i- •■-/.•ill of ./'•/■ii;;ji.|«-,,.i; I ;<■/<■( I,:,, i,i 11,' 

I,;mm1- r,| II, ■■ Ifo, ,,;,,,:■,. 
I;ill ol II,.- 'I ov,<-i of Aiito(ii;i,. 
r;i;r,ii,'- i/i .1 < i m .i l< i,, . f '.;i'')i li<-<-:'. '•(•;i;-.<- to l,i- hioni'l, I, 

i II 1 1,<- Till, ),lc. 
I!i liM.'.o Ol I III, 'Ir.MI'r.l., Tilii-: in II, <• Holy of llolii;.. 
/io/i, III"- ii|,(,i-|- <-il,V. liHiiil I,;/ 'ritiiii. Coitiiilf.Ui 

(1«)k1.mi'-I1<j/i of .J<-Mi;i:i |i-i/i. 
All IU'li'l'iiiy loii,ii|<'l ii, .l:ii,i,ii:i l,v .1 0' il A •; A ■; l!l-;N 

y.M'.i'.Ai. 

71. 'I'Ik- foll.ri-fil'.fn II" ro'lium :ii,'l M;i<l,;t-iii;'. l;il<i-ij liy 

I'lii'.i'.iiii. Til II!-,' 1 1 inn, |il, ; "• •- "-'11 1 i<in tii Siiii'iii li;ir 
Oioni. 

72. MiiMiiiln l;il(i-n liy Silvii; IIk- lin:1 /,"-:ilof ; f.ill; .Fri,,i';A 

coMi'i,!',! r.i.v ( o.MvrKiUM). I)i-;itli of A(Mi|,|,.i, II. 

Tim IHhi'IIH jwlllll'UH illl-.l il III"-"! liy Vr-i',|>!i!',illll, 

XIV. 'vwv: i;rf>< II oi 'iiii: mi:,ii\a a,\i> tin; ta.vaitks. 

(I'.t, '.'A'.) <'.. ic.) 

72. Hcliclllon of I In- fii/Mlivc /c-ilodi in K;'y|if !iii'! f'yn-iif. 

Tin- Oni.r, T"ii,|il<- il<iii(|. 
HO. (Ja M A iii'.i. II l':i 1 1 i.ii "II, or |ii"- iilfiil of I In- .Sy iilicflrluii 

III, .l.iinni.i ; liir, l-ol!r-,i),Mlc, , l';i,ll':/,l,li l'.l,N HYItrANIH 

iiikI .Ioiuiiia iikn Ciiananya. lOxcoiiiiijiiiiicaf ion 
Untl iiiii-(l. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. I05 



C.E. 



The daily prayers (' EUjhUrn lirnediotions ") first formu- 
lated. 
The Minaean curse introduced into the prayers. Jew- 
ish Christians (Nazarenes, Ebionites), heathen 
Christians, and Gnostics. 

93. JosEPHUS completes his history of the Jews, The 

Antiquities. 

95 (about). Death of Josephus. 

115. The Jews of Babylonia, Palestine, Egypt, Cyprus, 

Cyrene, and Lybia rise against Trajan. 

118. Tlie Jews of Palestine rise against Trajan and Hadrian; 

" War of Lucius Quietus." 
Joshua ben Chananya president of the Synhedrion. 

119. Akylas, proselyte, makes a Greek translation of the 

Scriptures. 
130. Akiba BEX Joseph president of the Synhedrion; 

collects the Ilalachoth (Mishna of R. Akiba). 

133. Rebellion of Bar-Cochba against Hadrian; restoration 

of the Jewish State. 

134. Magdala taken by Julius Severus. 

135. Fall of Bethar; end of Bar-Cochba. 
Persecutions by Turnus Eufus; Jerusalem called J51ia 

Capitolina. 
Akiba ben .Joseph dies a martyr; the ten martyrs; 
Elisha hen Ahuya (Acher) informs against observing 
Jews. 

138. Hadrian's decrees revoked by Antoninus Pius. The 

fugitive disciples of the Law return from Baby- 
lonia, and organize a Synhedrion at Usha. 

140. Pinion III, son of Gamaliel II, president of the Synhe- 

drion, assisted by Meik, Judah ben Tlai, Nathan of 
Babylon, Jose ben Chalafta, and Simon ben Yochai. 

161. Revolution in Palestine against Antoninus Pius. 

Verus Commodus, co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius, 
persecutes the Jews of Palestine. 

105. Judah I, the Holy, Eabbi, president of the Syn- 

irEDRIOX. 

189. Compilation of the Mishna {Mishmi di Rnhhi Judfih); 

Judah I and Nathan of Babylon the last of the 
Tanaites. 

200. Severus prohibits heathens from becoming Jews. 

210. Gamaliel III, son of Judah T, president of the Synhe- 

drion. 
The apocryphal Mishnas (Boraitoth) compiled. 



106 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

XV. THE EPOCH OF THE TALAIUD, THE AMOKAIM, AND 
THE SABORAIM. 

C.E. (219-550 c. E.) 

219. Abba Areka (Rab) opens the academy at vSora; 

Mak-Samuel, principal of the academy at Nahar- 

dea, declares the law of the land binding on the 

Jews. 
225. Judalt II, son of Gamaliel III, president of the Synhe- 

drion, influences Alexander Severus to revive the 

privileges of the Jews, and mitigates the rigor of 

the Law. 
Jochanan bar Napacha, Simon hen Lak'ish, and Joshua 

ben Levi, Palestinian Amoraini. 
247. Buna, principal of the Sora academy. 

JUDAH BEN EZEKIEL FOUNDS AN ACADEMY AT PUMBE- 
DITHA. 

259. Odenathus destroys Nahardea. Shc.shet founds an 

academy at SUM. 

279. Ami and Assi, heads of the college of Tiberias. 

280. Judah III, son of Judah II, Patriarch, collects a tax 

from foreig'n communities. 
297. Judah ben Ezekiel, general Resh Metibta (principal of 

both Sora and Pumbeditha). 
299. Chasda principal of the Sora academy; Huna ben Chiya, 

of the Pumbeditha academy. 
309. Rabba bar Nachmani, principal of Pumbeditha; Rabba 

bar Huna, principal of Sora. 
315. Emperor Constantine issues the first of his anti-Jewish 

decrees. 
320. The Conncil of lUibcris (Spain) forbids intercourse between 

Jews and Christians. 
325. The first Church Council at Nice completely severs Ju- 

daism and Christianity by making the celebration of 

Easter independent of the Jewish calendar. 
327. Teachers of the Law banished from Palestine by Con* 

stantine. 
330. Joseph ben Chiya, principal of the Pumbeditha academy, 

makes a Chaldaic translation of the Prophets. 
333. Abayi Nachmani, principal of Pumbeditha. 

a38. Raba bar Joseph bar Chama, principal of the academy at 

Maehvza. 
339. Constantius forbids the marriage of a Jew with a Christiin 

woman, and >the circumcision of Christian and heathen 

slaves, under the penalty of death. 
351. Religious persecutions in Palestine by the emperors 

Constantius and Gallus and the Roman general 

Ursicinus. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. lOJ 

C.E. 

352. Nachman ben Isaac, principal of the Pumbeditlia 

academy. 

355. Papa bar Chanan founds an acudciny at Nares. 

356. Chania of Nahardea, principal of the Pumbeditha 

acadeiny. 
359. HiLLEL II, Patkiaecii, introduces a final, fixed 

CALENDAR. 

361. Restoration of the Temple at Jerusalem under Julian 

the Apostate. 
364. Valentinian I and Valens extend toleration to the Jews. 

375. Asm, THE REDACTOR OF THE BABYLONIAN TaLMUD, re- 

stores the Sora academy. At about this time the 
Palestinian, or Jerusalem, Talmud is completed. 

390. Amemar re-opens an academy at Nahardea. 

393. Theodosius I confirms the exceptional position of the 

Jews in the Roman emf)ire. 

400. Moses, the false Messiah of Crete. 

415. Gamaliel VI deposed by Theodosius II. 

Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, drives the Jews from Alex- 
andria. 
Jews excluded from state offices in the Empire of the 
East under Theodosius II. 

425. Extinction of the Patriarchate. 

427. Death of Ashi, who, in the latter half of his life, 

collected and arranged the explanations, deduc- 
tions, and amplifications of the Mishna, included 
under the name Talmud (Babylonian Talmud). 

455. Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Jezdijird III. 

Mar Mr Ashi continues the conipilation of the Talmud. 

465. The Council of Vannes (Gaul) prohibits the clergj- 

from taking- part in Jewish banquets. 

471. Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Firuz 

(Pheroces). The Exilarch Huna Mari and others 
suffer martyrdom. 

490. Babylonian Jews emigrate to India under Joseph Rab- 

ban, and found a little Jewish state in Cranganor. 

499. Death of Rabina, the last of the Amoraim; completion 

OF the Talmud collection. 

500(about). Alu-Knriba, Eimyarite king, adopts Judaism, and converts 
his army and his people. 

511. Mar-Zutra II, Prince of the Captivity (Exilarch), 

establishes an independent Jewish state in Babj^- 
lonia under the Persian king Kobad. 

517. The Council of Epaone forbids Christians to take part in 

Jewish banquets. 

518. Persecution of the Jews by Kobad, king of Persia. 
530. Death of Zorah Yussuf Dhu-Nowas, last Jewish Eimya- 
rite king. 



I08 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.E. 

531. Giza in Sora and Semuna in Pumbeditha, the last 

Saboraim. 

532. Justinian I decrees that the tv-stiinoiiy of Jews shall he 

valid only in Jewish cases. 
538. The Council of Orleans forbids Jews to appear on the street 

at Ea»tertide. 
550(abont) .Final redaction of the Babylonian Talmud. 

XVI, FROM THE COMrLETION OF THE TALMUD TO THE 
END OF THE GAOXATE. 
(550-1038 C. E.) 
Samuel ben Adiya (500-5G0), Jewish poet in Arabia. 
553. Justinian I decrees that the Scriptural portions in the 

Synagogue liturgy be read in translation, and 
orders the omission of alleged anti-Trinitarian 
sentences from the liturgy. 
581. Hormisdas IV, king of Persia, persecutes his Jewish 

subjects; the teachers of the Law flee from the 
Babylonian academies. 
Chilperic, ZSIerovingian king, forces baptism on the 
Jews. 

589. Keccared, Visigothic king, impoees irksome restraints 

npon the Jews, and completely isolates them from 
Christians. 
Bahrain Tshubin, usurper of the Persian throne, 
friendly to the Jews; Pumbeditha re-opened by 
Chanan of Iskia. 

590. Pope Gregory I discountenances the forced conversion 

of Jews. 
G12. Sisebiit, Visigothic king, forces the Jews to accept 

baptism or to emigrate. 
614. The Jews of Palestine join the Persians in a war 

against Emperor Heraclius. 
024. The Benu-Kainukaa, a Jewish-Arabic tribe, driven 

from Arabia by Mahomet. 
625. The Benu-Nadhir, a Jewish-Arabic tribe, driven from 

Arabia by IMahomet. 
627. Extermination of the Benu-Kuraiza, a Jewish-Arabic 

tribe. 
Emperor Heraclius forbids Jews to enier Jerusalem, and 

in other ways harasses the Palestinian Jews. 
629. Dagobert orders the Jews of the Prankish empire to 

accept baptism or to emigrate. 
633. The Council of Toledo iinder Sisenand, Visigothic king, 

and Isidore of Seville, forces backsliding converts 

back into Christianity. 
638. Chintila enacts that only professing Catholics shall 

remain in Visigothic Spain; Jews emigrate. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 



109 



C.E. 

640. Omar, the second Caliph, banishes all Jews from holy 

Arabia. The " Covenant of Omar " imposes restric- 
tions upon Jews in the whole IMahometan world. 

642 (about). Bostanai, Exilarch, acknowledged by Omar. 

654. Judaizing Christians of Toledo under Heceswinth, Visi- 

gothic king, swear loyalty to the Catholic Church. 

658. Beginning of the G agnate; Mar-Isaac, head of the 

Sora academy, takes the title Gaon. 

670. Huna'i, Gaon of Sora, and Mar-Raba, principal of I'um- 

beditha, reform the divorce laws. 

681. Judaizing Christians re-affirm their adherence to Chris- 

tianity under Erwig, Yisigothic king. 

693. Egica, Visigothic king, forbids Jews to hold real estate. 

700 (about). EisE of the Massora and of neo-Hebraic liturgic 
POETRY. Jose bar Jose Hayathom the first Poetan. 

712. Jews open the gates of Toledo to Tarik, the Mahometan 

general, 

719. ISTatronai ben Nehemiah (Mar-Yanka), principal of 

Pumbeditha. 

720. Serene, the Syrian Messiah. 

Omar II, Ommiyyade Caliph of Damascus, re-enacts the 

" Covenant of Omar." 
723. Persecution of the Jews of the Byzantine Empire 

under Leo the Isaurian. 
745(about). Eleazab ben Kalir (Kaliri), poetan. 
The Chazars under Bnlan aceei>t Judaism. 
749. Obaiah Abu-Isa ben Ishak, precursor of the Messiah 

in Ispahan. 
759. •iehvda ttie Blind, Gaon of Sora, author of a Talmudic 

compendium, Halachoth Ketuoth. 
761. Dudai principal of Pumbeditha. 

The Karaite schism led by Anan ben David. 
787. Charlemagne removes the Kalonymos family from 

Lucca to Mayence to encourage Jewish learning in 

the Frankish Empire. He introduces a Jewish oath. 
797. Isaac sent by Charlemagne on an embassy to Haroun 

Alrashid. 
800(about). Judah Judghan, founder of a sect, introduces ]\Iuta- 

zilist philosophy into Judaism. 
Benjamin ben Moses of Nahavend, founder of the 

Maghariyites, spreads the Mutazilist philosophy 

among the Karaites. 
807. Haroun Alrashid introduces the Jew badge into the 

Abbasside Caliphate. 
825, Contest for the Exilarchate between David ben Judah 

and Daniel. 
Kise of Karaite sects: Akbarites, Tiflisites, and the 

followers of Moses of Baalbek. 



no HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.E. 

827 (about). Eberard, Magister JiuUeorum, under Louis I the Pious, 
king of the Franks, i^rotects the Jews against 
Agobard, bisliop of Lyons. 

842. The title Gaon assumed also by the Pumbeditha prin- 

cipals; Paltoi ben Abayi the first Gaon of Pumbeditha. 

845. The Council of Meaux under Amolo, bishop of Lyons, 

enacts anti-Jewish decrees, renewing those of Con- 
stantine and Theodosius II. 

853. The Abbasside Caliph Al-Mutavakkil introduces Jew 

badyes, and re-enacts the " Corenant of Omar." 

869. Mar-Amram ben Sheshna, Gaon of Sora, at the request 

of a Spanish community, arranges the order of 
prayers in use among European Jews. 

872. Mar-Zemach I ben Paltoi, Gaon of Pumbeditha, author 

of the first Talmudic Dictionary. 

880 (about). Eldad iia-Dani. 

881. Nachshoti ben Zadok, Gaon of Sora, discovers the key to 

the Jeicish calendar. 

900 (about). Simon of Cairo writes the Ealaehoth Gcdoloth, a polemic 
against Karaism. 
JosiPPON compiled. 

Isaac ben Israeli I Suleiman (845-940), physician and 
philologist at Kairuan. 

913. Saadiaii ben Joseph (892-912) attacks Karaism. 

917. Mar-Kohen-Zedek II ben Joseph, Gaon of Pumbeditha, 

tries to bring about the fall of the Exilarchate and 
the academy of Sora. Hostilities against Mar-Ukba. 

921. David ben Zaccai made Exilarch. 

928. Saadiah installed as Gaon of Sora. His controversies 

with the Karaite Solomon ben Yei'ucham, and his 
translation of the Scriptures into Arabic. 

930. Hostilities between Saadiah and David ben Zaccai. 

934. Saadiah writes his religious-philosophical work 

Emunotii we-Deoth. 

940. Death of David ben Zaccai, the last Exilarch of influ- 

ence. ExD OF THE Exilarchate a few years later. 

940(about). ]\[osES and Aaron ben Asher, Massorets. 

942. Death of Saadiah. 

945(about). Four scholars arc sent from Sora to gather contributions 
for the academy: Shemarya ben Elchanan settles in 
Cairo; Chushiel, in Kairuan; Nathan ben Isaac 
Kohen, in Narbonne; and MosES ben Chanoch, in 
Cordova. 
Abusahal Dunash ben Tamim (9O0-9G0), phj'sician in 
Kairuan. 

946. Sabhatai Donnolo (913-970), physician in Italy. 

Chardai ben Isaac Ibn-Shaprt-t (915-970), diplomat 
under Abdul-Rahman HI, Nagid of the Jews of the 
Cordova Caliphate, patron of Jewish learning. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. Ill 

C.E. 

950(about). The Karaite controversialists Abulsari Sahal ben Maz- 

liach Kohen and Jephet Ibn-Ali Halevi. 
Menachem ben Sunik (910-970) and Dunash ben Labrat 

(Adonim, 920-970), the first Hebrew grammarians. 

Neo-Hebraic poetry flourishes. 
980. Sherira (920-1000), Gaon of Pumbeditha; his " Letter " 

a chronicle of Jewish events from the conclusion 

of the Talmud to his time. 
985. Chanoch ben Moses (940-1014) and Joseph Ibn-Abitur, 

Cordova Talmudists. 
Jacob Ibn-Jau, prince of the Jews of the Cordova 

Caliphate. 
990. Jeiiuda Ibn-Daxtd (Ciiayuj), Hebrew grammarian. 

998. Hai (9G9-1038), Gaon of Pumbeditha. 

1000 (about). Gersiiom ben Jeiiuda (960-1028), promoter of Talmud 

study at JNIayence, interdicts polygamy. 
Simon ben Isaac ben Abun poetan. 
1002. Nathan ben Yechiel compiles the Aruch, a 

Talmudic lexicon. 
1008. The Fatimide Caliph Hakim decrees a Jew badge, and 

persecutes the Jews in various ways. 
1012. Jews driven from Maj'ence by Emperor Henry II. 

1020. Abul VALID Mervan Ibn-Janach (995-1050), Hebrew 

grammarian. 
1027. Samuel Halevi Ibn-Nagrela (993-1055), minister to 

King Habus of Granada, Nagid of the Jews, patron 

of Jewish learning, and Talmudic author. 
1034. Death of Samuel Cliofni, last of the Sora Geonim. 

1038. The death of Hai, Gaon of Pumbeditha, marks the 

end of the Gaonate. 

XVII. THE AGE OF GEBIROL, HALEVI, RASHL AND 
I\rAi:MONIDES. 

(1038-1204 C.E.) 

1038 (about). Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim ben Jacob Ibn- 
Shahin (1015-1055), Talmudists in Kairuan. 

1045. Solomon Ibn-Gebirol (Avicebron, 1021-1070), poet and 

philosopher, author of the " Kether Malkuth " and 
the " Mekor Chayim." 

1050 ( about ).Bac7n/a Ibn-Paknda, philosopher, writes the "Guide to 
the Duties of the Heart." 

1055. Abu Htissnin Joseph Ibn-Nagrela (1031-1066), minister to 

Badis of Granada, Nagid of the Jews, and patron 
of Jewish learning. 

1055. Isaac ben Jacob Alfassi (1013-1103), Talmudist. 

1066. Banishment of the Jews from Granada. First persecu- 

tion of the Jews of Spain since its conquest by the 
Mahometans.' 



112 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.E. 

1069. Isaac ben Baruch Ibn-Albalia (1035-1094), astronomer 

to Al-Mutamed in Cordova, Nassi of the Jews, 
Talmudist. 

1070. RasM (Solomon Yizchaki, 1040-1105), exegete and Tal- 

mudist. 
1078. Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) promulgates the 

canonical law ayaiiist Jews' lioldhiy offices in 
('hristendo)n. 

1095. Emperor Henry IV issues a decree against the forcible 

baptism of Jews. 

1096, The first Crusade: Suffering of the Jews of 

Eouen, Treves, Speyer, Worms, Cologne, Katisbon, 
Prague, etc. 

1099. The Jews of Jerusalem burnt in a synagogue by the 

crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon. 

1100. Abraham ben Chiya Albargeloni (10U5-113G), astron- 

omer. 

1110. Moses Ibn-Ezra (1070-1139), liturgical and erotic poet. 

Joseph ben JMei'r Ibn-:\Iigash Halevi (1077-1141), Tal- 
mudist. 

1120. Jehuda ben Samuel Halevi (1086-1142), poet and 

philosopher, author of the Zion songs and of the 
Chozari. 

1141. Jehuda Halevi leaves Spain for Palestine. 

The Tossafists: the family of Kashi, especially his 
grandsons Jacob Taji (1100-1171), and Samuel ben 
Meir (Rashbam, 1100-llGO). 

1146. BerfuDiimj of the Almoliade jwrsecntion in northern Africa 

and southern Spain. Jews flee, or pretend to 
accept Islam. 

1147. The Second Crusade. Pope Eugenius III absolves cru- 

saders from the payment of interest on debts 
owing to Jews. 

The crusaders attack the Jews of the Rhine country. 
South Germanj^ and France. 

In consequence of their protection by Emperor Conrad 
III, the Jews are considered servi cameree. 
1149. Jehuda Ibn-Ezra, of Toledo, Nassi, steward of the 

palace under Alfonso VII Raimundez. He perse- 
cutes the Karaites. 
1150(about) .Abraham ben Meir Ibn-Ezra (1088-11G7), poet, exegete, 

philosopher. 
1160(a,ho\it) Jacoh Tarn rails the first rabhinical synod. 

Abraham Ihn-Daud Unlevl (1110-1180), philosopher and 
historian. 

The Exilarchate revived by Mahomet Almuktafi. Solo- 
mon (Chasdai) Exilarch. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY, II3 

C.E. 
1160(about).Darid Alnil pretends to be divinely appointed to lead 

the Ji-\vs of the Basdad Caliphate to Jerusalem. 
1164(about). Moses ben Maimun (Kanibam, Maimonides, 1135-1204), 

philosopher, writes his " Letter of Consolation." 
1165. Benjamin of Tudcla begins his travels in the East. 

Serachya Ilalevi Gerundi (1125-1186), Talmudist. 
1168. Maimonides flnislies his Arabic commentary on, Jhe Mi.shna. 

1170(about).]\Ieshnllam ben Jacob, Provencal patron of Jewish 
learning. 
Judah ben. Saul Ibn-Tibbon (1120-1190), physician and 

translator. 
David Kimchi, grammarian and exegete. 
Abraham ben David of Posquieres (Rabed II, 1125-1198), 
Talmudist, Maimonides' opponent. 
1170(about) .Jonathan Cohen of Liinel, Talmudist. 

Jacob ben Meshullam, first promoter of the Kabbala. 

1171. The Jews of Blois burnt on the charge of having 

USED human blood IN THE Passover. The blood 
accusation, or charge of ritual murder, preferred 
for the first time. 

Death of Jacob Tam. 

Isaac ben Samuel (Ei) of Dampierre, Tossafist. 

1172. Persecution of the Jews of Yemen. Messianic excite- 

ment. 
1175 (about) .Petachya of Eatisbon, traveler. 

Samuel ben Ali Halevi, Gaon of Bagdad, opponent of 
Maimonides. 
1177. Maimonides rabbi of Cairo. 

1179. The Third Lateran Council passes decrees protecting 

the religious liberty of the Jews. 

1180. Maimonides finishes his Mishne Torah, or Yad 

ha-Chazaka. 

1181. Philip II Augustus of France banishes the Jeics from his 

hereditary province. 
1187, Saladin permits Jews to enter Jerusalem. 

1189. Attack on the Jews of London at Eichard I's coronation. 

The excitement spreads to Lynn, Norwich, Stam- 
ford, York, and Bury St. Edmund's. 
1190(about). Maimonides issues the " Guide of the Perplexed," 
dedicating it to Joseph Ibn-Aknin. 
Abraham Ibn-Alfachar (1160-1223), diplomat under 

Alfonso VIII of Castile. 
Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn (1132-1200), liturgical poet 

and author of a martyrology. 
Massacre of the Jews of Germany from the Ehine to 

Vienna under Emperor TTenry VI. 
Samuel Ibn-Tibbon (1160-1239), translator. 



114 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.E. 
1190 (about ).Siisskincl of Trimberg-, Jewish minnesinger. 

Jiidah Sir Leon ben Isaac, the Pious (1166-1224), Tossa- 

tist, author of the " Book of the Pious.''' 
Samson ben Abraham of Sens, Tossafist. 
Isaac the Younger (Eizba), Tossafist; Jacob of Orleans, 
Tossafist. 

1197. HiUaJi, the oldest Hebrew copy of the Bible in Spain, 

taken by the Almohades. 
Shcslict Bcnvcniste (1131-1210), philosopher, phj-sician, 
Talmudist, diplomat, and poet. 

1198. The Jews of France forbidden to move from province 

to province. 
1204. Death op Maimonides. 

XVIII. FROM THE DEATH OF MAIMONIDES TO THE 
EXPULSION FROM SPAIN. 

(1204-1492 C.E.) 

1209. The Council of Avignon issues restrictive measures 

against the Jews. 
1210(about). Isaac the Blind, founder of the Kabbala. Disciples: 
Azriel and Ezra. 
Jehuda Alciiabisi, poet. 

1210. The Jews of England imprisoned hy King John. 

1211. French and English rabbis emigrate to Palestine. 

1212. The Jews of Toledo killed bj- crusaders imder the 

Cistercian monk Arnold. First persecution of Jews 
in Castile. 
1215. The Fourth Lateran Council under the pope 

Innocent III, among manj^ anti-Jewish measures, 
decrees the Jew badge. 

1222. The Council of Oxford imposes restrictions on the 

English Jews. 

1223. The rabbinical synod of ^Mayence regulates the pay- 

ment of the Jew taxes. 
1227. The Council of Narbonne re-enacts the anti-Jewish 

decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council. 
1229. Pope Gregory IX antagonizes the Jews. 

1232. The Jews of Hungary excluded from state offices. 
Meir ben Todros Hakvi Alnilafla (llSO-1244) attacks 

Maimonides' doctrine of the immortality of the 
soul. 

1233. Solomon ben Abraham of Montpellier, Jonah ben 

Abraham Gerundi, and David ben Saul ally them- 
selves with the Dominicans, who burn Maimonides' 

WORKS IN I^lONTPEIXIER AND PARIS. 

1235. Abraham Maimuni (1185-1254), physician and philoso- 

pher. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. II5 

C.E. 

1235. Moses ben Nachman (Ramban, 1195-1270), Talmudist, 

exegete, Kabbalist, auti-Maimunist. 
Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Simon (Anatoli), Jewish 

scholar at the court of Frederick II. 
Berachya ben Natron ai Nakdan (Crispia), fabulist 
and punctuator. 

1235. Gregory IX confirms the Constitutio Judworum of 

Innocent III. 

1236. Crusaders attack the Jewish communities of Anjou, 

Poitou, etc. 

1239. On the charges of the apostate Nicholas-Donin, Gregory 

IX orders the Dominicans and Franciscans to ex- 
amine the Talmud, and burn it, if necessary. 

1240. Disputation before Louis IX of France between Nicholas- 

Donin and the Jews, represented by Yechiel of 

Paris, Moses of Coucy, Talmudist and itinerant 

preacher, and two others. 
1240. A Jewish Parliament assembled by Henry III. 

1242. The Talmud burnt at Paris. 

1244. Arehdiikc Frederick I the Valiant, of Austria, grants 

prii-ilc(jes to the Jews. 

1246. The Council of Bezicrs foriids Jeics to practice medicine. 

1247. Pope Innocent IV issues a bull disproving the blood accusa- 

tion against the Jews. 
1254. The Jews expelled from his dominions by Louis IX of 

France. End of the Tossafists. 
1257. Alfonso X, the Wise, of Castile, compiles a code, containing 

a section of anti-Jewish hues. 

1263. Moses ben Nachman opposes Pablo Christian! at the 

disputation of Barcelona. 

1264. The Jews of London attacked under Henry III. 

1267. The Council of Vienna re-enacts the anti-Jewish 

decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council. 

1271 (about). Pope Gregory X issues a bull deprecating the forced 
baptism of Jews. 

1278. The Jews of England imprisoned on the charge of 

counterfeiting coin. 

1279. The Council of Buda enacts anti-Jewish measures. 
Solomon ben Adret (Rashba, 1245-1310), Talmudist. 
David Maimuni (1233-1300), grandson of Maimonides. 

1283. Beginning of the massacres of the Jews of Germany 

on the blood accusation. 
Moses ben Chasdai" Taku (1250-1290), anti-ilaimunist. 
1286. Meir ben Barixii of Rothenburg (1220-1293), chief 

rabloi of Germany, imprisoned when about to 

emigrate. 
1288. Saad Addanla, minister of finance of the Persian empire 

under Argun. 



Il6 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.E. 

1289. Maimoiiidcs' trorks burnt at Accho. Solomon Petit, anti- 

ISIaiinunist and Kabbalist; Hillel ben Samuel of 
Verona (1220-1295), Talmudist and Maimunist. 

1290. The Jews banished from England. 

1291. The Jews of Accho imprisoned or executed by the 

Sultan of Eg-ypt. 
1295(about). Publication of the Zohar by Moses de Leon; Kabbalistic 

studies flourish. 
1298. Persecution of the Jews in German}' instigated by 

Bindflcish; !Mordecai ben Ilillel a martyr. 

1305. The ban against the study of science pronounced 

by Abba-^lari ben IMoses; authorized by Solomon 
BEN Adret; urged by Asiier ben Yechiel (Asheri); 
opposed by the Tibbonides led by Jacob ben Machir 
(Profatius) and the poet Yedaya Pcnini Bedaresi. 

1306. The first expulsion of the Jews from France under Philip 

IV the Fair. 
1310. Asheri compiles his Talmud ic code. 

1313. The Council of Zamora renews the canonical laws 

hostile to the Jews. 
1315. Louis X of France recalls the Jews. 

1320. The Pastourcaux persecutions in France (Gesereth ha- 

Eoi'm). 

1321. The Leper persecution in France (Gesereth Mezoraim). 

The second expulsion of the Jews from France. 
1328. Persecution of the Jews of Navarre. 

1334. Casimir III the Great of Poland issues laws friendly to 

the Jews. 

1336. Disputation at Valladolid between the Jews and the 

apostate Abner-Alfonso. Alfonso XI of Castile 
forbids the use of alleged blasphemous expressions in 
the ITcbrew prayers. 
Persecution of the Jews in Germany by the Armled<:r. 

1337. Joseph of Ecija and Samuel Ibn-Wakar favorites of 

Alfonso XI of Castile. Gonzalo Martinez plans the 

destruction of the Jews of Castile. 
1340. Jacob ben Asheri (Baal ha-Turim, 1280-1340) compiles 

his Talmudic code. 
Kissim Gerundi ben Reuben (1340-1380), rabbi of Bar- 
celona. 
1342. Levi ben Gerson (Gersonides, ^Maestro Leon de Bagnols, 

]288-134r)), physician and philosopher. 
1348. Persecution of the Jews in Europe on account of the 

Black Death. Pope Clement VI issues two bulls 

protecting the Jews. 
1350. Moses ben Joshua Narboni (Maestro Vidal, 1300-13G2), 

philosopher. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. II7 

C.E. 

1350. Aaron II ben Elia Nicomedi (1300-1369), Karaite 

philosopher. 

Santob de Carrion (1300-1350), Jewish-Spanish trouba- 
dour. 

Samuel Abulafia, minister to Pedro the Cruel of Castile, 

1351. The cortes of Valladolid ask the abolition of the 

judicial autonomy of Spanish-Jewish communities. 

1355. The " Golden Bull " by Emperor Charles IV confers the 

privilege of holding Jews on the Electors. 

1357. Completion of the synagogue at Toledo built by Samuel 

Abulafia. 

1360. Samuel Abulafia dies under torture on the charge of 

peculation. 
Participation of the Jews of Castile in the civil war 
(1360-1369) between Pedro the Cruel and Henry de 
Trastamare, chiefly on the side of the former. 
Manessier de Vesoul obtains from King John a decree 
permitting Jews to dwell in France. 

1370 (about). Me'ir ben Baruch Ilalevi of Vienna introduces the con- 
ferring of authorization for the exercise of rabbini- 
cal functions {Morrnn). He and his disciples, 
principally Isaac of Tyrnau, compile the customs 
(Minhagim) of the communities. 

1371. The Jews of Castile under Henry II compelled to wear 

badges and give up Spanish names. 

1375. Disputation at Avila between the apostate John of 

Valladolid and Moses Cohen de Tordesillas. 

1376. Disputation at Pampeluna between John of Va-lladolid 

and Shem-Tob ben Shaprut. 

Samuel Abrabanel at court under Henrj' II of Castile. 

Chayim ben Gallipapa (1310-1380), innovator; ]\renachem 
ben Aaron ben Zerach (1310-1385), rabbinical 
author; Isaac ben Sheshet Barf at (Eibash, 1310- 
1409), Talmudist; Chasdaj ben Abraham Crescas 
(1340-1410), philosopher. 

1379. Joseph Pichon, receiver-general of taxes in Seville, 

murdered, probably at the instigation of Jews, 
against whom the fury of the populace is turned. 

1380. Juan I restricts the judicial autonomy of the Castilian 

Jewish communities. 

1381. A synod at Mayence regulate? the rabbinical marriage 

laws (Tekanoth Shum). 
1385, Juan I of Castile revives the canonical restrictions 

against the Jews. 
1389. The charge of host desecration leads to the massacre 

of the Jews of Prague. 



Il8 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.E. 

1391. Ferdinand Martinez incites the mob against the Jews 

of Seville. The massacre and plunder of the 
Jews spreads irom Castile to Aragon, Majorca, 
AND OTHER PARTS OF SPAIN. Many Jews converted 
to Christianit}-: Marranos. Solomon Levi of 
Burgos (Paul de Santa ]Mai-ia, 1350-1435), begins 
his machinations against Judaism. 

1392. Joao I of Portugal forbids force in the conversion of 

Jews. 
1394. Third and last cj'iJiilsion of the Jckh from France, under 

Charles YI. 
1396 (about). Writings in defence of Judaism by Joshua ben Joseph 

Ibn-Vives Allorqui (Geronimo de Santa Fe),Chasdaii 

Crescas, and Profiat Duran. 
1399. Persecution of the Jews of Prague at the instigation 

of the apostate Pessach; Lipmann of Miihlhausen 

among the sufferers. 
1408. Alfonso J's anti-Jewish laws revived under Juan II of 

Castile. 
Don Meir Alguades, rabbi and physician, executed on 

the charge of host desecration. 
Kabbalistic studies flourish in Spain. 
1408. Simon Duran (13G1-1444), rabbi of Algiers. 

1410. Chasda'i Crescas publishes Ids rcHyio-philosophic tcork. 

1412. Juan II issues an edict of twenty-four articles designed 

to reduce the social prestige of the Jews. Vincent 
Ferrer preaches Christianity in the synagogues, and 
inflames the populace against the Jews. Second 

GENERAL MASSACRE OF JEWS IN ALL THE SPANISH 

PROVINCES. Numerous Jews submit to baptism. 

1413. Relif/ious disputation at Tortosa arranged by Pope Bene- 

dict XIII between Geronimo de Santa Fe (Joshiia 
Lorqui), and Vidal ben Benveniste Ibn-Labi and 
Joseph AUio. ^lanjf Jews submit to baptism. 
1415. Benedict XIII forbids the studj' of the Talmud, and 

ordains the Jew badge and Christian sermons for Jews. 

1419. Martin V issues a bull deprecating the forced conver- 

sion of Jews. 

1420. Persecution of the Jews of .\ustria. 

1421. Jacob ben }foses Mfilin Ilaleri {Maharil, 1365-1427), com- 

piler of the German sj-nngogue liturgy and melo- 
dies. 

1426. The Jews of Cologne banished. 

1428. Joseph Alro (1380-1144) publishes his philosophical 

work Ikkarim. 

1431. The Jews of South Germany persecuted on account of 

the blood accusation. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. II9 

C.B. 

1431. Menachem of Merseburg (Mei'l Zedek) regulates divorce 

proceedings. 

1432. A synod at Avila under Abraham Benveniste Senior 

provides for an educational system for Jewish Spain 
(the law of Avila). 
Moses ben Isaac (Gajo) da Rieti (1388-1451), Italian 
Jewish poet and physician. 
1434. The Council of Basle renews old and devises new 

canonical restrictions against Jews. 
Annihilation of the Jews of Majorca. 

1441. The Jews expelled from Augsburg. 

1442. Eugenius IV issues a bull enforcing all the old canoni- 

cal restrictions against the Jews of Leon and 

Castile. 
1445. The first Hebreic concordance by Isaac ben Kalonymos 

Ndthan. 
1447. Nicholas V makes Eugenius IV's bull applicable to 

Italian Jews. 
Casimir IV of Poland grants vnnsual privileges to Jews. 

1450. The Jews of Bavaria persecuted. 

1451. Nicholas de Cusa enforces the wearing of Jew badges 

in Germany. 
Pope Nicholas V anthori;:cs the appointment of inquisitors 
for Marranos. 

1453. The persecution of the Jews of Germany, Silesia, and 

Poland at the instigation of John of Capistrano. 
The Jews favored in Turkey. Moses Kapsali chief rabbi. 

1454. The privileges of the Polish Jews revoked. 

1460. Alfonso de Spina publishes an attack upon Judaism. 

1468. The Jews of Sepulveda charged with the blood accusa- 

tion. 
1470. The Marranos of Valladolid attacked. 

1472. The IMarranos of Cordova attacked. 

1474. The IMarranos of Segovia attacked. 

1475. Bernardinus of Feltre preaches against the Jews in 

Italy. 
The Jews charged with the murder of Simon of Trent 

for ritual purposes; a persecution of the Jews of 

Ratisbon follows. 
1480 (about). Pico di Mirandnla the first Christian scholar to devote 

himself to Hebrew literature. 
1480. The Inquisition against the T»Iarranos established in 

Seville and at other places in Castile. 
1482. Pope Sixtus IV denounces the cruelties of the Spanish 

Inquisition. 
1482. The Inquisition against IMarranos established in 

Aragon, Thomas de ToRQrE^rADA chief inquisitor. 
Elias del Medigo (1463-1498), scholar. 



120 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.E. 

1483. TORQUEMADA MABE INQUISITOR-GENERAL OF SPAIN. 

1484. Isaac ben Jehuda Abrabanel (1437-1509), minister of 

finance to Ferdinand and Isabella. 
1492. Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. 

XIX. FROM THE EXPULSION FROM SPAIN TO THE 

PERSECUTION IN POLAND. 

(1492-1648 C. E.) 

1493 Most SiHiiiish Jews leave Portugal; all remaining behind 

are sold as slaves. 

Simon Duran II (1439-1570), rabbi of Algiers. 

1494. Isaac Abrabanel, minister of finance to two kings of 

Naples. 

1496. Manoel of Portugal orders the Jews to accept baptism 

or leave the country. 

1497. Manoel seizes Jewish children and has them baptized; 

manj' Jews accept baptism; all others banished 
from Portugal. 

1498. The exiles settled in Navarre banished. 

1499. The Jews of Nuremberg banished. 

1502. Judah Leon Abrabanel (Medigo, 1470-1530) writes his 

" Dialogues of Love." 
Asher Lammlein proclaims himself the forerunner of the 
Messiah. 
1503 (about) .Abraham Farissol (1451-1525), scholar at the court of 
Ferrara. 
Gerslion Cohen Soneinus establishes a Hebrew printing 

office in Prague. 
Jacob Polnk (1400-1530), the alleged originator of the 

PiLPUL METHOD OF TaLMUD STUDY. 

1504. Abraham Zaento finishes his chronicle, " Sefer Yochasin." 

1506. Massacre of Marranos in Lisbon. 

1507. Beginning of the feud between John Reuchlin and the 

Humanists on the one side and, on the other, 
Pfefferkorn, the tool of the Dominicans led by 
Hoogstraten, Victor von Karben, Arnold von 
Tongern, Ortuinns Gratius, and the theological 
faculties of various universities. The Talmud and 
the Jews attacked and defended before IMaximilian 
I, Popes Alexander VI and Leo X. The last publi- 
cation by Pfefferkorn in 1521, near the beginning 
of Luther's Reformation. 
1507 (about). Obadiah Sforno, Jacob Mantin, Abraham de Balmes, 
and Elias Levita (1468-1549), Hebrew grammar- 
ians, teachers of Hebrew to Christians. Introduc- 
tion of Hebrew studies into German and French 
universities through the efforts of Egidio de 
Viterbo, Reuchlin, and Augustin Justiniani. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 121 

C.E, 

1j14 {about) .Obadijah diBcrtlnoro (1470-1520), Taliniulist and preacher, 

improves Jerusalem. 
1516. Venice set's apart a special quarter for a Ghetto. 

1517 (about) .David Ibn-Abi Zimra (1470-1573) abolishes the Seleu- 

cidivan era for the Egyptian Jews. 
1518 (about). (SomMd Abrahanel (1473-1550) employed as financier by 

the viceroy of Naples; Benvcnida Abrnbuudn. 
1519 (about) .Josep/t ben Gershon Loans (Joslin of liosheim, 1478-1554), 

representative and protector of the German Jews. 
1520(about).£'?!os Mizrachi (1455-1527), chief rabbi of Turkey. 
1523 (about) .^/ia5 Kapsali (1490-1555), historian. 
1524. The Jews of Cairo threatened with destruction by 

Achmed Shaitan, viceroy of Egypt. 
Joao III of Portugal employs Henrique Nunes (Firme- 

Fe) as a spy upon the Marranos. 
David Eeubeni in Rome under the protection of Pope 

Clement VII. 
1529. Solomon IMolciio (Diogo Pires, 1501-1532) begins his 

Messianic agitation. 
1530 (about). Portuguese Marranos burnt by order of the IJishop 

of Ceuta. 
1531 Clement VII issues a bull establishing the Portu- 

guese Inquisition for Marranos. 
1532. Marranos forbidden to leave Portugal. 

Molcho burnt by Emperor Charles V at Mantua. 
Clement VII stops the proceedings of the Portuguese 

Inquisition at the instance of ^Marranos. 

1535. Eighteen hundred Marranos liberated from the Portu- 

guese Inquisition in obedience to a bull of Paul III. 
1535 (about) .Moses Hanion (1490-1565), physician to Sultan Selim I. 

1536. Paul III sanctions the Portuguese Inquisition. 

1538. The ordination of rabbis (Semieha) re-introduced by 

Jacob Berab. 

1541. Most of the Jews leave Naples, where they are threat- 

ened with social degradation. 

1542. The Jews of Prague banished. 
Luther attacks the Jews. 

1548. Portuguese Marranos again liberated on the interfer- 

ence of Paul III. 
1550. The Jews banished from Genoa. 

1552. Samuel Usque finishes his " Consolations for the Sor- 

rows of Israel." 

1553. The Talmud confiscated under Julius III in Italy. 

1554. Joseph Karo (1488-1575), Kabbalist and Talmudist, 

finishes his code, the Shulchan Aruch. 

1555. Paul IV issues a severe bull against the Jews?. 

The Marranos of Ancona imprisoned and tried by the 
Inquisition. 



122 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.E. 

1555. Amatus Liisitanus (1511-1568), physician. 

1556. Sultan Soljrnan demands from Paul IV the release of 

Turkish Marranos; Donna Gracia Mcndcsia (1510- 

1568). 
1559. The Talmud burnt at Cremona; praj^er books burnt in 

Vienna. 
1560(about). Joseph bex JosiirA Cohex (1496-1575), historian, 

writes his " Annals." 
Joseph Ibx-Verga completes the martyrology " Shebet 

Jehuda," begun by his grandfather and father. 
1561. The Jews of Prague banished. 

1564. Pius IV permits the publication of the TnUiind irHIiont its 

name, and after harimj been submitted to censorship. 
1566. Pius V enforces all the canonical restrictions against 

the Jews. 
Joseph yassi (d. 1579) made Duke of Naxos by Sultan 

Selim II. 

1568. Isaac Lurya Levi (1534-1572), Kabbalist, pretends to 

be the Messiah of Joseph. 
Chayim Vital Calabrese (1543-1620), Kabbalist, asso- 
ciate of Lurya. 

1569. All the Jews in the Papal States except those of Rome 

and Ancona expelled. 

1570. Azarya ben iSIosES dei Possi (1514-1578), scholar. 
1570 (about). /S'o/owo?i Lurya (1510-1573) and ]\IosES bex Israel 

Isserles (1520-1572), author of the " Mappa," the 
continuation of the Shulchan Aruch, Polish Tal- 
mud ists. 

1574. Solomon ben Nathan Ashkenazi negotiates peace be- 

tween Venice and Turkey. 

1576. Stephen Bathori allows the Jews of Poland to carrj^ on 

trade without restrictions. 

1579. Gracia Nas-si establishes a Hebrew printing press in 

Turkej'. Esther Iviera, Turkish court-Jewess, pub- 
lishes Hebrew books. 

1581. Gregorj^ XIII forbids the employment of Jewish physi- 

cians, re-ordains the confiscation of Hebrew books, 
and re-introduces the compulsory Christian sermon 
for Jeirs. 

1586. Rixtus V permits Jews in the Papal States and the 

printing of the Talmud. 
David de Pomis (1525-1588), physician. 
1586 (about). The .Tews of Poland establish the Syxod of the Four 
Countries; Mordecai .Tafa probablj' its first presi- 
dent. 

1587. Gedalya Tbn-Ynehya (1515-1587). historian, has his work 

printed. 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. I23 

C.B. 

1592. David Gans (1541-1613) publishes his history. 

1593. Isaac ben Abraham Troki (1533-1594), Karaite, pub- 

lislies his " Cjiisuk Emunaii." 
Clement VIH expels the Jews from all the Papal States 

exceiJt Rome and Aucona. 
The first Marrano settlement made in Holland at 

Amsterdam under Jacob Tirado. 
1597. The Jews expelled from various Italian principalities; 

Ferrara ceases to harbor Marranos. 
1C04. Clement VIII issues a bull of absolution for imprisoned 

Portuguese ^larranos. 
1G12. Portuguese Jews yranted r'njU of residence in llanilrunj. 

1614. Vincent Fettmilch's attack upon the Jews of Frankfort. 

1615. The Jews of Worms banished. 

1616. Jews re-admitted into Frankfort and Worms. 

1617. Lipmann Heller (1579-1654) completes his " Tossafoth 

Tomtob." 
1619. Permission accorded the Jews of Amsterdam to profess 

their religion. 
1621 (about). »SV/ra Copta Sulla ni (1600-1641), poetess. 
1623. E.rcotnnuinication of Uriel da Costa (1590-1640). 

1630. Suffering of the Jews during the Thirty Years' War 

(1618-1648). 
1639 (about). A Talmud Torah opened in Amsterdam. Saul Levi 

Morteira, Isaac Aboab de Fonseca, and Manasseii 

ben Israel, rabbis of Amsterdam. 
1641 (about) .Leo ben Isaac Modena (1571-1649); Joseph Solomon 

Delmedigo (1591-1655); and Simone Luzzatto (1590- 

1663), scholars not wholly in accord with the Juda- 
ism of their time. 
1646. The Jews in Brazil side with the Dutch in their war 

with the Portuguese. 
1648. Beg-inning of the Cossack persecutions of the Jews 

in Poland under Ciimielnicki. 

XX. FROiM THE PERSECUTION IN POLAND TO THE PRESENT 

TIME. 

(164S-1S73 C. E.) 

1649(about) .Christian scholars in Holland devote themselves to 

Hebrew literature. 
1655. Manasseh ben Israel goes to London to obtain from 

Cromwell the re-admission of the Jews into 

England. 
1657. Cromwell permits Sephardic Jews settled in London to 

open a burial ground. 
1665. Sabbatai Zevi (1626-1676) publicly accepted as the 

IMessiah; his followers and opponents. 



124 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.B. 

1670. Baruch Spinoza (1G32-1G77) publishes his " Theologico- 

Political Treatise "; contemporary Marrano poets 

and authors in Amsterdam. 
The Jews banislied from Vienna by Emperor Leopold I. 
The Jews permitted to settle in the ISIark Brandenburg' 

by Elector John George. 
1678 (about). Richard Simon, Father of the Oratory, makes Rabbini- 
cal literature known to Christians. 
1679, IMordecai of Eisenstadt renews the Sabbatian craze. 

168G (about )../f/ro& Querido represents himself as the successor of 

Sabbatai Zevi. 
1090 (about). Swedish scholars study the historj^ of the Karaites. 
1695 (about). Berachj'a represents himself as the successor of Sab- 
batai Zevi; his sect, tlie Donnnih. 
1698. Tri7/i«?» Snrcnhuijsitis translates the Mislma into Laixn. 

1700. John Andrew Eisenmenger attempts the publication of 

his " Judaism Unmasked." 
1707. Jacob Basnage publishes his " History of the Jewish 

Religion." 
1713. Nehemiah Chiya Chayon (1650-1726), Sabbatian, causes 

a quarrel in the Amsterdam communitj^; Solomon 

Ayllon and Cliacham Zevi (Zevi ben Jacob Ashkenazi, 

1656-1678). 
1743, Moses Chayim Luzzatto (1707-1747), poet and Kabbal- 

ist, jmblishes his drama La-Yesharim Tehilla. 
1745. The Jews of Prague placed under severe restrictions 

by Maria Theresa. 
17r)0(about).Chassidism founded by Israel Baalshem (1698-1759) 

and Beer of Mizricz (1700-1772); Elijah Wilna 

Gaon (1720-1797), its antagonist. 
1751. Contest between Jonathan EiBESciitiTZ (1690-1764) and 

Jacob Emden Ashkenazi (1698-1776). 
1755. Moses Mendelssohn (1728-1786) publishes his first work. 

1759 (about). ./«co?> Frank, Sabbatian leader, founder of the Frankist 

sect. 
1762. Isaac Pinto publishes his " Reflections " in answer to 

Voltaire's defamation of Judaism. 

1778. Mendelssohn publishes the first part of his Pentateuch 

translation. 

1779. Lessinr; publishes his " Nathan the Wise." 

1781. Christian William Dohm (1751-1820) publishes his work 

" Upon the Civil Amelioration of the Condition of 

the Jews." 
.Joseph II of Austria abolishes the Jewish poll-tax, and 

grants civil liberties to the Jews. 
1783. Mendelssohn publishes " Jerusalem, or upon Ecclesiastical 

Poicer and ./udaisni." 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. I25 

O.E. 

1783. TI a -M f(i -sfiif I'oinuk'd by Mendelssohn's followers 

(Mcdspin). 

1787. !Mirabeau publislu's his work " Upon Mendelssohn and 

the Political lleform of the Jews." 

1788. The poll-tax removed from the Jews of Prussia. 

1789. Abbe Gregoire publishes his " Proposals in Favor of 

the Jews." 

1790. The French National Assembly ^-rants citi/eiiship to 

the Sephardie Jews. 

1791. The French National Assembly grants full civil 

rights to the Jews. 
1796. The IJatavian National Assemlily decrees citizenship 

for the Jews. 

1803. Israel Jacobson and Wolff Breidenbach ag-itate the 

abolition of the poll-tax for Jews. 

1804. Alexander I of Russia exempts certain classes of Jews 

from the exceptional laws. 
180G. Napoleon I sxmmoxs the Assembly of Jewish 

Notables; Abraham Furtado, president. Twelve 
Questions propounded to the Assembly. 

1807. The Great Synhedrion convened by Napoleon; 

Joseph David Sinzheim president. 

1808. The Jews of Westphalia and of Baden emancipated. 

1811. The Jews of Hamburg emancipated. 

1812. The Jews of ^Mecklenburg and Prussia emancipated. 
1818 (about) .Consecration of the Temple of the Hamburg Reform 

Union, Gotthold Salomon, preacher. 
1819. The beginning of the "Hep, hep! " persecutions. 

Formation of the Society for the Culture and Science 
of the Jews; Zunz, Gans, and Moser. 

1821. Chacham Bernays opposes the Reform Temple Union 

in Hamburg. 

1822. Isaac Marcus Jost (1793-1860) begins to publish his 

history of the Jews. 
1825. Isaac Noah Mannhcimer (179.3-1864), rabbi in Vienna, 

champion of the moderate party. 

1831. Louis Philippe ratifies the law for the complete eman- 

cipation of the French Jews. 

Gabriel Biesser (1806-1860), champion of the emancipa- 
tion of the German Jews. 

Solomon Ludwig Steinheim (1790-1866), Jewish religious 
philosopher. 

Nachntan Cohen Krochmal (1785-1840), Solomon Jchiida 
Rapoport (1790-1867), Samuel David Luzzatto (ISOO- 
1865), Isaac Erter (1792-1851), scholars, regenera- 
tors of Jewish science and Hebrew style. 

1832. Leopold Zunz (1794-1886) publishes his first epoch- 

making work. 



126 HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 

C.E. 

1833. The Eercm Clicmcd, a Hebrew journal for Jewish science, 

established. 

1835. Abraham Geiger (1810-1876), scliolar and preacher. 

1836. Franz Delitzsch publishes his " History of Xro-Hcbniic 

Poetry.'" 

1839. Siiltan Abdul ^leg'id grants citizenship to Turkish Jews. 

1840. The Damascus blood accusation; Mosca Montefiore 

(1784-1885); Adolf Crc'mU'ux (1796-1880); SoJomon 
Munk (1802-18G7). 
1842. The " Society of the Friends of Reform " founded in 

Frankfort. 

1844. The first Rabbinical Conference at Brunswick; Samuel 

Holdheim (1806-1860). 

1845. The Reform Association formed in Berlin. 

The second Rabbinical Conference at Frankfort; Zacha- 

riah Frankel (1801-1875). 
Michael Sachs (1808-1864) publishes his " Religious 
Poetrj^ of the Jews of Spain." 
1848. The emancipation of the Jews in the German states. 

1854. The Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary founded. 

1858. The oath " on the true faith of a Christian " abolished 

in England; Jewish disabilities removed. 
The Mortara abduction case. 
1860. The Alliance Israelite Universelle founded. 

1871. The Anglo-Jewish Association founded. 

1873. The Union of American Hebrew Congregations estaD- 

lished^ 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 



127 



THE KINGS OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL. 

(1067-.586 B. c. E.) 







Saul 1067 










David 


1055 










Solomon 1015 






Judah. 




Israel. 


Judah. 




Israel. 


Reiiohoam 


—977— 


Jeroboam I 


UZZIAU 


—805 




Abijam 


—960 






709— 


Zechariau 


Asa 


—957 






768— 


Shallum 




955— 


Nadab 




768— 


Menahem 




954— 


Baasha 




757— 


Pekahiah 




933— 


Elah 




755— 


Pekah 




932— 


Omri-Tibni 


JOTHAM 


—754 






928— 


Omri 


Ahaz 


—739 






g23 


Ahab 




736— 


Period of 


Jehoshaphat 


—918 








Anarchy 




901— 


Ahaziah 




727— 


IIoshea 




899— 


Jehoram 


Hezekiah 


— 724 




JORAM 


—894 






719— 


Samaria 


Abaziah 


—888 








Destroyed 


Athaliah 


—887— 


Jehu 








JoAsn 


— 881 




Manasseh 


—695 






860— 


Jehoahaz 


Amon 


—640 






845— 


Jehoash 


JOSIAH 


—638 




AMAZIAH 


—843 




Jehoahaz 


—608 






830— 


Jeroboam II 


Jehoiakim 


—607 




Period of 






Jehoiachin 


—596 




Anarcht 


—815 




Zedekiah 


—593 





586 Destruction of the First Temple. 



128 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Period. 

VIII 

586-516 

B. C. E. 



XI 

175-140 
B. C. E. 



XII 

140-37 
B. C. E. 



THE HIGH PRIESTS. 
(from the captivity to the dispersion.) 



High Priest. 
Jehozedek 
Joshua b. Jehozedek 



Ciuil Ruler. 

Babylonian Kings and 

Cyrus 
Zerubbabel (Cj'rus and 

Darius I) 

Xerxes I 

Nehemiah (Artaxerxes I) 
Nebemiah (Darius II) 
Artaxerxes III 
Alexander the Great 



Ptolemy I Soter 
Ptolemy I Soter 
Eleazar (br. of Simon I) 1 during the Ptolemy II Philadelpbus 
Manasseh (br. of Onias I) f onias li. Ptolemy II Philadelpbus 

Ptolemy III Euergetes 
Ptolemy IV Philopator 
Ptolemy V Epiphanes and 
Antiocbus III 



IX 




516-333 


Jehoiakim 


B. C. E. 


Eliashib 




JoIADA 




JOHANAN B. JoiADA 




Jaddua 


X 




332-175 


Onias I 


B. C. E. 


SiMox I THE Just (300-270) 



Onias II (240) 

Simon II 

Onias III (Jason his deputy) 



Jason (174) 

Mf.nelaus (Onias IV, 172. Lysi. 

tiachus his deputy) 
JuiJAS Maccab.eus (163) 
Alcimus (162-159) appoi?Ue(l bij 
Jonathan IIaphus (153-143) 
Simon (III) Tharsi (143-1.S5) 



Hyrcanus I (135-106) 
Aristobulus I (106-105) 
Alexander Jann^us (105-79) 
Hyrcanus II (79-40) 



Antigonus (40-37) 



Antiocbus IV Epiphanes 
Antiochus IV Epiphanes 

Antiocbus V Eupator 
Demetrius I Soter 
Alexander Balas 
Simon Tharsi 



Hyrcanus I 

Aristobulus I 

Alexander (I) Jannaus 

Alexandra, Hyrcanus II, 
Aristobulus II, and Ro- 
man governors 

Antigonus 



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY. 



129 



THE HIGH PRIESTS. 

(from the cai'tivity to the dispersion.) 
^Continned.'^ 



Period. 
XIII 
STB. C. E.- 
73 C. E. 



J[i(/h J'rieKt. 

Ananel (37-35) 
Aristobulus (III) (35) 
Ananel (34, second term) 
Joshua, of the family Phabi 
Simon (IV) b. Boethus 
Matthias b. Tueophilus 

(Joseph b. Ellem his 

deputy) 
Joasek b. Simon (b. Boettus) 
Eleazak (brother of Joaser) 
Joshua, of the family Sie 
Joaser (second term) 
Anan, of the family Seth 
Ishmael I Phabi 
Eleazar b. Anan 
Simon (V) b. Camytu 
Joseph Caiaphas (26-36) 
Jonathan b. Anan 
Theophilus b. Anan (brother 

of preceding) 
Simon (VI) b. Boethus, of 

the family Cantheras (41) 
Matthias b. Anan (brother 

of Jonathan) 
Elionai b. Hakoph (44) 
Joseph b. Camttu (45) 
Ananias b. Nebeueus (48) 
Ishmael II Phabi (59-61) 
Joseph Cabi (61) 
Anan, of the family Anan 
Joshua b. Damnai 
Joshua b. Gamala 
Matthias b. Theophilus 
Phineas b. Samuel (67, 6S) 



Appointee. 

Ilerod I 

Herod I 

Herod I 

Herod I 

Herod I 

Herod I 



Herod I 

Archelaus 

Archelaus 

Archelaus 

Quirinius, governor of Syria 

Valerius Gratus, procurator 

Valerius Gratus, procurator 

Valerius Gratus, procurator 

Valerius Gratus, procurator 

Vitellius, governor of Syria 

Vitellius, governor of Syri? 

Agrippa 1 

Agrippa I 

Agrippa 1 
Herod II 
Herod II 
Agrii^pa II 
Agrippa II 
Agrippa II 
Agrippa II 
Agrippa II 
Agrippa II 
The People 



o 



^ 



130 HISTORY OF THE JEWS 



THE HASMON/EAN DYNASTY (H3- B C. E 1 



^ 



HISTORY OF THE JE 



THE HERODIAN DYNASTY (37 B. C. E.-TO C. E.) 



r 



X ,._,„ „...,. .LTii^ZJ. 



i"Trr., I, 



l''«C.H. 


1 WW^»-' 






liOO. (Si.) (d../ 


""•"" 


( , 


1 




1 


|KI.,V>™,.,. 










"T" 






1 




^. 




srs^S"" 








■"■» 



I I .J, 



v^ 



r 



INDEXo 



INDEX. 

Explanatory Notes. 

For the complete index of references to Jews, see under IfiracHtoi until 580 
B. C. E. (the Babyloiiian Captivity) and under Judcv a nn until 70 C. E. (tlio DiHper- 
slon), as well as under Jewn and the Jews of and the Judieaiis of the various cities 
and countries. 

Persons living before 1600 will be found under their forenames. The rule has 
been violated by inde-xiug certain Spanish Kabbis and Marranos living before this 
(late under their surnames, and certain Germans and Poles living after it under 
their forenames. In these cases cross-references have been made. 

Persons with the same descriptive cog-nomcn, as Gerundi, Ihn-Ezra, Ahrabanel, 
Abulafia, are enumerated under it, but the references are indexed as above. 

Persons bearing the same forename, as Abraham, Jacob, etc., are arranged in 
the order adopted by Joseph Zedner in his " Catalogue of the Hebrew Books in the 
Library of the British Musuem" (1867) : 

"1. Those distinguished by an epithet only, derived from their birthplace, 
rank, or occupation, arranged after the alphabetical order of the epithets. 

'* 2. Those followed by the word ben (son of) [in our Index preceded by those 
with the Aramaic form bar, and followed by those with the Arabic form ibn and 
the English son of], arranged according to the name of the father. 

" 3. Compound names of first and family names, as Jacob Bcrab, or two first 
names, as Jacob Zeeb, [or of first name and birthplace when the latter follows 
without a preposition, or is modified to include of, as Jacob Tus, Abraham Bedaresi]. 

" 4. Family names, as Jacob (Zfoij-y)." 

This arrangement of Zedner's is, however, subordinate to the class-divisions 
adopted by indexers and cataloguers in general, namely : 1. Popes, according to 
numbers ; 2. Emperors ; 3. Kings and Sovereign Princes, by countries and by 
number in each country ; 4. Others by appellatives, neglecting prepositions and 
articles. 

The subjoined Table will enable the student approximately to refer from the 
index of the American Edition of the " History " to the German, when it is de- 
sirable to consult the notes and other additional matter contained in the original. 



American Edition. 
Volume I, p. 1-178 
Volume I, p. 179-487 
Volume I, p. 487-531 ) 
Volume II, p. 1-320 ) 
Volume II, p. 321-63.5 
Volume III, p. 1-250 
Volume III, p. 2.50-493 
Volume III, p. 494-650 ) 
Volume IV, p. 1-126 [ 
Volume IV, p. 127-381 
Volume IV, p. 382-675 
Volume IV, p. 676-708 } 
Volume V, p. 1-290 f 
Volume V, p. 291-703 



German. 

=r Volume I. 

= Volume II. 

— Volume III. 

= Volume IV. 

= Volume V. 

=; Volume VI. 

= Volume VII. 

= Volume VIIL 

= Volume IX. 

= Volume X. 

= Volume XI. 



140 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Lists of Names, etc., in the Index. 



Academies, the Rabyloiiiau. 

Alliances, Jewish. 

Aiudruiiu. thf. 

AntiMaimunists. the. 

A|«i>siates. 

Astronomers and Mathematicians, 

Jewish, 
i'hurch founclls. 
CtMies, general, dellning the status of 

the Jews. 
Codes, Jewish relijrious. 
r.iiiniil. the Great, couples at the 

head of. 
)-, .,.*,. the. 

! •'le. 

I :ie. 

I,. .;.s anJ Lexicographers, 

.levM>li. 

Hii-iiioniean Dynasty, the, the raem- 

Liers of. 
Herotlian Dynasty, the, the members 

of. 
Hij-'h Priests, the. 
ll;>i"rians. Jewish. 
Hi-!.'riaiis of the Jews. 
I-nni. the kings tif. 
Unnlites, the, the kinjfsof. 
Jtiiiriials. Jewish. 
.Iiidah. the kings of. 
Jud;i a. the Human governors of. 
Jmluism. tlie sects of. 
Judges, the. 

An almost complete biojrraphical history of the Jews can be collated by 
followiufc up throuy:h the Inde.v the biosrraphies of the persons grouped 
below. The column on the left consists of the class-names of the secular 
chiefs of the Jewish community ; the column on the right, of those of the 
spiritual chiefs; the middle column, whether connecting the other two or 
replacing them, of those whose position, powers, and iuliuence were, or 
were supposed to be, both sjiiritual and secular. 

P.iTKIAKCHS. 



Kabbalistic terms, the. 

ICabbalists, the. 

Karaite sects, the. 

Karaite writers, the. 

Maimunists, the. 

Massorets. 

Meashm, the. 

Messiahs, the. 

Nahardea, the academy of, principal* 
of. 

Patriarchs, the. 

I'liilosuphers. .Jewish. 

I'hysieians, Jewish. 

Poets, Jewisli. 

Procurators of Judira. 

Prophets, tlie. 

Pumbeilitha, the academy of, princi- 
pals of. 

Rabbis. 

Itabbis. itincraiil. 

Sabbata5 Zevi, the followers of. 

SaV)ureans, the. 

Sora, the academy of, Geonira of. 

Sora, tlie acadiMny of, i)riiicii)als of. 

Synhedrioii. tlie, presidoiits of. 

Syria, the Roman g-ovoruors of. 

Talmudists. 

Tanaites. the. 

Travelers, Jewish. 

Writers (Historians, Pamphleteers, 
Scholars, etc.), non- Jewish, on Jewish 
subjects. 



Leauek 



Jl'DGES. 

Kings. 
Lbadeks 



'{ 



MOHCB 

and 
Joshua. 



Zerubbsbel. 
Kzrm, und 

Nebemlsb. 



Mehodian Dvnasty. 
Roman Pk(>< iua- 

TOKH or JlD.«A. 
RUMAN (iuVEK.NUUS 

ur Stkia. 



Moses. 



PuopnETS. 

EZKA 

and 

PuoruETs. 

High Puiests. 

hasmonykan dynasty 

(Princes and High I'rleets). 



HiGU Pkiests. 

High Priests. 
High Pkiksts. 

ni(in Priests. 



C High Pkiest.s. 
I Presidents OK the 
-J Synhedrion. 
I Teachers of the 

(^ Law (Tanaites). 



pKIXCEIt OF TIIK CaI 
TIVITT. 

(EllUrcb. Itefbrialotbai. \ 

PHT.sl 



PltEHinENTS OK THIC SVNHEDRION 

(uader the tltlea Patriarch. Naetl, I'riucc, and Kubban) 

and 

Teacheus ok the Law 

(Tanaltea nod Ainoniim). 
/ 



Presidents of the 
Babylonian Acade- 
mies, Geonim. 



lA.vs A Nil I'liii.usornK 

I'oETS. 

Talmcdists and Rabbis. 



INDEX. 



141 



Aaron, high priest, member of 

the tribe of Levi, 1, 12. 

countenances idohitry, 1, 14. 

meets Moses on Horeb, 1, 15. 

descendants of. tSee Aaronides. 

Aaron de la Papa. 8ce Papa, 

Aaron de la. 
Aaron of York, chief rabbi of 
England, 3, 588. 
sums paid to Henry III bj^ 3, 
591. 
Aaron ben Asher, Massoret, 
criticised by Saadiah, 3, 
196, 207. 
corrects Bible manuscripts, 3, 

207. 
as a poet, 3, 223. 
Aaron (II) ben Elia Nicomedi 
(1300-13G9), Karaite philoso- 
pher, 4, 95. 
Aaron (I) ben Joseph, the 
Elder (1270-1300), Karaite 
physician, disciple of Nach- 
mani, 3, 607; 4, 71. 
fixes the Karaite prayer book, 
4, 71. 
Aaron ben Meshullam (1170- 
1210), scholar, 3, 396. 
Maimunist, attacks Meir Abu- 
lafia, 3, 524. 
Aaron ben Zerach, martyr, 4. 

144. 
Aaron ben Zion Ibn-Alamani, 
ph^'sician at Alexandria, 3, 
340. 
Aaron Ibn-Sarjadu (943-960), 
opponent of Saadiah, 3, 194, 
195, 196, 200. 
reconciled with Saadiah, 3, 

200-1. 
Gaon of Pumbeditha, 3, 202. 
death of, 3, 207-S. 
in Sherira's " Letter," 3, 233. 
Aaron Cohen, of Narbonne, ele- 
gy by, 4, 49. 



Aaron Halevi (1235-1300), Tal- 
mud ist, 3, 621. 
Aaronides, the, oppose idolatry 
under Alanasseh, 1, 283. 

dismissed for not participat- 
ing in idolatrous worship, 1, 
284. 

massacred at the first fall of 
Jerusalem, 1, 314. 

return with Zerubbabel, 1, 
352. 

rejected by Nehemiah, 1, 378. 

provided for, under Ezra, 1, 
382. 

exiled by Nehemiah, 1, 386. 

officiate on Gerizim, 1, 390. 

honor Judah I's remains, 2, 
467. 

in charge of Judah II's re- 
mains, 2, 487. 

in Arabia, 3, 55. 

make Abraham ben David's 
grave, 3, 490. 

See also High priests, the; 

Priests, the. 

Ab, the Ninth of, celebration 

of, by Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 152, 

159. 

Abaka (Abagha), Tartar king 

in Persia, 3, 638. 
Abayi Nachmani (280-338), Bab- 
ylonian Amora, 2, 560. 

disciple of Ilabba bar Nach- 
mani, 2, 575, 580, 583. 

principal of the Pumbeditha 
x\cademy, 2, 583. 

youth of, 2, 583-4. 

integrity of, 2, 584. 

decrease of students under, 2, 
584-5. 

dialectics of, 2, 585. 

death of, 2, 585. 

rebukes Raba bar Joseph, 2, 
586. 



142 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Abba of Accho, ordination of. 
2. ,vio. 
nuuk'sty of. 2, 541. 
Abba bar Abba. Aniora. father 

of Mar-Sanuu'l. 2, 511. 
Abba-Areka (Kab). Amora, au- 
thorized to teach in Baby- 
lon, 2, 454, 479, 511. 
adds supplements to the Mish- 

na. 2, 470. 
opposed to the purchase of oil 

from heathens, 2, 484. 
reception of, in Babylonia, 2, 

51 -J. 
made Ajrora-nomos, 2, 51:.'. 
introduces excommunication 

into Babylonia, 2, 517. 
compared with Ilillel, 2, 517. 
wife of, 2, 517. 
modesty of, 2, 517-lS. 
descendants of, 2, 518, 544. 
oppoi^es Persian innovations, 

2, 521. 
yields to Magian demands, 2, 

520. 
influence of, on Jewish Baby- 
lonia, 2, 544. 
Abba-Mari ben Isaac, sheriff of 

St. (iilles. 3, :iuo. 

Abba-Mari ben Moses (Don 

.\struc En-l)uran), follower 

of Nachmanides, 4, 27-8. 

appeals to Ben Adret, 4, 28, 20. 

fails to win Jacob ben 

Machir's aid, 4, 31. 
agfiressive anti-Maimunist, 4, 

:i2. 
adherents of, 4, 33-4. 
Kccures the support of .\sheri, 

4, 38. 
draws up the ban ajjainst the 

study of scienc*', 4, 38, 39. 
opposed by the Tibbonides, 

4, 41-2. 
in l'er|)i(.'nan, 4, 50. 
Abba Saul, a T:inaite, 2, 3:!0. 



Abbadides, the, in Seville, 3, 

315. 
Abbahu, a Palestinian Amora, 
2, 531. 
and the observance of the Law 

in Samaria, 2, 534. 
secular culture of, 2, 537-8. 
edtication of the daughter of, 

2, 537. 
and Diocletian, 2, 538. 
Hebrew style of, 2, 538. 
attacks Christian dogmas, 2, 

539-40. 
modesty and generosity of, 2, 

510-1. 
on the Greek theatre, 2, 542. 
makes Ciesarea an academic 

city, 2, 543. 
sons of, 2, 543. 
Abbasside Caliphate (Caliphate 
(.f till' Kast, Bagdad Cal- 
i|)lia1('). the, weakness of, 
in the twelfth century, 3, 
431. 
conquered bj^ Hulagu, 3, (iO'). 
Abbasside Caliphate, the, the 
Jews of, in the ninth cen- 
tury, 3, 145-G, 176-80. 
under Al-Mutadhid, 3, 183. 
in the twelfth century, 3, 428- 
33. 
Abbassides, the, opponents of 

the Ommiyyades, 3, 125. 
Ab-beth-din, president of the 
Council of Seventy, 1, 395. 
deputy of the president of the 

Synhedrion, 2, 360, 404. 
oflice of, ceases, 2, 453. 
Abdallah Ibn-Allah, vizir, pre- 
vents the forced conversion 
f)f Jews to Islam. 3, 312. 
Abdallah Ibn-Hakam, murders 
the king of Saragossa, 3, 
2r,n. 
Abdallah Ibn-Saba, partisan of 
Ali. 3, 90. 



INDEX. 



143 



Abdallah Ibn-Salam, Jewish 

disciple of Mahomet, 3, 73. 
Abdallah Ibn-Tumart, incites 
the Moors against the Al- 
moravides, 3, 357-8. 
founds the Almohades, 3, 358. 
Abdallah. Ibn-Ubey, opponent 
of :\[ahomet, 3, 75. 
protects the Benu-Kainukaa, 

3, 77. 

promises aid to the Benu- 

Nadhir, 3, 78. 

Abdallah, son of Saura, Jewish 

opponent of Mahomet, 3, 74. 

Abdallah Almamun (813-833), 

son of Haroun Alrashid, at 

war with his brother, 3, 145. 

prosperity of the Abbasside 

Caliphate under, 3, 146. 
adopts the Mutazilist theol- 
ogy, 3, 147. 
appealed to by rival parties in 
the Pumbeditha academj', 3, 
155. 
the last of the tolerant caliphs 

of the East, 3, 176. 
reduces the power of the Exil- 
archs, 3, 177. 
Abdel-latif, Mahometan physi- 
cian, on ^Maimonides, 3, 473, 
488. 
Abdon, judge, 1, 66. 
Abdul-Malik, Ommiyyade cal- 
iph, tolerance of, 3', 110. 
Abdul Meg'id, sultan of Tur- 
key, 5, 634. 
emancipates the Jews, 5, 641, 

664. 
orders a revision of the 

Ehodes trial, 5, 647. 
secures the Turkish Jews 
against the blood accusa- 
tion, 5, 662. 
Abdulmumen, Almohade ruler 
of northern Africa, tries to 
force Islam upon his sub- 
jects, 3, 358-60, 451. 



Abdul-Rahman III, Ommiy- 
yade caliph, appealed to in 
behalf of Moses ben Cha- 
noch, 3, 209-10. 
Moslem culture under, 3, 214. 
appoints Chasdai Ibn-Shaprut 

interpreter, 3, 216. 
death of, 3, 222. 
Abel, Psychic type of the Gnos- 
tics, 2, 377. 
Abel. See Abel-Bethmaachah. 
Abel-Bethmaachah, refuge of 
Sheba, 1, 149-50. 
the region of, subjugated by 
Ben-hadad I, 1, 191. 
Abele-Zion, ascetic Karaites in 
Jerusalem, 3, 182. See also 
" Mourners of Zion," the. 
Abenacar, Isaac (Manuel Pim- 
entel), first Jew buried at 
Ouderkerk, 4, 672. 
Abendana, Jacob, rabbi of Lon- 
don, 5, 214. 
Abenhuacar. See Samuel Ibn- 

Wakar. 
Abensur, Daniel, millionaire in 

Hamburg, 5, 205. 
Abia, king of Arabia, at war 
with Izates of Adiabene, 2, 
217-18. 
Abiathar, the family of, under 
David's protection, 1, 100. 
partisan of David, 1, 107, 112. 
made high priest, 1, 120. 
on the persecution of the 

Gibeonites, 1, 123. 
against Absalom, 1, 141. 
urges the recall of David, 1, 

146. 
siipports Adonijah, 1, 152. 
of the priestly house of Itha- 

mar, 1, 155. 
deposed, 1, 160. 
Abi-Ezri. See Eleazar ben Joel 

Halevi. 
Abigail, wife of David, 1, 134. 



144 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Abijah, sou uf Samuel. JihIk^'. 

1. 79. 

Abijam, son of Kehoboam, kiii^ 

of Judah. 1, 1S9. 
Abilone, Riven to Agrippa II. 

2. 24-.. 

Abimai, son of Abbahu, 2, .')4:i. 

Abimelech. judge. 1, 03. 

Abin, Amora, emigrates from 

.1 uda»a. 2, oti7. 
Abinadab, guards the Ark ot 

the Covenant. 1, 11'.'. 
Abinadab, son of Saul, death of. 

1, iu:i. 
Abinerglus (.\bennerig). father- 
in-law of Izates. 2, 2\C,. 
Abishag, wife of David, and 

Adonijah, 1, lOO. 
Abishai, Ijrother of Joab. kills 
Abner. 1. 111. 
saves David. 1, 117. 
commander in the Ammonite 

war. 1, 127. 
conducts the Iduma^an war. 1, 

12S-9. 
against .\bsaIom. 1, 111. 144. 
condiiets the war against She- 
ba. 1, 14'.». 
Ablaat, astronomer, friend of 

Mar-Samuel. 2, :)21. 
Abner, cousin of Saul, fiuaiilits 
of. 1, 84-.1. 
frees Israel from the I'iiilis- 

tines. 1, lOS. 
makes Ishbosheth Saul's suc- 
cessor, 1, lOS. 
actual founder of the king- 
dom of the Ten Tribes, 1, 
108. 
Jealous of .loah. 1, 100. 
power of, 1, lO'.t. 
kills Asahcl. 1, 110. 
accused of coveting Ui/pah, 1, 

no. 

joins David. 1, 110-11. 
murd.T.'l. 1. 111-12. 



Abner of Burgos. Sec Alfonso 

IJurgeiisis. 
Aboab. Immauuel, defends Rab- 

binieal .ludaism, 5, 55. 
Aboab, Isaac, rabbi of Toledo, 

friend of Isaac Abrabanel, 

4, :!4i. 

negotiates for the settlement 
of Spanish exiles in Portu- 
gal, 4, 352, :i05. 

death of. 4, 36f.. 
Aboab, Isaac, de Fonseca (1606- 
IC)'.);'.), rabbi at Amsterdam, 
instructs at the Talmud 
Torah, 4, 081. 

member of the first Kabbini- 
eal college, 4, 682. 

as a preacher, 4, 682-3. 

vacillating character of, 4, 
cs:i. 

goes to ■Brazil, 4, 693. 

on the war in Brazil, 4, 694. 

devotee of the Kabbala, 5, 52. 

translates Kabbalistic works, 

5, 54, 88. 

and Spinoza. 5, 92. 
Sabbatian, 5, 139, 160. 

Aboab, Samuel, rabbi at Ven- 
ice, and Lnzzatto, 5, 240. 

Aboda Zara, Mishnic treatise on 
idolaters, 2, 477. 

Abodah, the. Day of .Vtonement 
Temple service, j^oem on, 3, 
114-15. 

Aboget, alleged poisoner of 
wells. 4, 102. 

Abrabanel. See Dormido; Isaac 
ben Judah; Isaac II, son of 
Isaac; Isaac III, son of 
.Tudah Leon; Judah Leon; 
Samuel T; Samuel II. 

Abrabanel family, the, de- 
scended from David, 3, 43. 

Abrabanela. Sec Benvenida. 

Abradhi, calijih of the East, 
vizir of. favors Saadiah, 3, 
200. 



INDEX. 



145 



Abraham, disciple of Meir of 

J\othenbiirg, 4, 74. 
Abraham, monk, convert to 

Jiuiaism, 3, 21. 
Abraham, patriarch, acquires 
Machpelah, 1, 4. 
monotheist, 1, 5. 
virtues of, 1, 6. 
revered by the Israelites, 1, 

6-7. 
impresses Mahomet, 3, 71. 
in the Zohar. 4, 2:5. 
Abraham of Aragon, oculist, 3, 

583. 
Abraham de Balmes, phj^sician 
and grammarian, 4, 411. 
instructs Christians in He- 
brew, 4, 473. 
Abraham de Bey a, traveler in 

Portuguese emplo3% 4, 368. 
Abraham of Granada, Kabbal- 

ist, 4, 196-7. 
Abraham de Herrera. See Her- 

rera, Abraham de. 
Abraham ben Chasdai, Maimu- 
nist, as poet, 3, 388, 560. 
denounces Solomon of Mont- 

pellier, 3, 544. 
epigram by, 3, 544. 
Abraham ben Chiya Albarge- 
loni (1065-1136), astronomer, 
3, :;i:;; 4, 120. 
Abraham ben David of Pos- 
quieres (Rabed II, 1125- 
1198), Talmudist, as a con- 
troversialist, 3, 389, 399. 
disciple of Abraham ben Isaac, 

3, 392. 
friend of Judah Ibn-Tibbon, 

3, 397. 
writes a Mishna commentary, 

3, 399. 
criticises Maimonides' Mishne- 

Torah, 3, 490. 
death of, 3, 490. 
alleged founder of the Kab- 
bala, 3, 547. 



I Abraham ben Isaac, head of the 
college of Xarbonne, 3, 392. 

son-in-law of, 3, ;'.99. 
Abraham ben Meir Ibn-Ezra 
(1088-1167), personality of, 
3, 366-7, 381. 

attitude of, towards the Ka- 
raites, 3, 366. 

and Jehuda Ilalevi and Moses 
Ibn-Ezra, 3, 367. 

l)oetry of, 3, 367-8. 

as an exegete, 3, 368, 370-1, 
371-3. 

poverty of, 3, 368-9. 

in the East, 3, 369. 

in Eome, 3, 369-71. 

as a grammarian, 3, 371, 374. 

adheres to the Massora, 3, 371. 

at Mantua and Lucca, 3, 371. 

in .southern France, 3, 373. 

poem on, by Jacob Tam, 3, 
373, 376. 

in London, 3, 373-4. 

as philosopher, 3, 373. 

defends the Sabbath eve, 3,374. 

last years of, 3, 374-5. 

son of, 3, 375. 

influence of, on Italian Jews, 

3, 423. 

attacked bj^ Nachmani, 3, 534, 

608. 
the works of, used by Ray- 

mund Martin, 3, 622. 
denounced as a heretic, 3, 624. 
admired by Yedaya Bedaresi, 

4, 43. 

the works of, studied in the 
fourteenth century, 4, 143-4. 

the Pentateuch commentary 
by, commented upon, 4, 144. 

commentary on the works of, 
4, 191. 

exegesis of, praised by Reuch- 
lin, 4, 442. 

commentary by, in the Bom- 
berg Bible, 4, 476. 

studied by Spinoza, 5, 88. 



146 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia 
(1240-l-".tl), Kabbalist, 4, :!, 
11, 022. 

youth and ideals of, 4, 4-5, 1'.'. 

system of, 5, 5-i), 14. 

di.scipk^s of, 4, 0, 8, 10. 

in Italy, 4, 0. 

imprisoned, 4, 7. 

Messianic claims of, 4, T-S. 

works of. 4, S. 

declared a heretic. 4, iV.r,. 
Abraham ben Sherira. S<c Mai- 

A bra ham. 
Abraham Ibn-Alfachar (lltU)- 
1223), favorite of Alfonso ill 
of Castile, 3, 3S4-5. 

ambassador to Morocco, 3, 385. 

encourages Talmud study, 3, 
386. 
Abraham Ibn-Daud Halevi 
(lllO-llxi), ])hysician, phil- 
osopher, and historian, 3, 
3G3-G. 

parentage of, 3, 364. 

attainments of, 3, 364. 

as an historian, 3, 364, 365-0. 

as a scientist, 3, 364. 

as a philosopher, 3, 364-5. 

style of, 3, 366. 

death of, 3, 386. 

the work of, consulted by 
Basnage, 5, 196. 
Abraham Ibn-Shoshan, scholar, 
S|)anish exile in Egypt, 4, 

Abraham Ibn-Zarzal, physician 
.111(1 astrologer, 4, 116. 

Abraham, son of Manessier de 
X'esoid, 4, 150. 

Abraham Bedaresi, poet, elegy 
by. 3, 57't. 
cjinipared with his son. 4, 12. 

Abraham Benveniste Senior, 
dignitary at the court of 
Juan II of Castile, 4, 228. 
frames the law of Avila, 4, 229. 



Abraham Benveniste Senior 
{cuniinuvd), promotes the 
marriage of Isabella of Cas- 
tile, 4, 280. 
friend of Isaac Abrabanel,4,:Ml. 
accepts baptism, 4, 351. 
Sec also Coronel. 
Abraham Bibago, favorite of 

.John II of Aragon, 4, 275. 
Abraham Farissol (1451-1525), 
Hiblc commentator and ge- 
ograjiher, 4, 411-12. 
protege of Hercules d'Este I, 

4, 412-13. 
polemic writings of, 4, 413. 
Abraham Israel, excommuni- 
cates Eibeschiitz's oppo- 
nents, 5, 264. 
Abraham Klausner, compiles 
the customs of various com- 
munities. 4, 134. 
Abraham Levi, Spanish exile, 

Kabbalist, 4, 481. 
Abraham (Abulmeni) Maimuni 
(1185-1254), son of ]\Iaimon- 
ides, his successor, 3, 493. 
Talmudist and philosopher, 3, 

495. 
visited by rabbis emigrating 

to Palestine, 3, 505. 
and the attacks upon his 
father. 3, 525-6, 545. 
Abraham Maimuni II, great- 
grandson of Maimonides, 
converts Karaites to Ilab- 
baiiisni, 4, 71-2. 
Abraham Menz, director of the 

Tadua college, 4, 410. 
Abraham Saba, Kabbalist, 

leaves Portugal, 4, 381. 
Abraham Yizchaki, anti-Sab- 
bat iau, 5, 220-1. 
Abraham Zacuto, disciple of 
Isaac Aboab, ]ironounces his 
funeral oration, 4, 366. 
author of an astronomical cal- 
endar, 4, 367, 372. 



INDEX. 



147 



Abraham Zacuto {cnntinncd), es- 
capes from I'ortug-al, 4, 3TS. 
at Tunis, 4, 391. 
writes the Sefer Yochasiii, 4, 

391. 
flees to Turkey, 4, 392. 
compared with Elias Kapsali, 

4, 407. 
chronicle of, published, 4, OOS, 

G29. 
great-grandson of, 4, 67S. 
Abraham Zacuto Lusitano 
(1576-1642), physician, hon- 
or paid to, 4, 67S. 
Abrianim, transgressors of the 
Law, addressed by Jesus, 2, 
152. 
Absalom., son of David, insti- 
gates the murder of Amnon, 

1, 134. 

seeks refuge with Talmai of 

Geshur, 1, 134-5. 
pardoned, 1, 136. 
plots with Ahithophel, 1, 136, 

138-44. 
description of, 1, 137. 
hailed as king in Hebron, 1, 130. 
in Jerusalem, 1, 142-3. 
accepts Hushai's advice, 1, 143. 
killed, 1, 144-5. 
mourned by David, 1, 145. 
monument of, 1, 145. 
children of, 1, 145. 
Absalom, son of John Hyrca- 
nus, 2, 34. 
in Pompey's triumph, 2, 67. 
Abt, friend of Mendelssohn, 5, 

303. 
Abtalion (Pollion), head of the 
Synhedrion, 2, 71-2. 
maxims of, 2, 72; 3, 573. 
disciples of, 2, 72, 96. 
opposed to Antigonus, 2, 85-6. 
counsels submission to Herod, 

2, 88. 

spared by Herod, 2, 89. 
death of, 2, 90. 



Abu-Abdullah Mahomet Alna- 
sir, AIniohade caliph, in- 
vades Andalusia, 3, 506-7. 
decrees Jew badges, 3, 512. 

Abu-Afak, poet, opponent of 
Mahomet, 3, 74. 

Abu Amr Joseph ben Chasdai. 
Hcc Joseph ben Chasdai. 

Abu-Amr Joseph ben Zadik 
Ibn-Zadik (1080-1148), phil- 
osopher, 3, 314-15. 
as a poet, 3, 315. 
death of, 3, 361. 

Abu-Amran Moses, founder of 
a Karaite sect, 3, 157-S. 

Abu-Amranites, Karaite secta- 
ries, 3, 158. 

Abu-Amrun Musa ben Maimun 
Obaid Allah, Arabic name 
of iNIaimonides, 3, 447. 

Abu Ayub (Solomon Ibn-Al- 
muallem), poet and physi- 
cian, 3, 312. 

Abu Ayub Sulaiman Ibn-Yach- 
ya. *S'fp Solomon Ibn-Gebirol. 

Abu-Bekr, Mahomet's general, 
repulsed at Kamus, 3, 82. 

Abudiente, Abraham Gideon, 
Sabbatian, 5, 155. 

Abu Fadhl Chasdai (1040), 
Arabic Jewish poet, vizir to 
the king of Saragossa, 3, 
280. 

Abuhajaj Joseph Ibn-Ezra, 
brother of Moses Ibn-Ezra, 
3, 319. 
son of, 3, 361. 

Abu Hussain Joseph Ibn-Na- 
grela. See Joseph Ibn-Na- 
grela. 

Abu-Ibrahim Isaac Ibn-Ezra, 
brother of Moses Ibn-Ezra, 
3, 318. 

Abu Ibrahim Isaac Ibn-Kastar 
ben Yasus (Yizchaki, 982- 
1057), physician and philos- 
opher, 3, 273. 



148 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Abu-Isa. Sec Obaiali Abu-Isa 
bfu Isliak. 

Abu Ishak al-Elviri, Maluinu-- 
tan poet, enemy of the .Tews 
of (iranada. 3, JTS. 

Abu Ishak Ibn-Mohajar, vi/ir 
to the Ahnoia\i(le Ali, 3, 
312. 

Abu Jacob Yussuff Almostan- 
sir, AliiHihaile ruler of Mo- 
roeci), 3, .'!>."). 

Abu-Jafar Ibn-Aljezzar, Ma- 
hometan disei|)U' of Isaac 
Israeli. 3, isi. 

Abu Jafar Almansur, ealiph, 
imprisons A nan hen David. 
3, 120-30. 

Abu-Kai"iba Assad Toban. kiny 
of Yemen, besieges Yathrib, 
3, 62. 
convert to Judaism, 3, G.!. 
end of, 3, 63. 
sons of, 3, 64. 

Abulafia. Sec Abraham ben 
Sanuiel; AVinlafia, Moses; 
Joseph ben Todros; Levi ben 
Todros; Mei'r ben Todros 
llalevi; Samuel ben Meir .\1- 
lavi; Todros ben Joseph. 

Abulafia, Marrano, agent of Fer- 
dinand and Isabella, opposes 
the Intpiisition, 4, 313. 
burnt at the stake. 4, 317. 

Abulafia, Moses, accused of 
ritual murder, 5, 63G. 
tortured, 5, 636-7. 
Imris .M:ili(imetan, 5, 638. 

Abulafia family, the, of the no- 
bility of Jewish Spain, 3. 
236; 4, 116. 
members of, perish during the 
Hlaek Death, 4, 113. 

Abul-Ala, Ar.-ibie jjoet, 3, 100. 

Abul Arab Ibn-Moisha, Ma- 
hometan theologian and 
poet, friend of Maimonidcs, 
3, 456. 



Abul Arab Ibn-Moisha (con- 
tinued), accuses Maimonides 
of apostasy from Islam, 3, 
■171. 

Abul-Barkat Hibat-Allah ben 
Malka. Sec Nathaniel. 

Abulhassan, king of Morocco, 
at war with Castile, 4, 84. 

Abulhassan Abraham, ben Meir 

Ibn-Kamnial, physician, 

vi/ir to the Alinoravide Ali, 

3, .112. 

])at ron of Moses Ibn-Ezra, 3, :i20. 

Abulhassan Jehuda ben Samuel 
Halevi (Ibn-Allevi). »SVr Je- 
huda llalevi. 

Abulhassan Jehuda Ibn-Ezra, 
brother of Moses Ibn-Ezra, 
3, ;iis. 

Abulkasini Ibn-Alarif, vizir of 
llal)us. jialron of Samuel 
ibn-Xagrela, 3, 256. 

Abulkassim Mahomet. See Al- 
M iilanu'd. 

Abulmeni Abraham Maimuni. 
See Abraham Maimuni. 

Abulsari Sahal ben Mazliach 
Kohen, i)ropagandist for 
Karaism, 3, 203--). 
as controversiali.st, 3, 204-5. 
Hebrew style of, 3, 204, 206. 

Abulvalid Mervan Ibn-Janach. 
Sec .Tonah ^larinus. 

Abu Mansur Samuel ben Cha- 
nanya, Xagid, invites Jehu- 
da llalevi to Cairo, 3, 340-1. 
successor of, 3, 443. 

Abumelik, leads a ^Moorish ar- 
my against Castile, 4, 84. 
killed. 4, S.l. 

Abunassar Azaria,son of Joseph 
ll)n-Xagr(>la, flees to Lucena, 
3, 279. 
death of, 3, 284. 

Abu-Sahal Ali (835-853), medi- 
c-al writer, 3, 140. 



INDEX. 



149 



Abusahal Dunash ben Tamim. 

Sec Dunash ben Tamim. 
Abu Said ben Chalfon Halevi, 

friend of Jelnida Halevi, 3, 

340. 
Abu-Yussuf Cliasdai ben Isaac 

Ibn-Sliaprut. »Src Cliasdai 

Ibn-Shaprut. 
Abu-YussufE Almansur, Almo- 

hade prince, introduces a 

garb for apostate Jews, 3, 

511-12. 
Abuzurj-Mihir, inventor of 

chess, 3, 7. 
Abydos, Sabbatai Zevi impris- 
oned at, 5, 148, 151. 
enriched by the Sabbatians, 

5, 149. 
Academies, the Babylonian, 

authority of the principals 

of, 2, 547. 
closed tinder Kobad, 3, 4. 
re-opened, 3, 5. 
work of, 3, 6. 
give religious instruction to 

the Arabian Jews, 3, 59. 
principals of, deposed by the 

Exilarchs, 3, 91. 
independent of each other in 

internal affairs, 3, 96. 
organization of, tinder the 

caliphs, 3, 96-7. 
office of the president of, not 

hereditary, 3, 96. 
meetings of, in Adar and Elul, 

3, 97. 
income of, 3, 97-8. 
prayers for the departed at, 

3, 101. 
the heads of, excommunicate 

Anan ben David, 3, 134. 
the Karaites on, 3, 134-5. 
and the election of the Exil- 

arch, 3, 137. 
hold aloof from Islam theol- 
ogy, 3, 148. 



Academies, the Babylonian 

{(■(mtinucd) , respect paid to, 

in the ninth century, 3, 160. 

»S'('(' also under Pumbeditha and 

Sora. 

Academies, the Babylonian, list 
of: 

Firuz-Shabur, Nisibis, 

Machuza, Pumhcditha, 

Nahardea, Shekan-Zib, 

Nares, Silhi, 
Sora. 

Academies, the Palestinian, ori- 
gin of, 2, 324. 

established by the disciples of 
Jochanan ben Zakkai, 2, 
335. 

frequented by Babylonian stu- 
dents, 2, 511, 531. 

decline of, 2, 543, 548, 560. 

method of, 2, 557-8. 

F^ee under Acbara; Bekiin; Cae- 

sarea; Emniaus; Jamnia; 

Lydda; Sepphoris; Tiberias; 

Schools. 

Academy at Jerusalem, founded 

by the Vegas, 5, 126. 
Academy of Sciences at Berlin, 
prize of, won by Mendels- 
sohn, 5, 303-4. 

]\rendelssohn proposed as 
member of, 5, 308. 
Acbara, seat of Jannai's acade- 
my, 2, 470. 
Accho (Acco; Acre; Ptolemais; 
St. Jean d'Acre), built by 
the Canaanites, 1, 3. 

surrenders to Shalmaneser, 1, 
264. 

fortifications of, destroyed by 
Ptolemy I, 1, 417. 

the inhabitants of, threaten 
the Galilean Judaeans, 1, 
475. 

Jonathan Haphus meets De- 
metrius at, 1, 496. 



ISO 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Accho (continued), Jonathan Ila- 
phus taken prisoner at, 1, 
499. 
surrenders to Ptolemy VI 11, 

2, 40. 
Vespasian prepares for his 
Juchean campaign at, 2, 2S5. 
Talmudists in, in the twelfth 

century, 3, 42T. 
Maimonide.s at, 3, 45G. 
Nachmani at, 3, G05. 
Kabbalist center, 3, 626. 
Kabbalists of, burn the "(luide 

of the Perplexed," 3, 631. 
Maimonides' tomb at, desecra- 
ted. 3, 631. 
Maimunists in, 3, G31. 
David Maimuni at, 3, 632-3. 
the Jews of, blotted out, 3, 
650. 
Acha of Diphta, proposed as 
principal of the Sora acade- 
my, 2, (;27. 
Acha ben Jacob, on Chama of 

.Nahardea, 2, CAK,. 
Achai bar Huna, Amora, com- 
piler of the Babylonian Tal- 
mud, 2, 631. 
Achaia, Paul establishes Chris- 
tian communities in, 2, 227. 
Achbar, teacher of the Law 
among the Arabic Jews, 3, 
alt. 
Acher. See Elisha ben Abuya. 
Achiab, prevents Herod from 

committing suicide, 2, 116. 
Achish, Philistine king, in 
friendly relations with Da- 
vid, 1, 101-2. 
acknowledge.s David king, 1, 
10«. 
Achitub, grandson of Eli, high 

prifst at Nob, 1, 7'.). 
Achiya, first Kxiiarch known. 2, 

.100. 
Achiya. Nee aluu Chiva. 



Achmed I, sultan, Jewish wo- 
men under, 4, 629, 630. 
Achmed Shaitan, viceroy of 
Egypt, treachery of, 4, 395. 
avenges himself on the Jews 
of Cairo, 4, 395-6. 
Achunai. See Chananya. 
Acosta, Uriel (tJabriel). See 

Costa, I'riel da. 
Acra, the, a part of Jerusalem, 

burnt by Titus, 2, 308. 
Acra (Acrapolis; Paris; Birah), 
the, the Temple citadel, 
built l)y Xehemiah, 1, 382, 
585. 
garrisoned by Scopas, 1, 433. 
Greel: rzmcs taught in, 1, 445. 
refuge of the Hellenists, 1, 

451. 
occupied by Menelaus, 1, 470, 

478. 
besieged by Judas Alaccabaeus, 

1, 478. 
Hellenists leave, 1, 480. 
reinforced by Bacchides, 1, 

491. 
besieged by Jonathan Haphus, 

1, 496. 
surrenders to Simon Tharsi, 

1, 523. 

tlie towers of, taken down, 1, 

524. 
called Birah, 1, 524-5. 
wife aiul children of Aristob- 

ulus II imprisoned in, 2, 58. 
called Antonia, 2, 106. 
See Antonia. 
Acrabatene, the Samaritans of, 

slaughtered by the Zealots, 

2, 243. 

Acrabattine, the Idumaeans 
driven out of, b}- Judas 
Maccabipus, 1, 474. 
invested by Simon bar Giora, 
2, 293. 

Acrapolis, the. See Acra, the. 

Acre. See Accho. 



INDEX. 



151 



Actian games, the, introduced 

into Jerusalem, 2, 105. 
Actium, the battle of, won by 

Octavius, 2, 96. 
Ada, a Babj-lonian Amora, 2, 

579. 
Adalbert, bishop of Prague, and 

the slave-trade of Jews, 3, 

305. 
Adam, the book of, Sibylline 

chronicle, quoted, 2, 462. 
Adam. Kadmon, Kabbalistic 

term, the original man, 5, 

121, 143. 
Adamantius, apostate Jew in 

Alexandria, 2, 619. 
Adams, Hannah, history of. the 

Jews by, 5, 593. 
Adarsa, the battle of, won by 

Judas Maccabaeus, 1, 485. 
Adath Jeshurun, the body of 

advanced Jews in Amster- 
dam, innovations of, 5, 457. 
Aden, the Jews of, in the 

twelfth century, 3, 436. 
Adher-Baijan (Aserbeidsan), 

Samuel Ibn-Abbas in, 3, 442. 
Adher-Baijan, the Jews of, in 

the twelfth century, 3, 430- 

33. 
urged to join David Alrui, 3, 

431. 
followers of David Alrui, 3, 433. 
Adiabene, description of, 2, 216. 
the nobles of, conspire against 

Izates, 2, 217-18. 
the people of, friendly to the 

Judaeans, 2, 219. 
in alliance with the Zealots, 

2, 256. 
the royal house of, aids Juda?a 

against Kome, 2, 264. 
the princes of, the only Ju- 

dsean insurgents spared by 

Eome, 2, 311. 
conquered by Trajan, 2, 393-4. 
laid waste bj^ Severus, 2, 464. 



Adido, Simon Tharsi assembles 

his forces at, 1, 500. 
Adiya, father of the poet Sam- 
uel, 3, 68. 
Adnan, ancestor of the Arabs, 

3, 61. 
Adolph of Nassau, emperor, re- 
fuses to surrender Meir of 
Rothenburg's body, 4, 35. 
war of, with Albrecht, 4, 35. 
death of, 4, 36. 
Adonijah, son of David, opposes 
Absalom, 1, 135. 
rebels, 1, 151-4. 
supporters of, 1, 152. 
royal display of, 1, 152. 
Nathan opposed to, 1, 153. 
acknowledged king, 1, 153. 
pays homage to Solomon, 1, 

154. 
killed, 1, 160. 
Adonim. See Dunash ben 

Labrat. 
Adoniram, superintendent oi. 
the building of the first 
Temple, 1, 163, 172. 
accompanies Rehoboam to 

Shechem, 1, 181. 
killed, 1, 182. 
Adonis, Baal of the Plioenicians, 

1, 54. 

statue of, worshiped at Beth- 
lehem, 2, 422. 
Adora, Idumaean fortress, de- 
molished by John Hyrcanus, 

2, 8. 

Adoyot, the oldest Mishna com- 
pilation, 2, 343, 460. 
Adraat, chief town of Batansea, 

3, 77. 

Benu-Xadhir settle in, 3, 79. 

Adrammelech, son of Sennache- 
rib, murders him, 1, 280. 

Adramyttium, treasure-house 
in, for the half-Shekel con- 
tributions, 2, 53. 



15^ 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Adrianople, Karaites move to, 
4, 2i)y. 

the Spanish exiles in, 4, W'). 

Joseph Karo at. 4, 5.')7. 

Sabbatai' Zevi at, 5, 154-0(1. 

Nathan Cihazati at. 5, l.-jS-'.i. 
101. 

Sabbatians of, devoted to Sab- 
batai', 5, U.\. 

Cardoso at, 5, 207. 

Sabbatians in, 5, 210. 
Adrianople, the Jews of, di- 
vided into national ^roiiijs, 
4, 478. 

consider tradinj? with I'esaro, 

4, 570. 

Adullam. David at, 1, lit). 

Adultery, ritual for suspected 
cases of, abolished, 2, 238. 
laws ag-ainst, inviolate, 2, 421. 

" Advice to the Representatives 
of the People," by Van 
Swieden, against the eman- 
cipation of the Dutch Jews. 

5, 453-4. 

iElia Capitolina, name of Jeru- 
salem under Hadrian, 2, 
421-2. 
iElius Hadrian. See Hadrian. 
Afia, Aaron, scientist in Salon- 

ica, 4, 405. 
Africa (northern), Karaites in- 
fluential in, in the tenth cen- 
tury. 3, 207. 

Jewish captives transported 
to. 3, 213. 

students from, at the Cordova 
Talmud school, 3, 22S. 

part of the Fatimide Caliph- 
ate, 3, 248. 

Talmud authorities of, in t]n» 
eleventh century, 3, 248-9. 

Abraham Ibn-E/.ra in, 3, 300. 

asylum for persecuted Jews 
in the fiflci-nth century. 4, 
197-8. 



Africa, northern (enutivned), the 
Sephardic liturgy adopted 
in, 4, 198. 
I'ortuguese conquests on the 

coast of, 4, 218. 
Marranos flee to, 4, 318. 
Spanish exiles in, 4, 352, 358, 
301-2, 389-90. 

descendants of Portuguese 
.Marranos in, 4, 381. 

Spanish spoken in, by the ex- 
iles, 4, 389. 

emigration of Portuguese 
Marranos to, forbidden, 4, 
50S. 
Africa (northern), the Jews of, 
conspire against the Visi- 
gothic empire, 3, 108. 

aid Tarik. 3, 109. 

])ersecuted, 3, 357-00, 451. 
Africa, Visigothic, the Jews of, 
enjoy civil and political 
equality, 3, 45. 
Agada, the, popular exposition 
of the Prophets and histori- 
cal writings, 2, 328-9. 

of Jochanan ben Zakkai, 2, 
329. 

used by R. IMeir, 2, 440. 

the study of, preferred in 
Juda>a, 2, 540. 

cultivated by the brothers of 
Kabba bar Nachmani, 2, 
57.5-0. 

cultivated under Theodosius 
II, 2, 023. 

in the synagogue forbidden 
by Justinian I, 3, 14. 

manifests the spirit of Juda- 
ism, 3, 15. 

frequent use of, in the syna- 
gogues of the East, 3, 10. 

cultivated among the Arabic 
Jews, 3, 59. 

r(i)]aced by neo-Hebrmic poe- 
try, 3, no. 



INDEX. 



^53 



Agada, the (continued), culti- 
vated by Eleazar ben Kalir, 

3, 117. 
studied by French and Italian 

Jews in the ninth century, 

3, 1()0. 
used by llashi, 3, 288. 
used by the Tossafists, 3, 345. 
effect of, on Asiatic Jews, 3, 

440. 
contains philosophical doc- 
trines according to Maimo- 

nides, 3, 479. 
reconciled with philosophy by 

Abraham Maimuni, 3, 495. 
rejected bj^ Maimonides, 3, 

523, 533. 
accepted literally by Solomon 

ben Abraham, 3, 527-8. 
view of, held by Nachmani, 3, 

533, 535, 599-GOO. 
in the Kabbala, 3, 549, 552. 
used by Pablo Christiani, 3, 

599. 
rationalized by Solomon ben 

Adret, 3, 619. 
used by Eaymund Martin, 3, 

622. 
authority of, 4, 214. 
declared without authority by 

Chayim Ibn-Musa, 4, 237. 
quoted, 4, 242. 
reviled by Aaron Margalita, 

5, 194. 
used by INIannheimer, 5, 581. 
Agag, Amalekite king, defeated 

by Saul, 1, 91-2. 
killed, 1, 93. 
Agape, the meal of the Naza- 

renes, 2, 223. 
Agen, meeting-place of the Pas- 

toureaux, 4, 56. 
Agobard, bishoii of Lyons, in- 
cites rebellion again Louis 

the Pious, 3, 164. 
refuses to restore a runaway 

slave to a Lj^ons Jew, 3, 164. 



Agobard (continued), tries to set 
Louis the i'ious against the 
Jews, 3, 165-8. 

joins the conspiracy against 
the empress, 3, 168. 

successor to, 3, 170. 
Agora-nomos, inspector of mar- 
kets, Abba-Areka appointed 
as, 2, 512. 

choice of, left to the Jews, 2, 
616. 
Agriculture, among the Jews of 
the Prankish and Burgun- 
dian kingdoms, 3, 35. 

occupation of the Jews of 
Crissa, 3, 424. 

Jews restricted to, by Freder- 
ick II, 3, 569. 

occupation of the immigrants 
in Palestine, 4, 74. 

See also Real estate. 
Agrigentum, Jews in, in the 

sixth century, 3, 28. 
Agrippa I (10 B. C. E.-44 C. E.), 
grandson of Mariamne, dis- 
tinguished by Caligula, 2, 
175. 

educated with the son of Ti- 
berius, 2, 175. 

apjDointed to an ofRce in Ti- 
berias, 2, 175. 

courtier of the governor of 
Syria, 2, 175. 

supplanted by his brother, 2, 
175. 

assisted by Alexander Lysim- 
achus, 2, 175-6. 

kindly treated by Tiberius, 2, 
176. 

imprisoned, 2, 176. 

released, 2, 177. 

king of Philip's tetrarchy, 2, 
177. 

accuses Herod Antipas of 
treachery to Caligula, 2, 
177. 



154 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Agrippa I {continuid), ruler of 

Calilee and I'eriea, 2, 177. 
rouses the resentment of the 

Alexandrian Greeks, 2, 181- 

1S2. 
and Calig-ula's edict concern- 
ing' iniagfes, 2, ISS-'J. 
king of all Palestine, 2, 190. 
coins in honor of. 2, 190, 104. 
change in the character of, 2, 

191. 
popularity of, 2, 191-2. 
piety of, 2, 192. 
sends g-ifts to Athens, 2, 19:5. 
favors Ca^sarea and Sebaste, 

2, 194. 
plans of, for Judaea, 2, 194-5. 
hampered by Vibius Marsus, 

2, 195. 
allied with Eastern princes, 2, 

195-G. 
death of, 2, 19G. 
memory of, insulted, 2, 19G-7. 
Agrippa H (27-92), son of 

Atrripjia I, proposed as king 

of .Tuda-a, 2, 190. 
introduces .Tuda'an envoys to 

Claudius. 2, 198. 
prince of Chalcis, 2, 2.'?5. 
and his sister, 2, 235. 
titular king of JudiPa, 2, 230. 
king of Philip's tetrarchy, 2, 

245. 
given four towns and Tiberias, 

2, 245-G. 
accused of encroaching ujinn 

the privileges of the Temple 

autliorilies, 2, 247-8. 
bribed to make .Joshua ben 

(iamala high priest, 2, 249. 
summons all Jud;eans to Je- 
rusalem for the Passover of 

00. 2, 251. 
opposed to revolutionary 

measures, 2, 257-S. 
flees from .Jerusalem, 2, 25s. 



Agrippa II (cotitinucd), sends 
troops to Jerusalem, 2, 259. 

palace of, burnt, 2, 2G0. 

sends a contingent to the Ro- 
man army, 2, 2G4-5. 

Tiberias under, 2, 273. 

Varus representative of, 2, 
274-5. 

the inhabitants of Gamala re- 
volt against, 2, 275. 

relation of, to Josephus, 2, 
278. 

meets Vespasian, 2, 285. 

lacks patriotism, 2, 288-9. 

pays homage to Galba, 2, 299. 

helps Titus in the siege of Je- 
rusalem, 2, ,302. 

sjiectator at the death of Ju- 
(heaiis in the arena of Caes- 
area Philippi, 2, 312. 

fall of, 2, 317. 

and Justus of Tiberias, 2, 
319-20. 

alleviates the burdens of the 
conquered Jews, 2, 332, 33:5. 

Galilee given to, 2, 333, 

treatment of, by Titus, 2, 
38S. 

death of. 2, 388. 
Agrippina, wife of Claudius, 
favoral)le to the Herodians, 
2, 245. 
Aguilar, Baron de, saves the 
.lews of Moravia from ex- 
orbitant taxes, 5, 252. 

intercedes for the Moravian 
and Bohemian Jews, 5, 253. 
Aguilar, de, governor of Pal- 
ma, asks for Gibraltar as a 
refuge for Marranos, 4, 282. 
Aguilar, Raphael Moses d*, 

S;il)batian, 5, 139, 100. 
Aguilar, the Jews of, destroyed, 

4, 12.-.. 
Ahab, son of Omri, wife of, 1, 
194, 190-7. 



INDEX. 



155 



Atab (con ti nurd), ascends tho 
tlirone of Israel, 1, 196. 

character of, 1, 196. 

builds an ivory palace, 1, 
201-2. 

reproved by Elijah, 1, 202-.;. 

a famine announced to, 1, 
203. 

summons the priests of Baal 
to Carmel, 1, 20:5-4. 

stops the persecution of the 
prophets, 1, 204. 

imprisons Michaiah, 1, 205. 

ally of Ben-hadad II, 1, 205. 

ally of Jehoshaphat, 1, 206. 

death of, 1, 206. 

destruction of the house of, 
1, 211-12. 
Ahasuerus. Sec Xerxes. 
Ahaz, king' of Judah, character 
of, 1, 257. 

ally of Tiglath-Pileser, 1, 258. 

vfarned by Isaiah, 1, 258-9. 

introduces Assyrian idolatry 
into Judah, 1, 260-1. 

not buried in the royal mauso- 
leum, 1, 267. 
Ahaziah, son of Ahab, reign of, 

over Israel, 1, 206-7. 
Ahaziah, son of Joram, king of 
Judah, killed by Jehu's fol- 
lowers, 1, 211. 
Ah.ijah, of Shiloh, prophet, at 
the consecration of the 
Temple, 1, 167. 

rebukes Solomon, 1, 175. 

prophesies success to Jero- 
boam, 1, 175. 

prophesies the end of Jero- 
boam's line, 1, 188. 
Ahikam, father of Gedaliah, 1, 

319. 
Ahikam, son of Shaphan, saves 

Jeremiah, 1, 303. 
Ahimaaz, messenger from IIu- 
shai to David, 1, 143. 



Ahinoam, wife of Saul, 1, 95. 

Ahishar, Solomon's major-domo, 
1, 172. 

Ahithophel, councilor of David, 
1, 122-3. 
grandfather of Bathsheba, 1, 

133. 
opposed to Solomon's succes- 
sion, 1, 135. 
plots with Ab.salom, 1, 136, 

138-43. 
with Absalom in Jerusalem, 

1, 142. 
advice of, rejected by Absa- 
lom, 1, 143. 
suicide of, 1, 143. 

Ahmed, khan of the Mongol 
kingdom in Persia, 3, 638. 

Ahmed Coprili, Turkish grand 
vizir, orders the arrest of 
Sabbatait Zevi, 5, 146. 
imprisons Sabbatai at Abydos, 
5, 148. 

Ahriman. See Angro-Mainyus. 

Ahunai, teacher of the Law, 
during Kobad's persecu- 
tions, 3, 4. 

Ahura-Mazda, Persian god of 
light, iniiuence of the con- 
ception of, on Judaism, 1, 
402. 

Ai, attacked by the Israelites, 
1, 33. 

Aibu, father of Abba-Areka, 2, 
511. 

Aibu, son of Abba-Areka, 2, 518. 

Aidug, Arab king, defeats Zo- 
rah Yussuf, 3, 64. 

Ain-tab, the new-moon an- 
nounced at, 2, 458. 

Airvi (Eravi), king of Cranga- 
nor, and the Jews of India, 

3, 630. 
Aix-la-Chapelle, the Jews of, 

oppose the study of science, 

4, 33. 



156 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Aix-la-Chapelle {continued), tin- 
CoiiL,'-'"**^^^ of. the emancipa- 
tion of the Jews discussed 
by, 5, 525-7. 
Ajubides, the, make Egypt the 

Islam center, 3, 457. 
Akbarn, Karaite center, 3, 157. 

the Jews of, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 429. 
Akbarites, the, a Karaite sect, 

3, 157. 
Akiba ben Joseph, teacher of 
the Law, sui;g-ested as suc- 
cessor to Gamaliel II, 2, 342. 

effects the re-instatement of 
Gamaliel II. 2, 345. 

informs Eliezer ben Ilyrcanus 
of his excommunication, 2, 
347. 

leg-ends concerning the ^tjulli 
of, 2, 350-1. 

intellectual development of, 
2, 351-2. 

system of, 2, 352-3. 

arranges the Halachas in 
groups. 2, 353, 

disciples and wife of, 2, 351-5. 

in the Jamnia S3nhedrion. 2, 
355. 

and Ishmacl ben Elisha. 2, 
355-C. 

theosophist, 2, 381. 

saying of, 2, .iSl. 

opposes Gnostic influences, 2, 
382. 

disciples of, proselytes, 2, 384. 

and .\kylas, 2, 385. 

and Flavius Clemens, 2, 387, 
389, 391. 

influences Nerva, 2, 392. 

oppcscs reckless charity, 2, 
405. 

prepares for the revolt against 
Hadrian, 2, 408; 5, 724-5. 

attracted to I'.ar-Coclitiii. 2, 
409. 

at Lydda, 2, 423. 



Akiba ben Joseph, (continued), 
evades Koman spies, 2, 424. 
martyrdom of, 2, 428-9. 
disciples of, ordained, 2, 429. 
di.sciples of, return to Judasa, 

2, 433. 
favorite disciple of, 2, 43G. 
dialectics of, adopted by Mei'r, 

2, 4:;s-u). 
first compiler of the Mishna, 

2, 460. 
position of, compared with 
Rabba bar Nachmani's, 2, 
579. 
Akko. i^rc Accho. 
Akra di Coche, a Babylonian 

fortification, 2, 507. 
Akrabattine. <S'ce Acrabattine. 
Akrish. 8re Isaac ben Abra- 

liam Akrish. 
Akylas (.\quila), convert to Ju- 
daism, translates the Scrip- 
tures into Greek, 2, 385. 
suj)erintends the rebuilding of 

Jerusalem, 2, 401. 
mourns for Gamaliel II, 2, 
404. 
Akylas, translation of the Scrip- 
tures by, literal, 2, 386. 
used by Jews and Ebionites, 

2, 387. 

used by Origen, 2, 489. 

Targum Onkelos based on, 2, 
581. 

recommended to Jewish con- 
gregations by Justinian I, 

3, 14. 

Alabarch (Arabarch, Ethnarch), 
tlic, ])iince of the Judaeans 
in Egypt, 1, 507, 510. 

office of, confirmed by Caesar, 
2, 76. 

(■(iiili'ois Ihe Nile harljor, 2, 
] 02. 

dignitj- of, restored by Clau- 
dius, 2, 191. 



INDEX. 



157 



Alabarch, the (contimicd). See 

also Alexander J^ysimacbiis; 

Ethnarc'li. 
Al-ablak, castle of Saimiel Ibn- 

Adiya, 3, 68, 69. 
Aladhid, last Fatimide caliph 

of Egypt, 3, 443. 
Aladil, sultan, receives emi- 
grant rabbis kindly, 3, 5()i). 
Alagon, Blasco de, conspires 

against I'edro Arbues, 4, 

;!29. 
Alami. Sec Solomon Alami. 
Alani, the, of the Crimea, 

friendly to the Jews, 3, 

123. 
Alarcos, Alfonso VIII defeated 

at the battle of, 3, 387. 
Alashkar. See Moses ben Isaac 

Alashkar. 
Albalag. See Isaac Albalag. 
Albalia. See Ibn-Albalia. 
Albanian Gates, the, Jews set- 
tle in, 3, 124. 
Albargeloni, »S'ee Abraham ben 

Chiya Albargeloni. 
Albargeloni. See Isaac ben Eeu- 

ben Albergeloni. 
Albert I, emperor, war of, with 

Adolph of Nassau, 4, 35. 
punishes the Rindfleisch fol- 

lowerSj 4, 36. 
demands a ransom for Meir of 

Rothenbiirg, 4, 37. 
claims autliority over the 

French Jews, 4, 47. 
Albert II, emperor, imprisons 

the Jews of Austria, 4, 223. 
banishes the Jews from Aus- 
tria, 4, 224. 
hostile to the Jews, 4, 249. 
son of, cruel to the Jews, 4, 

262-3. 
Albert, duke of Bavaria, under 

the influence of John of 

Capistrano, 4, 258. 



Albert von Brandenburg, arch- 

bishoj) of iMaycTict', convenes 
a diet to consider the Jew- 
ish question, 4, 4G;'). 
ordered to drop the Jewish 
question, 4, 404. 
Albert of Munich, son-in-law of 

Maximilian I, 4, 428. 
Albertina, the. See Konigsberg, 

the university of. 
Albertus Magnus, the works of, 

translated, 4, 69. 
Albi. See Alby. 

Albigenses, the, origin of, 3, 
390. 
in Beziers, 3, 394, 395. 
relation of, to the Jews, 3, 501. 
crusade against, 3, 501-2. 
and tlie council of Montpellier, 

3, 508. 

and the Fourth Lateran Coun- 
cil, 3, 509. 
the war against, ended, 3, 519. 
extirpation of, by the Inquisi- 
tion, 3, 542. 
AlbinuB, procurator of Judaea, 
appointed bj^ Nero, 2, 248. 
appealed to against Anan, 2, 

248-9. 
taxes Judaea heavily, 2, 249. 
punishes the Sicarii, 2, 249. 
Albo. See Joseph Albo. 
Albrecht I. See Albert I. 
Alby, the council of, forbids 
Jews to iiractice medicine 
among Christians, 3, 582, 
583. 
the Jews of, perish, 4, 57. 
Alcala, the academy at, 4, 145. 
the Jews of, ridiculed, 4, 181. 
Alcana, street in Toledo occu- 
pied by Jews, 4, 118. 
Alcaniz, the Jews of. converted, 

4, 214. 

Alcantara, the Order of, and 

Gonzalo Martinez, 4, 85-6. 
Alcharam. See IMecca. 



158 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Alcharisi. See Jehnda Alcha- 

risi. 
Alcimus (Jakim), leader of the 

Hellenists, appointed hijrh 

priest, 1, 482. 
slays sixty Chassidiin, 1, 4S3. 
attracts the Hellenists, 1, 4S:>. 
fears Judas Maccaba?us, 1, 

483. 
appeals to Demetrius I, 1, 4S}. 
informs against Nicanor. 1, 

484. 
withdraws from Jerusalem, 1, 

485. 
takes possession of Jerusalem. 

1, 487. 
has the " Soreg- " destroyed, 

1, 4'.»2. 
dealh of, 1, 492, 50'^. 
Alcolea, the Jews of, converteil. 

4, :.'M. 
Aldea de Ids Judios, village 

given to Jewish soldiers, 3, 

502. 
Aldobrandini, prevents the ex- 
pulsion of the Ferrara Jews, 

4, tico. 
Aleman, Jochanan, Kabbalist. 

teacher of Pico di Miran- 

dola, 4, 291. 
Alembert, d', approves of l^e- 

ri'ira's sign language, 5, .34.'!. 
Alenu prayer, the, misrepre- 
sented by Pessach-l'eter, 4, 

178. 
attacked by Wiilfer, 5, 185. 
denounced by apostates, 5, 

191. 
exonerated by Michaelis, 5, 

191. 
retaliations concerning, 5, 1^»2. 
Aleppo (Haleb), the Jews of. in 

the twelfth century, 3, 4;m. 
Jehuda Ibn-Abbas settles at, 

3, 442. 
the Jewish liturgy of, changed, 

3, 4r,r,. 



Aleppo {conthiued), taken by 

Ilulagu, 3, (iOG. 
the battle of, gives Egypt to 

the Turks, 4, 393. 
Sabbatai Zevi in, 5, 133. 
Alessandria, the Jews of, in the 

sixteenth century, 4, 653. 
Alexander III, pope, convenes 

a Church Council, 3, 376. 
orders the enforcement of 

anti-Jewish decrees, 3, 400. 
finances of, managed by a 

Jew, 3, 421. 
Alexander VI (Borgia), pope, 

and the Aragon Inquisition, 

4, 319. 
bani.shes the Jews from Eome, 

4, 363. 
1lie favor of, bought by the 

Portuguese Marranos, 4, 379. 
friendly to the Jews, 4, 407. 
employs a Jewish physician, 

4, 407-8. 
Reuchlin at the court of, 4, 

434. 
Alexander I, of Judaea. See 

Alexander Jannaeus. 
Alexander II, of Judaea, son of 

Aristobnlus IT, marries Hyr- 

canus II's daughter, 2, 58. 
seizes Jerusalem, 2, 70. 
has coins struck, 2, 70. 
subdued bj'' Aulus Gabinius, 2, 

70-1. 
rebels against Rome, 2, 73. 
beheaded, 2, 75. 
Alexander the Great, of Mace- 
don, destroys the Persian 

empire, 1, 412. 
legends about, 1, 412-13. 
tolerance of, 1, 413, 415. 
favors the Juda'ans, 1, 414-15, 

41S. 
conquests of, 1, 415. 
confusion after the death of, 

1, 416. 



INDEX. 



159 



Alexander, of Poland, hostile 

to the Jews, 4, 419. 
Alexander I, of Russia, inquires 

into the condition of the 

Jews, 5, 472-3. 
enforces attendance at schools, 

5, 473. 
and the emancipation of the 

Jews, 5, 525, 527. 
Alexander, apostate, accuses 

Jews of blasphemy, 4, 591. 
Alexander, son of Mariamne, 

designated successor to 

Herod, 2, 112. 
marriage of, 2, 112. 
executed, 2, 113. 
Alexander, Zealot leader, 2, 238. 
attacks the Samaritans of 

Acrabatene, 2, 243. 
Alexander Balas, pretender to 

the Syrian throne, ally of 

Jonathan Haphus, 1, 494, 49G. 
marriag-e of, 1, 496. 
death of, 1, 496. 
son of, on the throne, 1, 497-S. 
Alexander (I) Jannaeus (105-79), 

third son of Ilj'rcanus I, 2, 

34. 
banished to Galilee, 2, 38-9. 
favors the Pharisees, 2, 39. 
military character of, 2, 39. 
defeated by Ptolemy VIII, 2, 

40. 
ally of Ptolemy VIII's mother, 

2, 41. 
takes Gaza, 2, 41. 
mediates between the Phari- 
sees and Sadducees, 2, 42. 
sides with the Sadducees, 2, 

42-3. 
refuses to offer the water liba- 
tion, 2, 43. 
defeated by the Nabathiean 

king-, 2, 44. 
Pharisees revolt ag-ainst, 2, 44. 
defeated by EucEerus, 2, 44. 



Alexander (I) Jannseus (con- 
tinued), forces Eucffirus to 
retreat, 2, 45. 

crucifies eig'ht hundred Phari- 
sees, 2, 45. 

conquests of, 2, 45-6. 

coins of, 2, 46. 

builds fortresses, 2, 46, 315. 

end of, 2, 47. 

appoints his wife his succes- 
sor, 2, 47. 

sons of, 2, 47. 

towns conquered b^-, declared 
free, 2, 07. 
Alexander Lysimachus, Alab- 
arch of Alexandria, aids 
Ag-rippa I, 2, 175-0, 181, 

brother of Philo, 2, 185. 

released from prison, 2, 190. 

sons of, 2, 198, 235. 

descendant of, 2, 395. 
Alexander Polyhistor, writer 
friendly to the Juda?ans, 2, 
179. 
Alexander Severus (222-235), 
emperor, friendly to Jews 
and Judaism, 2, 481-3. 

and Judah II, 2, 482. 

presents a gold candlestick to 
a synagogue, 2, 482. 

ta\ight Jewish customs by Ro- 
manus, 2, 482. 

anarchy after the death of, 2, 
480, 526. 
Alexander, Tiberius Julius. See 

Tiberius Julius Alexander. 
Alexander Zabina, rival of De- 
metrius Nicator for the Sy- 
rian throne, 2, 6. 

dispiites the Sj^rian throne 
with Antiochus VIII, 2, 6. 

acknowledged king by Il3^rca- 
nus I, 2, 6. 

fall of, 2, 7. 
Alexandra. See Salome Alex- 
andra. 



i6o 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Alexandra, daughter of Aris- 
tobulus II, marries two 
princes of Chalcis, 2, T'l. 
Alexandra, daughter of Ilyrca- 
iiiis II. inarrie.s the son of 
Aristobulus II, 2, aS. 

betroths her daughter .Ma- 
rianine to Ilerod, 2, SI. 

obtains Mark Antony's favor 
for her son, 2, 91. 

accuses Ilerod of her son'.s 
murder, 2, 92. 

threatened with death, 2, 9.;. 

imprisoned, 2, 94, 96. 

death of. 2, 105. 
Alexandria, Juda?ans settle in. 
1, 418. 

center of the Egyptian .Tii- 
daeans. 1, 504-5. 

busts of Caligula placed in the 
synagogues of, 2, 182. 

wheat imported from, for Je- 
rusalem, 2, 218. 

stud3- of the Law in, 2, 359. 

synagogue of, destroyed, 2, 
398. 

Karaite community in, 3, 1S2. 

Jehuda Halevi at, 3, 339-40. 

Spanish spoken at, by the ex- 
iles, 4, 388. 

rabbis of, favor the estab- 
lishment of schools, 5, GG3. 

<SVr also under Egypt. 
Alexandria, the Jews of, rebel 
against Trajan, 2, 390. 

punished by ^fartius Turbo, 2, 
398. 

ill-treated by Cyril, 2, r,is-i;). 

receive fugitives from Pales- 
tine, 3, 23. 

in the twelfth century, 3, 444. 

object to Maiinonides' Mishne- 
Torah, 3, 472. 

appeal to Mehemet Ali in tli.' 
Damascus afTair, 5, 047. 

rejoice over the release of the 
Damascus prisoners, 5, GOO. 



Alexandria, the Judaeans of, in- 
fluence those of Jerusalem, 

1, 427. 

occupy the Delta district, 1, 
504. 

under l^tolemj' VII, 1, 519. 

under Ptolemy VIII, 2, 12. 

well treated by Caesar, 2, 76. 

unkindly treated by Cleopa- 
tra, 2, 94. 

antagonized by the Greeks, 2, 
178, ISl. 

conspiracies against, 2, 181-2. 

forced into the harbor, 2, 
182-3. 

forced to worship Caligula's 
statues, 2, 183-4. 

send envoys to Caligula, 2, 
186-7; 5, 054. 

well treated b.y Claudius, 2, 
190-1. 

have a synagogue in Jerusa- 
lem, 2, 201. 

ini])regnated with Greek views, 

2, 20S-9. 

apostasy among, 2, 209. 
massacred, 2, 203-4. 
undisturbed by the Roman 

war, 2, 313. 
fugitive Zealots betrayed by, 

2, 317-18. 
and the closing of the Temple 
of Onias. 2, 322. 
Alexandrian school of philoso- 
phy. S( r J)ul;po-Alexandrian 
school. 
Alexandrion, fortress, built by 
Alexander Jannreus, 2, 46. 
surrenders to Pompey, 2, 64. 
garrisoned by Aristobulus II, 

2, 73. 
^fariamne confined in, 2, 96. 
fire signals on, 2, 363. 
Alfachar. See Ibn-Alfachar. 
Alfadhel, vi/ir of Salad in, em- 
l)]()ys Maiinonides, 3, 472-3, 

4sr. 



INDEX. 



i6t 



Alfadhel (rojitinurd), acquits 
Mainionides of apostasy, 3, 
474. 
Alfarda, Strangers' Tax, in 

Spain, 4, 344. 
Alfassi. See Isaac ben Jacob 

Alfassi. 
Alfonsine Tables, the, used by 

.scientists, 4, 367. 
Alfonso I, of Aragon, conquers 

Saragossa, 3, 316. 
Alfonso II, of Aragon (1162- 
1196), the Jews under, 3, 
387-S. 
Alfonso VI, of Castile, employs 
Jews on diplomatic mis- 
sions, 3, 291-2. 
the Jews under, 3, 292-3. 
admonished to dismiss Jews 

from state oflRces, 3, 294. 
conquers Toledo, 3, 294. 
opposed by a ]\[ahometan 
league, 3, 295-6. 
Alfonso VII Raimundez, of 
Castile (1126-1157), rebels 
against his parents, 3, 316. 
Jewish favorite of, 3, 361. 
death of, 3, 363, 366. 
Alfonso VIII (III), of Castile 
(the Xoble, 1166-1214), mi- 
nority of, 3, 363. 
the Jews under, 3', 384-7. 
employs a Jew as ambassador, 

3, 385. 
Jewish mistress of, 3, 386. 
assisted by the Toledo Jews 
against the Almohades, 3, 
386-7. 
defeated at Alarcos, 3, 387. 
reproached for his humane 
treatment of the Jews, 3, 
499. 
appeals to Innocent III against 

the Mahometans, 3, 507. 
protects the Jews of Toledo, 
3, 507. 



Alfonso X, of Castile (the Wise, 

1252-1284), the Jews under, 

3, 592-6. 
patron of learning, 3, 592. 
gives a village to his Jewish 

soldiers, 3, 592. 
and the Jews of Seville, 3, 

592-3. 
employs Jews, 3, 593-4, 615. 
reproached by Nicholas III, 3, 

594, 615. 
degrades the Jews, 3, 594-5. 
Jews in the code of, 3, 595-6. 
code of, in Spanish America, 

3, 596. 

executes his Jewish Almoxa- 
rif, 3, 616. 

imprisons the Jews, 3, 616. 

son of, rebels, 3, 616. 

death of, 3, 616. 

anti-Jewish statutes of, re- 
vived, 4, 194-5. 
Alfonso XI, of Castile (1325- 
13S0), the Jews j^rosperous 
under, 4, 52, 75-6. 

Jewish favorites of, 4, 79-80. 

petitioned against usury, 4, 
80. 

makes a Jew farmer of reve- 
nues, 4, 80. 

Jews accused before, 4, 83. 

accuses Gonzalo Martinez of 
treason, 4, 85. 

besieges Valencia, 4, 86. 

death of, 4, 113. 

bastard sons of, oppose Pedro 
the Cruel, 4, 113. 

wife of, 4, 114. 

law of, renewed, 4, 193. 
Alfonso II, of Ferrara, death of, 

4, 660. 

Alfonso IX, of Leon, does not 

compel the Jews to wear a 

badge, 3, 513. 
Alfonso II, of Naples, patron of 

Isaac Abrabanel, 4, 360. 

383-1- 



1 62 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Alfonso III, of Portugal (12 IS- 

l-'7'.t). th»? Jews iiiider, 3, CIS. 

Alfonso V, of Portugal, takes 

Jews captive at Arzilla, 4, 

286-7, 339. 

employs Isaac Ahrabanol, 4, 

337-S. 
l>rosperity of the JfW.s uiidor, 

4, 33S-9. 
code of, 4, :5:{0. 
Jewish favorites of, 4, :v.',9. 
death of, 4, :!40. 
Alfonso, brother of Henr^' IV, 
of Castile, crowned, 4, 27S. 
death of, 4, 279. 
Alfonso, duke of I'oitou, cm- 
ploys a Jewish oculist. 3, 
583. 
Alfonso, Infante of Portugal, 

reU-ases Marranos, 4, olT. 
Alfonso of Aragon, archbishoji. 

])rotects Marranos, 4, 330. 
Alfonso de Cartagena, influ- 
ences Eugenius IV against 
the Jews, 4, 249-50. 
Alfonso de Spina, Franciscan, 
attacks tlie Spanish Jews, 4, 
270. 
confessor of Alvaro dc T-uiia, 

4, 271. 
writes a Wf)rk against the 

Jews. 4, 277. 
anti-Jcwisli work liv, re- 
printed. 4, 41"). 
Alfonso of Valladolid. .^Vr 

Alfonso Burgensis. 
Alfonso Burgensis (.\bner of 
J'.iirgos, Alfonso of Valla- 
dolid, 1270-1340), apostate, 
hostile to the Jews, 4, s], 
342. 
infidel. 4, si-2. 
sacristan. 4, 82. 
attacks the Jews in Hebrew, 

4, 82. 
reply to. by Isaac Pnlgar. 4, 
82. 



Alfonso Burgensis {cmitinucd), 
accuses the Jews before Al- 
fonso XI, 4, 83. 

disciple of, 4, 141-2. 

work of, refuted, 4, 143. 

charges of. repeated, 4, 213. 
Algazi, Moses Joseph, rabbi of 
Cairo, seconds Munk's ef- 
forts to establish schools, 5, 
iw.i. 
Algazi, Solomon, opposes the 
Sabbatian movement, 5, 144. 
Alghazali, mystic pliilosopher, 

Mahometan, 3, 273, 357. 
Algiers, refuge for the Jews of 
Spain, 4, 197. 

tax imposed on Marrano fugi- 
tives in, 4, 199. 

the S])anish exiles in, 4, 3G1, 
390-1. 
Alguades, Meir. See ^leir Al- 

giiades. 
Alhakem, Ommiyyade caliph, 
emploj's Chasdai" Ibn-Shap- 
rut, 3, 222, 227. 

obtains an Arabic translation 
of the Mishna, 3, 237. 

appealed to in behalf of Cha- 
noch ben Moses, 3, 238. 

ai)j)ealed to by Joseph Ibn- 
Abitur. 3, 238. 

death of, 3, 2:i9. 

founds a medical school at 
Cordova, 3, 261. 
Ali, Mahomet's general, defeats 
Marhab, 3, 82. 

the .Tuda^o-Babylonian commu- 
nity under, 3, 90. 

the candidate of a party, 3. 
90. 

aided by Jews and Christians, 
3, 90. 

liouse of, and the Ommiy- 
yades. 3, 92. 
Ali 100-1143). the second Al- 
moravide ruler, the .Tows un- 
der, 3, 312. 



INDEX. 



^63 



Ali Ibn-Isa, vizir of Abradhi, 
favors Saadiaii, 3, 200. 

Ali Ibn-Rahmadan, niatlu'iiia- 
tic'iaii, and Joseph Delnie- 
dig-o, 5, 70. 

Ali Halevi, Gaon of Bagdad, 3, 
429. 
son of. 3, 4.'5S. 

Ali Ikbal Addaula, prince of 
Denia, patron of Yizchaki, 
3, 273. 

Alice of Montmorency, perse- 
cutes the Toulonse Jews, 3, 
514. 

Alkabez. Sec Solomon Alkabez. 

Alkadir, caliph of the East, 
Sherira arraigned before, 3, 
233-4. 

Alkalai. Sec Isaac ben Jacob 
Alfassi. 

Alkamel, sviltan, emiiloys a Jew- 
isli pliysici.an, 3, 49.5. 

Alkuti (Chei^ez), Jewish philos- 
opher, sayings of, used by 
Ibn-Gebirol, 3, 267. 

Allatif. See Isaac ben Abraham 
Ibn-Latif. 

Allebrandus, bishop of Worms, 
protects the Jews, 3, 301-2. 
offers the Jews baptism, 3, 
302. 

Allegorical poems in Hebrew 
literature, 1, 158-9. 

Allegorists, the, Alexandrian 
Jewish school of Scripture 
interpreters, 2, 208-9, 329. 
Philo among, 2, 210. 
misrepresentations of, accen- 
tuate the legal side of Juda- 
ism, 2, 471. 
compared with the Mutazi- 
lists, 3, 147. 

Allegorization, the, of the Scrip- 
tures by the mystics and the 
philosophers, 4, 23-4. 

" Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle," the outgrowth of 



Cremieux's activity in the 
East, 5, 0G4. 
founders of, 5, 701. 
Alliances, Jewish, value of, 5, 

704. See: 

Alliance Isra61ite Univcrselle, 
Aiig-lo-Jewish Association, 
Israclitischc Allianz, 
Union of American Hebrew Congre- 
trations. 

Allorqui. See Joshua ben .To- 

sepli lbn-\'ives. 
" Al-Luma', Rikmah," gram- 
mar and exegesis by Ibn- 

Janach, 3, 263. 
Almagest, the, translated into 

Arabic, 3, 146. 
Almaida, Manuela Nunez da, 

poetess, 5, 203. 
Almalek Alashraf, Egyptian 

sultan, besieges Accho, 3, 

650. 
Almamun. See Abdallah Alma- 

mun. 
" Almansor," dramatic poem by 

Heine, 5, 548-9. 
Almanzi, Italian Jewish scholar, 

Almeida, Lopes de, Portuguese 
ambassador to Sixtus IV, 
4, 340. 
Almeirin, residence of the Por- 
tuguese king, 4, 493. 
Almeria, captured by the Almo- 

hades, 3, 448. 
Almohades (Almovachides, Uni- 
tarians), the, a Mahometan 
sect, 3, 358. 
under Abdulmumen, 3, 358-9. 
take Andalusia, 3, 360-1. 
persecute the Spanish Jews. 3, 

360-2. 
irruptions of, into Christian 

territory, 3, 363. 
drive the Jews from Andalu- 
sia, 3, 384 



i64 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Almohades, the (continued), at- 
tack Castile, 3, 380-7. 
drive the Jews from Ceuta, 3, 

424. 
drive the Ibn-Abbas to Asia, 

3, 442. 
capture Cordova, 3, 417-8. 
capture Almeria, 3, 448. 
Jewish fugitives from, re- 
ceived in Sicily, 3, 5G9. 
Almoravides, the, the Jews well 
treated by, 3, 296, 311-13. 
attack the Arabs of Andalu- 
sia, 3, 316. 
rebellion against, 3, 357. 
dynasty of, destroyed by Ab- 
dulmumen, 3, 358. 
Almosnino. See Moses Almos- 

iiiiio. 
Almotassem, of Almeria, invades 

Granada. 3, 278. 
Almovachides, the. Sec Almo- 

hades, the. 
Almoxarif, treasurer in Castile, 
3, 593; 4, 75, 79, 138, 160, 169. 
Jews excluded from the posi- 
tion of, 4, 158. 
Alms-giving, in Judaea after 
I'^zra and Nehemiah, 1, 393-4. 
Al-Muktadir (908-932), caliph 
of the East, banishes Mar- 
Ukba, 3, 184. 
restores the Exilarch to office, 

3, 185. 
appealed to by the partisans 
of Saadiah and of David ben 
Zaccai, 3, 195-6. 
death of, 3, 196. 
Al-muktadir Billah, king of 
Saragossa, patron of Abu 
Fad 111 Chasdai. 3, 280. 
Almustadhi, Abbasside caliph, 
and the Exilarch TJaniel, 3, 
438. 

Almustanjid, Abbasside caliph, 
and the Exilarch Daniel, 3, 
438. 



; Al-Mutadhid (892-902), caliph 
of the East, the Jews under, 
3, 1S3. 
Al-Mutam.ed Ibn-Abbad (Abul- 
kassim Mahomet), king of 
Seville, patron of Isaac Ibn- 
Albalia, 3, 283, 284. 

ally of Alfonso VI of Castile, 
3, 294. 

kills Alfonso's ambassador, 3, 
295. 

joins the Mahometan league 
against Alfonso, 3, 295-6. 
Al-Mutavakkil (849-856), caliph 
of the East, re-enacts Omar's 
laws against the Jews, 3, 
176-7. 
Almuthadid, king of Seville, re- 
ceives Jewish fugitives kind- 
ly, 3, 279-80. 
Alnakvah family, the, of the 
nobility of Jewish Spain, 3, 
235. 
Alnasir Ledin Allah, Abbasside 
caliph, patron of David of 
Mosul, 3, 506. 
Alphabet, the Phrenician, adopt- 
ed by other nations, 1, 3. 

the Assyrian, adopted by the 
Juda^ans, 1, 395-6. 
Alroy, or Alrui. See David 

Alrui. 
Alsace, the Jews of, suffer dur- 
ing the Armleder persecu- 
tions, 4, 97. 

declared outlaws, 4, 107. 

abasement of, 5, 347-8. 

taxes paid by, 5, 348, 446. 

forced into usury, 5, 349. 

blackmail levied on, 5, 349. 

receipts from, forged, 5, 350. 

protected by Louis XVT, 5, 
350-1. 

memorialize the crown, 5, 351, 
352. 

Mendelssohn's Pentateuch 

translation among, 5, 430. 



INDEX. 



165 



Alsace, the Jews of (continued), 
petition for alleviation of 
burdens, 5, 431. 

complaints of and charg-es 
ag-ainst, 5, 434. 

number of, 5, 435. 

complain to the National As- 
sembly, 5, 436. 

attacked, 5, 437, 524, 542. 

appeal to Greg-oire, 5, 437. 

exposed to attack, 5, 440. 

emancipation of, opposed, 5, 
441, 447, 

under special protection, 5, 
446. 

relieved of taxes, 5, 446. 

occupations of, 5, 475-6. 

in danger of massacre, 5, 477. 

equality of, restored, 5, 525. 
Alsaid Ibn-Sina Alm.ulk, poet, 

on Maimonides, 3, 473. 
Al Tanchik, by Ibn-Janach, 3, 

263. 
Altiflisi. See Abu-Amran Moses. 
Altona, the Jewish cemetery at, 

4, 688. 

Judah Chassid in, 5, 213. 
printing press in, 5, 255. 
Altona, the council of, espouses 

Eibeschiitz's cause, 5, 264-5. 
punished for its treatment of 

Jacob Emden, 5, 265. 
urges Eibeschiitz to submit to 

a rabbinical court, 5, 268. 
Altona-Hamburg, the rabbis of, 

and JMoses ISleir Kamenker, 

5, 230. 

Alva, the duke of, barbarity of, 

4, 601. 
and the Jews, 4, 662. 
Alvalensi. See Samuel Alva- 

lensi. 
Alvarez, Alfonso, de Villasan- 

dino, Spanish satirist, 4, 181. 
Alvernes de Gras. See Suasso, 

Isaac. 



Alypius, of Antioch, oversees 
the rebuilding of the Tem- 
ple, 2, 599, 600. 
Amadeus, duke of Savoy, im- 
prisons Jews on account of 
the Black Death, 4, 103-1. 
Amadia, birthplace of David Al- 

rui, 3, 430, 431, 432. 
Amalarich of Bena, philoso- 
pher, disciples of, burnt, 3, 
503. 
Amalasuntha, daughter of The- 

odoric, 3, 31. 
Amalekites, the, dwell with the 
tribe of Judah, 1, 39. 
war of, with Saul, 1, 91-2. 
burn Ziklag, 1, 106-7. 
Amali, the, a Gothic family, 3, 

27. 
Amalrich of Jerusalem, cam- 
paign of, 3, 444. 
Amantius, governor of the East. 

punishes rioters, 3, 17. 
Amasa, cousin of David, joins 
Absalom, 1, 139. 
lacks military genius, 1, 143. 
influences the men of Judah, 

1, 146. 
commander against Sheba, 1, 

148. 
killed by Joab, 1, 149. 
Amasia (Amazia), the Spanish 
exiles in, 4, 4i05. 
the Jews of, accused of mur- 
der, 4, 553. 
Amasis, reigns over Egypt, 1, 
327. 
opponent of Cyrus, 1, 343. 
Amatus (Chabib) Lusitanus 
(Joao Rodrigo de Castel- 
Branco), phj'sician, 4, 569- 
70. 
medical works by, 4, 570. 
in Salonica, 4, 580. 
death of, 4, 610. 
Amaziah, of Judah, re-conquers 
Edom, 1, 222-3. 



i66 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Amaziah (ctmtinued), respects 
the Law, 1, 223. 
at war with Jehoash of Israel, 

1, 224-5. 

taken prisoner, 1, 225. 

conspiracy against, 1, 220. 

murder of. 1, 22(). 

interred in Jerusalem, 1, 22S. 
Amaziah, hijirh i)riest of the 
l)ull-worship under Jero- 
boam II. 1, 2;{:j. 

opposes Amos, 1, 2.36-7. 
Ambivius, Marcus, second pro- 
curator of Juthea, 2, 135. 
Ambrosius of Milan, bishop, in- 
c-ites persecutions of Arians 
and Jews, 2, 012-13. 

rebukes mild treatment of 
Jews, 2, 614. 

accuses the Jews, 2, 614. 
Am e mar (390-420), Amora, 
opens an academy at Xahar- 
dea, 2, 600. 

subordinates himself to Ashi, 

2, GOO. 

at the court of Jc/.dijird, 2, 
610. 
Amemar bar Mar-Janka ( Ui'.i- 
70?), Amora. executed, 2, 
629. 
Am-ha-Arez, the ignorant, ad- 
dressed by Jesus, 2, 152. 
Ami, Amora. defends a politi- 
cal offender, 2, 529-30. 

subordinates himself to the 
Babylonian authorities, 2, 
531, 5.37. 

investigates the educational 
institutions of Juda-a, 2, 
532. 

investigates the observance of 
the Law in Samaria, 2, 534. 

appeals to Abbahu. 2, 538. 

meets the corpse of Huna, 2, 
548. 

disciples of, 2, 500. 



Amigo, Abraham, Talmudist 

and Kabbalist, 5, 120. 
Ammon, an Egyptian god, 1, 0. 
Ammonite district, the, gov- 
erned by Aretas, 1, 447. 
Ainm.onites, the, idolatry of, 1, 
.5.'). 
attack Ephraim and .Judah, 1, 

64. 
defeated by Jephthah, 1, 64-5. 
invade the territory of Gad 

and IManasseh, 1, 80. 
besiege Jabesh-Gilead, 1, 89-90. 
at war with David, 1, 126-7. 
subdued by David, 1, 128-9. 
declared bondmen by Solo- 
mon, 1, 103. 
attracted to Palestine, 1, 173. 
regain independence, 1, 185. 
urge Zedekiah to revolt, 1, 310. 
in friendly relations with the 

Judipans. 1, 302. 
hostile to tlie Juda^ans during 

the Syrian invasion, 1, 474. 
defeated by Judas Maccabaeus, 

1, 474. 
as proselytes, 2, 343, 383-4. 
Amnon, eldest son of David, 

killed. 1, 134. 
Amolo, bishop of Lyons, adver- 
sary of the Jews, 3, 171, 
172-3. 
Amon, of Judah, idolatry under, 

1, 28.5-0. 
murdered. 1, 2S0. 

Amoraim, llie. connection of. 

with the Tanaites, 2, 479. 
exi)ounders of the Mishna, 2, 

489. 
compared with the Tanaites, 

2, 490, 590. 
decisions of, 2, 515. 

of Galilee, methods of, 2, 557. 

last, in Judfpa, compile the Je- 
rusalem Talmud, 2, 612. 

Babylonian, create Talmudic 
dialectics, 2, 635. 



INDEX. 



167 



Amoraim, the {continued}, loss 
of creative power in the 
disciples of {See Sabureans, 
the), 3, 5. 
See also Law, the, the teachers 
of. 

Amoraim, the, list of: 



Abayi Nachmani, 

Abbaof Accho, 

Abba bar Abba, 

Abba Areka (Rab), 

Abbahu, 

Abin, 

Acha of Diphta, 

Acha ben Jacob, 

Achai bar Huna, 

Ada, 

Amemar, 

Amemar bar Mar- 
Janka, 

Ami, 

Ashi, son of Simai, 

Assi, 

Chaggai, 

Chama of Nahar- 
dea, 

Chananya, 

Chanina bar Cha- 
ma, 

Chasda of Caf ri, 

Chiskiya ben Chi- 

ya, 

Chiya bar Abba, 
Chiya bar Abba- 

Areka, 
Dime, 
Huna, 

Huna ben Chiya, 
Huna ben Joshua, 
Isaac bar Joseph, 
Jannat, 
Jeremiah, 
Jochanan bar Mor- 

yah, 
Jochanan bar Na- 

pacha, 
Jonah II, 
Jonathan ben Am- 

ram, 
Jos6 (Babylonian), 
Jos6 (Palestinian), 
Joseph ben Chiya, 
Joshua ben Levi, 
Judah II, 



ben 



ben 



Judah III, 

Judah ben Chiya, 

Judah ben Ezek- 
iel, 

Kama, 

Levi bar Sissi, 

Mar bar Ashi, 

Mar-Sheshet, 

Mar-Ukban, 

Mar-Zutra, 

Meshershaya bar 
Pacod, 

Nachman 
Isaac, 

Nachman 
Jacob, 

Papa bar Chanan, 

Raba bar Joseph 
bar Chama, 

Rabba bar Abba- 
hu, 

Rabba bar Chana, 

Rabba bar Huna 
(Rab Abba), 

Rabba bar Ma- 
tana, 

Rabba bar Nach- 
mani, 

Rabina, 

Samuel, 

Samuel (Arioch), 

Samuel bar Bun, 

Samuel bar Judah, 

Shila, 

Simai bar Ashi, 

Simlai, 

Simon bar Abba, 

Simon bar Kap- 
para, 

Simon benLakish, 

Tanchuma bar 
Abba, 

nia, 

Ushayathe Elder, 
Ushaya the 

Younger, 
Zelra. 



Amorites, the, a subdivision of 
the Canaanites, 1, 3. 

defeat the tribe of Dan, 1, 39. 
Amos, prophet, depicts the de- 
bauchery in Israel, 1, 234. 

beauty of the iJrophecies of, 
1, 235-6. 

intrepidity of, 1, 237. 

prophesies concerning Judah, 
1, 237. 

prophesies concerning Israel, 
1, 247. 
Amram.. See Mar-Aniram ben 

Sheshna. 
Amram ben Isaac Ibn-Shalbib, 
physician and secretary to 
Alfonso VI of Castile, 3, 292. 

ambassador to Seville, 3, 295. 
Amram Efrati, rabbi of Valen- 
cia, 4, 162. 
Amru, king of Yemen, 3, 64. 
Amschel, promotes the eman- 
cipation of the Frankfort 
Jews, 5, 505. 
Amschel, Talmudist, opponent 

of Israel Bruna, 4, 302. 
Amsterdam, the first Portu- 
guese ^Marranos in, 4, 665-75. 

the first sj'nagogue in, 4, 667. 

the second synagogue in, 4, 
671. 

Hebrew printing press in, 4, 
675. 

called new Jerusalem, 4, 676. 

the first synagogue of, hon- 
ored, 4, 678. 

third synagogue of, 4, 680. 

German Jews settle in, 4, 680- 
1. 

union of the Portuguese con- 
gregations of, 4, 681. 

Jewish school in, 4, 681-2. 

Polish-Jewish fugitives in, 5, 
16. 

the synagogue of, visited by 
an English ambassador, 5, 
33-4. 



1 68 



IllSTOKV OF THE JEWS. 



Amsterdam (coiithuifd), Joseph 
Delinedig-o at, 5, 79. 

the secuhir authorities of, and 
Spinoza. 5, 0"). 

the Sabbatian movement in. 
5, 139, 150. 

stag-nation of the trade of. 5, 
149. 

new synag-og-ue at, 5, lGO-7. 

Chayoii at, 5, 220. 

repudiates Chayon, 5, 2.')1. 

Luzzatto at, 5, 242. 

split in the Jewish communi- 
ty of. 5, 4.")7-8. 

llie German rabbi of, opposes 
the lieform movement, 5, 
.171. 

rabbinieal college at, 5, 700. 
Amsterdam, the Jews of, reli- 
gious government of, 4, 684- 
5. 

influence of, 4, 685. 

branches of, 4, 685, 693; 5, 50. 

desirous of settling- in Eng- 
land, 5, 18. 

mourn for Isaac de Castro- 
Tartas, 5, 32. 

alarmed at Spinoza's scepti- 
cism, 5, 90-1, 92. 

try Spinoza, 5, 92. 

lay him under the lesser Ijuu, 
5, 93. 

lay him under the greater ban, 
5, 94. 

cjilture of, 5, 109. 

and Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 155. 

warned ag-ainst Sabbatian em- 
issaries, 5, 220. 

marriages of, 5, 4 53. 

oppose their own emancipa- 
tion. 5, 454, 457. 

number of, 5, 455. 

send messengers trj the Frcneli 
Synhedrion, 5, 496. 
Amsterdam, the Portuguese 
Jews (Marranos) of, dis- 



turbed in their religious ex- 
ercises, 4, 666. 

pay a tax on corpses, 4, 673. 

intolerant treatment of, 4, 673. 

culture of, 4, 674, 677-8. 

invited to settle in Denmark, 
4, 675. 

early in the seventeenth cen- 
turj", 4, 677. 

wealth of, 4, 677; 5, 205. 

devotion of, to Judaism, 4, 
67S-9. 

found benevolent institutions, 
4, (;79. 

morality of, 4, 679-80. 

espouse Chayon's cause, 5, 
223, 225. 

abuse Chacham Zevi, 5, 224. 

urged to oppose Chayon, 5, 
225. 

Chacham Zevi summoned be- 
fore the council of, 5, 226. 

send Chayon to the East, 5, 
227. 

hold aloof from the Eibe- 
schiitz controversy, 5, 264. 
Amsterdam, the rabbis of, me- 
diocrity of, 4, 682. 

Poles, 5, 17, 206. 

try Spinoza, 5, 92-4. 

sentence Moses Mei'r Kamen- 
ker, 5, 230. 
Anabaptists, the, enthusiasm 

of, 4, 470. 
Anahita (Anaitis), Persian god- 
dess of love, 1, 408. 
Anakim, the aboriginal inhab- 
itants of Canaan, 1, 2. 
Anan (Seth), a family of high 

priests, 2, 237. 
Anan, governor of the Temple, 

envo3" to Rome, 2, 244. 
Anan (.\nanias, son of Eleazar?) 
of the family of Anan, high 
priest under Agrippa II, 2, 
236 



INDEX. 



169 



Anan (continued), favors Saddu- 

caeism, 2, 248, 271. 
dismissed, 2, 248-9. 
house of, burnt, 2, 260. 
inn:)ortant post of, 2, 271. 
supports the charges against 

Josephus, 2, 281. 
incites a civil war, 2, 295. 
party of, overpowered, 2, 295- 

6. 
executed, 2, 296. 
Anan, of the family of Seth, 

high ])riest, 2, 135. 
Anan ben David, aspirant to 

the ExiUirchate, 3, 128. 
opponents and adherents of, 

3, 129. 
imprisoned, 3, 129. 
permitted to emigrate, 3, 130. 
opposes the Talmud, 3, 130; 

5, 727. 
works of, 3, 131. 
uses Mishnic rules of interpre- 
tation, 3, 131. 
abolishes the fixed calendar, 

3, 131. 
rigor of, 3, 132-3. 
exegesis by, 3, 133. 
accepts Jesus and IMahomet, 

3, 133-4. 
excommunicated, 3, 134. 
the Exilarch of the Karaites, 

3, 135. 
memorial service for, 3, 135. 
mediocrity of, 3, 135. 
son of, his successor, 3, 136. 
characterized by Saadiah, 3, 

189. 
descendants of, 3, 444. 
Anan ben Jonathan, advises the 

surrender of Jerusalem, 2, 

265. 
Ananel, high priest, appointed 

by Herod, 2, 90. 
deposed, 2, 91. 
re-appointed, 2, 92. 



Ananel (continued), successor to, 

2, 107. 
Ananel di Foligno, apostate, de- 
nounces the Talmud, 4, 564. 
Anania, merchant, converts 

Izates of Adiabeiie, 2, 216. 
Anania, physician to Izates of 

Adiabene, 2, 217. 
Ananias, high jjriest. Sec Anan 

of the family of Anan. 
Ananias, son of Onias IV, Egyp- 
tian general, sides with Cleo- 
patra, 2, 10, 12. 
prevents an invasion of Ju- 
dava, 2, 41. 
Ananites, the, appeal to the 
caliph, 3, 129. 
exiles, 3, 134. 
differ with their founder on 

various points, 3, 136. 
See Karaites, the. 
Anastasius, the Sinaite, Patri- 
arch at Antioch, killed by 
the Jews, 3, 18. 
Anathoth, birthplace of Jere- 
miah, 1, 289, 290. 
Anatoli, Jacob. Sec .Tacob ben 
Abba Mari ben Simon Ana- 
toli. 
Anavim, the (the Gentle), dis- 
ciples of Isaiah, 1, 254. 
and Hezekiah, 1, 267. 
sufferings of, imder Manas- 

seh, 1, 283-4. 
spread the doctrines of God, 

1, 286. 
nucleus of a nationalistic par- 
ty in Babylonia, 1, 337-8. 
Anbar. Sec Firuz-Shabur. 
Ancona, Marranos permitted to 
settle in, 4, 408, 500. 
Solomon Molcho at, 4, 501. 
]\Iarranos well treated in, 4, 

525, 526. 
refuge of the Neapolitan Jews, 
4, 544. 



170 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Ancona (runiinued), trade of, 
diverted to Pesaro, 4, 579, 
5S0. 
Jews of, try to regain their 

trade, 4, 579. 
Jews permitted to remain in. 
on their expulsion from the 
I'apal States. 4, 591, G59. 
Ancona, the Marranos of, pro- 
tected by three popes, 4, 
568. 
persecuted by I'aul IV, 4, 

56S-0. 
tried by the Iiuinisition. 4, 
570-1. 
Andalusia, broken up into small 
kingdoms. 3, 255. 
Berbers and Arabs at war in, 

3, 31G. 
conquered by the Almohades, 

3, 3G0. 
Jews driven from, 3, 3S4. 
invaded by the Almohades. 3, 

506-7. 
taxation of the Jews of, 3, 617. 
the Marranos of, taught by 

Jews, 4, 334-5. 
expulsion of the Jews from, 

proposed, 4, 336. 
See also under Spain: Spain, 
Visigothic. 
Andalusian school, the, <>r 

.Tewish pf)etry. 3, 223-4. 
Andrade, Abraham, rabbi, dep- 
uty to the AsseiTiblj' of 
. I. -wish Notables, 5, 484, 490. 
Andreas, of Hungarj', excom- 
municated for employing 
.lews. 3, 5;:;i. 
Andreas Beltran, Manauo, de- 
nounces the Talmud, 4, 213. 
Andreias (Lucuas), leader of 

till- Jews of Cyrene, 2, 395. 
Andrew, disciple of Jesus, 3, 

15.;. 
Andre, Josejih Nassi duke of, 4, 
596. 



Andromachos, governor of Coe- 
lesyria, killed by the Sama- 
ritans, 1, 414. 

Andronicus, lieutenant of An- 
tioehus Epiphanes, murders 
Onias HI, 1, 448. 

Andronicus, son of Messalam, 
.luila'an champion, 1, 516. 

Ang«ls, imported into Judaism, 
1, 403. 

Angiel, one of the Sefiroth, 4, 
17. 

" Anglo-Jewish Association," 
the, founders and work of, 
5, 703. 

Angouleme, the Jews of, mal- 
treated, 3, 570. 

Angro-Mainyus, Persian god of 
darkness, and Judaism, 1, 
402. 
transformed into Satan, 1, 403. 

Anilai (Chanilai), robber chief- 
tain, 2, 202. 

Anjou, rabbis from, at the first 
rabbinical sj^nod, 3, 377. 

Anjou, the Jews of, observe a 
r.-ist, 3, :;fio. 

under Henry IT, 3, 409. 
maltreated, 3, 570. 
Anna, wife of Joceus of York, 

(h^^th of, 3, 415. 
" Annals of Persecution, The," 

by Joseph Cohen, 4, 590. 
" Annals of the Kings of 

France and of the house of 

Othman, The," by Joseph 

Cohen, 4, 556. 
Ano, wife of .Jeroboam T, 1, 184. 
Ansar, allies of Mahomet, 3, 73. 
Anteri, Jacob, rabbi of Damas- 
cus, charged with ritual 

murder, 5, 638. 
translates Talmud passages, 5, 

640. 
Anthropomorphists, literalist 

expounders of the Koran, 3, 

148. 



INDEX. 



171 



Anthropomorphists ( con 1 1 n ncd ) , 
amoiif^ the Jews, 3, 152. 

Antigonus, Macedonian general, 
and Ptolemy I, 1, 417. 

Antigonus of Soho, disciple of 
Simon the Just, saying of, 

1, 422. 

Antigonus, son of Aristobulus 
II, graces Pompey's tri- 
umph, 2, 67. 

escapes from Eome, 2, 72. 

second captivity of, 2, 7,'J. 

f)rotected by Ptolemy of Chal- 
cis, 2, 75. 

seeks the aid of Caesar, 2, 75-6. 

plots against Herod, 2, 80-1. 

king of Judaea, 2, S2-3. 

has coins struck, 2, 83. 

character of, 2, 85. 

dissension between, and the 
Synhedrists, 2, 85-6. 

declared an enemy of Eome, 

2, 86. 
beheaded, 2, 89. 
sister of, 2, 94. 

Antigonus, son of John Hyrca- 

nus, besieges Samaria, 2, 10. 

alleged murder of, 2, 36-7. 

campaign of, against the Itu- 

rseans and Trachonites, 2, 37. 

death of, 2, 38. 

Anti-Maimunists, the, oppo- 

nenits of Moses ben Maimun. 

3, 523-4. 

led by Solomon ben Abraham, 

3, 527. 
excommunicated by the Jews 

of Aragon, 3, 537. 
invite the Dominicans into the 

controversy, 3, 542-3. 
subdued by the burning of the 

Talmud, 3, 579-80. 
of Palestine, excommunicated, 

3, 632-3. 
See also under Maimunist con- 
troversy, the; Maimunists, 

the. 



Anti-Maimunists, list of: 

Daniel ben Saadiali, 

David bcii Saul, 

Jehuda bar Joseph Ibn-Alfaehar, 

Jonah ben Abraham Gerundi (the 

Elder), 
Meiir ben Todros Halevi Abulafia, 
Moses ben Chasdai Taku, 
Moses ben Nachman, 
Samson ben Abraham, 
Solomon ben Abraham, 
Solomon Petit, 
Tossafists, the, of northern France, 

3, 529. 

Antioch, Jiula^ans settle in, 1, 
419. 

gladiatorial combats intro- 
duced in, 1, 444. 

partly destroyed by Judseans, 
1, 497. 

Verus Commodus at, 2, 47. 

number of Judipans in, 2, 
201-2. 

Nazarenes in, 2, 222-3. 

Judsean Christians of, 2, 231. 

the Judgeans of, protected by 
Titus, 2, 313. 

residence of Niger, 2, 463. 
Antioch, the Jews of, interest 
Christians in Judaism, 2, 
613-14. 

dispossessed of their syna- 
gogues, 2, 621-2. 

murdered bj^ the green fac- 
tion, 3, 10-11. 

massacre the Christians, 3, 18. 

subdued, 3, IS. 

in the twelfth century, 3, 426. 
Antiochus, of Commagene, fav- 
orite of Caligula, 2, 189. 

allied with Agrippa I, 2, 195. 

son of, 2, 195, 235. 
Antiochus III, the Great, of 
Syria, defeated at Raphia, 1, 
425-6. 

takes Egypt, 1, 432. 

enters Jerusalem, 1, 432. 

besieges the Acra, 1, 433. 

repairs the Temple, 1, 433. 



172 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Antiochus III (continurd), do- 

feattd by the Romans, 1, 

434. 
death of, 1, 434. 
Antiochus IV Epiphanes, of 

Syria, hostaj,'e at Koine, 1, 

434, 442-3. 
characterization of, 1, 442-3. 
accession of, described in Dan- 
iel, 1, 443-4. 
introduces gladiatorial com- 
bats into Syria, 1, 444. 
petitioned to admit Jndiean 

athletes to citizenship, 1, 

444-5. 
makes Menclaus hiqli priest, 

1, 447. 
summons Mcnclaus to justify 

himself, 1, 44S. 
punishes Onias Ill's murder, 

1, 44S. 
exonerates Menelaus, 1, 44U. 
war of, with Eg-ypt, 1, 450-1. 
desecrates the Temple, 1, 451, 

455. 
calumniates Judaism, 1, 452-3. 
treats the Judieans cruelly, 1, 

453-4. 
orders the worsliij) of the 

Greek gods in Jerusalem, 1, 

454-5. 
sacrifices ordered on the l)irth- 

day of, 1, 456. 
dependencies of, revolt, 1, 4(')3. 
determines to exterminate the 

Juda*ans, 1, 463-4. 
son of, entrusted to Lysias, 1, 

463, 
in the East, 1, 466. 
death of, 1, 477. 
appoints a regent, 1, 477. 
persecutes the Samaritans, 1, 

r.ir,. 
Antiochus V Eupator, of Syrin. 

accession of, 1, 477. 
appealed t.. l.y ihe Hellcnisls, 

1, 478. 



Antiochus V Eupator {coti- 
t ill lied), treaty of, with the 
Judajans, 1, 480, 488. 
makes Judas Maccabajus high 

priest, 1, 481. 
Rome displeased with, 1, 482. 
Antiochus VI, of Syria, on the 
throne, 1, 497-8. 
cause of, espoused by the Has- 
niona'ans, 1, 4',)S, 499. 
Antiochus VII Sidetes, of Syria, 
assisted by Simon Tharsi, 1, 
525. 
permits Simon to strike coins, 

1, 525, 528. 

hostile to Simon, 1, 528-9. 

investigates Simon's assassi- 
nation, 1, 530. 

abaiulons the assassin, 1, 531. 

besieges John llyrcanus, 2, 3- 
4. 

grants a truce, 2, 4. 

counselors of, advise the sup- 
pression of Judaism, 2, 4. 

yields up Judasan fortresses, 

2, 4-5. 

seeks the alliance of John 

llyrcanus, 2, 5. 
death of, 2, 5. 
Antiochus VIII Grypus, of Sy- 

I'ia, succession of, opposed, 

2, 6. 
poisons his mother, 2, 6. 
harasses the Idumteans of 

Samaria, 2, 9. 
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, of 

Syria, hostile to John llyr- 
canus, 2, 9. 
forbidden by Rome 1o molest 

the Judaeans, 2, 9. 
aids Samaria, 2, 10. 
defeated by the sons of .Tohu 

llyrcanus, 2, K). 
allied with Ptolemy VllI, 2, 

10. 
Antiparo, Joseph Nassi duke of, 

4, 596. 



INDEX. 



173 



Antipas I. See Herod Antipas, 
sou of Malthace and Herod 1. 
Antipas, of the Herodian fami- 
ly, wiclvedness of, 2, 236. 
Antipas, treasurer of the Syn- 
hedriou, suspected of Ro- 
man proclivities, 2, 294. 
Antipater, the Idumiean, coun- 
selor of Hyrcanus II, 2, 59. 
intrigues against Aristobulus 

II, 2, 59. 
bribes Scaurus, 2, 62. 
envoy to Pompey, 2, 63. 
governor of Judaea, 2, 66-7. 
supports Rome, 2, 70. 
causes the death sentence of 

Pitholaus, 2, 75. 
offers his services to Ctesar, 2, 

75. 
tries to coerce the Judaeans 
into loyalty to Caesar, 2, 77. 
wife and sons of, 2, 77. 
warns Herod, 2, 78. 
urges mild measures upon 

Herod, 2, 79. 
poisoned, 2, 80. 
Antipater, son of Herod I, con- 
spires against the sons of 
Mariamne, 2, 112-13. 
conspires against Herod, 2, 

113. 
convicted of attempted parri- 
cide, 2, 114. 
executed, 2, 116. 
Antipater, son of Jason, envoy 

to Rome, 1, 526. 
" Anti-Phaedon," by John T5al- 

thasar Kolbele, 5, 316. 
Anti-Semitism, prevalence of, 5, 

704, 
Antitaktes, an extreme sect of 

Jewish Christians, 2, 370. 
Anti-Talmudists. See Frankists. 
Anti-Trinitarians, a Christian 
sect of the Reformation pe- 
riod, 4, 541. 
in Poland, 4, 647. 



Anton, Charles (Moses Gerson 
Cohen), apostate, descent 
and history of, 5, 267. 

writes a panegyric on Eibe- 
schiitz, 5, 267. 

denies the existence of Sab- 
batians, 5, 271. 
Antonia, daughter of the trium- 
vir, ward of Alexander Ly- 
simachus, 2, 176. 
Antonia, sister-in-law of Tibe- 
rius, advocate of the Ju- 
daeans, 2, 172. 

patroness of Agrippa I, 2, 176. 
Antonia, fortress of the Tem- 
ple, named for Mark Anto- 
ny, 2, lOG. 

communicates with the Tem- 
ple, 2, 109, 111. 

vestments of the high priests 
kept in, 2, 129. 

pontifical robes removed from, 
2, 172. 

strengthened by Agripj^a I, 2, 
195. 

invested by Cumanus, 2, 242. 

first wall of, taken by Titus, 
2, 305. 

Sec also Acra, the. 
Antoninus, a Jew recommended 

by Pope Gelasius, 3, 29. 
Antoninus, name of Alexander 
Severus in Jewish sources, 
2, 482. 
Antoninus Pius, emperor, clem- 
ency of, 2, 432. 

revokes Hadrian's decrees, 2, 
433. 

revolution in Judaea under, 2, 
447. 

death of, 2, 447. 
Antony, Mark, member of the 
second triumvirate, favors 
Herod, 2, 81, 87. 

beheads Antigonus, 2, 89. 

interested in Aristobulus (III), 
2, 91, 93. 



174 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Antony, Mark (coittinuid), fall 
(if. 2, yi). 

Antwerp, Amatus Lusitanus ai, 
4, 5G9. 
the Jews of, expelled, 4, 062. 

Anusim, forced converts. 4, 17'.). 
^'»( Marranos, the. 

Anzarbi, Arabic medical author- 
ity, taught by Jews, 3, 146. 

Apamea, treasure house in, for 
the Temple contributions, 2, 
5.3. 

Apelles. of Ascalon, favorite of 
Calii^ula, 2, 187. 

Apelles, Syrian overseer, re- 
sisted by the Maccabees, 1, 
459. 

Aphek, battle of. between Is- 
raelites and Philistines, 1, 
70. 

Apherema, taken by the Sama- 
ritans, 1, 410. 

Aphrodite, worshiped by tlic 
I'trsians, 1, 108. 

Apion, Greek writer, misrepre- 
sents Judaism, 2, 180-1. 
envoy to Caligula, 2, 186. 
contra.sted with Philo, 2, 1^7. 
charges of, refuted by Jose- 

phus, 2, 390. 
Josephus' work against, trans- 
lated, 4, 608. 

Apis, black bull, worshiped by 
the Egyptians, 1, 9. 

Apocalypse, the Christian, by 
Jolin, 2, 369. 

Apocrypha, the, rejected from 
the Canon, 2, 344. 
translated into Greek. 2, 359. 
considered jjart of the Canon 

by Christians, 2, 359, 488. 
canonized by the Council of 
Nice. 2, 624. 

Apollo, Oiiias III takes refuge 
in the temple of, at Daphne, 
1, 448. 



Apollonius, ambassador to Rome, 

2, 1-5. 
Apollonius, commander of Coe- 
lesyria, confiscates the Tem- 
ple treasures, 1, 438. 
Apollonius, Syrian general, in 
the war with Jonathan Ha- 
phus, 1, 496. 
Apollonius, Syrian general, takes 
Jerusalem, 1, 453-4. 
defeated by Judas Maccabaeus, 
1, 462. 
Apollonius Malo, Greek writer, 

maligns Judaism, 3, 178-9. 
Apollonius Molo, Greek writer, 
hostile to the Judfeans, 2, 
68. 
Apollos, of Alexandria, Chris- 
tian teacher, 2, 231. 
" Apology for the Honorable 
Nation of the Jews," by 
Edward Nicholas, 5, 28-9. 
Apostasy to Christianity among 
Jews after the destruction of 
Jerusalem, 2, 322. 
in the early Christian centu- 
ries, 2, 377. 
under Constantine, 2, 562-3. 
in Hamburg, 4, 687, 690. 
in Vienna, 4, 706. 
among the Chassidim, 5, 213. 
among the Frankists, 5, 287. 
among the Jews of Germany, 

5, 420. 
in Berlin, 5, 587. 
See also under Conversions to 
Christianity; Marranos, the. 
Apostasy to Islam among Jews 
in the East in the twelfth 
century, 3, 441-2. 
among Sabbatians, 5, 153-4, 

211. 
among Chas.sidim. 5, 213. 
f^ee fih') vndrr Conversions to 
IslaTn. 
Apostasy to paganism among 
Jews in Alexandria, 2, 184. 



INDEX. 



175 



Apostate, an, the disappearance 

of, causes annoyance to the 

Jews of Paris, 4, 175. 
in Breslau, charges the Jews 

with host desecration, 4, 2()1. 
Apostates, account of, by Philo, 

2, 184. 
in Alexandria, 2, 209. 
act as spies upon the Jews 

under Hadrian. 2, 425. 
Constantine protects the Jews 

against, 2, 564. 
excomraunicated by the later 

Patriarchs, 2, 612-13. 
decisions concerning, by Na- 

tronai ben Nehemiah, 3, 122. 
repentant, kindly received by 

Gershoni ben Jehuda, 3, 264. 
permitted by Emperor Henry 

IV to return to Judaism, 3, 

306. 
returning, unkindly treated 

by the Jews, 3', 308-9. 
forbidden to retain Jewish 

customs, 3, 510. 
house for, in England, 3, 644. 
validity of the evidence of, 4, 

36-7. 
force the Jews to attend 

church, 4, 132. 
inform against Marranos, 4, 

180. 
in Spanish satiric literature, 

4, 181. 
favored by the Council of 

Basle, 4, 246. 
employed as censors, 4, 566, 

659. 
annoy the Jews of the Papal 

States, 4, 581, 584. 
refrain from defending the 

German Jews, 5, 533. 
Heine on, 5, 548-9, 551-2. 
assert the falsity of the blood 

accusation, 5, 650. 
See also ii7ider Apostasy; Con- 
versions; Marranos, the. 



Apostates, list of: 

Abraham Senior, 
the family ol' 

Abulafia, Moses 

Adamantius, 

Alexander, 

Alfonso Hurgeii- 
sis, 

Ananel diFolig-no, 

Anton, Charles 

Asher of Udine, 

Astruc Raimuch, 

Astruc Sibili, 

Baptista, John 

Bonafoux, Daniel 
Israel 

BOrne, Ludwig 

Chananya, 
nephew of 
Joshua, 

Chayon, Nehe- 
miah, son of 

Cohen, Nehemiah 

Diego de Valencia, 

Donin (Nicholas), 

Drusilla, 

Du Vallie, Paul 

Eliano, Victor 

Ferrus, Pero 

Frank, Jacob 

Friedlander, Da- 
vid, the family 
of 

Gans, Edward 

Gershom ben Je- 
huda, son of 

Gerson, Christian 

Guidon, 

Heine, Heinrich 

Herz, Henrietta 

Isaac of Mayence, 

Isaac Ibn-Ezra, 

John of Vallado- 
lid, 

Joseph, 

Joseph de Vesoul, 

Joshua ben Jo- 
seph Ibn-Vives, 

Juan de Espaiia, 



Kahtz, Christian 
Karben, Victor 

von 
Levi ben Shem 

Tob, 
Levi, Wolf 
Levin, Rachel 
Machault, Denys 
Margalita, Aaron 
Margaritha, An- 
ton 
Mendelssohn, 

Dorothea 
Mendelssohn, 

Henrietta 
Moro, Joseph 
Nathaniel (Hibat- 

Allah), 
Neander, Augus- 
tus 
Nunes, Henrique 
Pablo Christiani, 
Paul, apostle, 
Pedro de laCabal- 

leria, 
Pessach-Peter, 
Pfefferkoi-n, Jo- 
seph 
Riccio, Paul 
Sabbatai Zevi, 
Samuel Ibn-Ab- 

bas, 
Samuel Abraba- 
nel (Juan de 
Seville), 
Schwarz, Peter 
Sixtus Senensis. 
Solomon Levi of 
Burgos (Paul de 
Santa Maria), 
Tiberius Julius 

Alexander, 
Uriah of May- 
ence, 
Vayol, Hans 
Wenzel, Francis 
Wolfkanof Ratis- 
bon. 



Apostles, the twelve, trusted 
disciples of Jesus, 2, 158. 
sent out by the early Chris- 
tians, 2, 220. 
Apostole, mission tax, collected 
• by the Patriarchs, 2, 487. 



1/6 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Apostoli, messengers of the 83-11- 

hedrion, 2, 535. 
Appian, historian, persecuted by 

Jewish rebels, 2, 396. 
Apries (Hophra), of Egypt, at 
war with Nebuchadnezzar, 
1, 312. 
defeated, 1, 313. 
ally of Judah, 1, 318. 
receives Juda?ans kindly, 1, 

324. 
<1ethroned, 1, 327. 
Apulia, the Jews of, liable to 
curial duties, 2, ()16. 
invaded by the Mahometans, 

3, 212. 
Jews from, form a congrega- 
tion in ("onslantinople, 4, 
402. 
Aquet, suspected of well poison- 
ing. 4, 104. 
Aquila. .SVc Akylas. 
Aquinas, Thomas, works of, 
translated, 4, 69. 
studied by Solomon Levi, 4, 
183. 
Aquitania, rabbis from, at the 
first rabbinical synod, 3, 377. 
gathering place of crusaders, 
3, 570. 
Arabarch. Sec Alabarch, the. 
Arabia, trade with, under Uz- 
ziah, 1, 230. 
(Auranitis) Paul flees to, 2, 

226. 
Jewish fugitives flee to, 2, 317, 

319, 419. 
Jews settle in, 2, 629; 3, 54-5. 
Rabvlonian Jews emigrate to, 

3,%. 
j)osition of Jews in, in llic 

sixth century, 3, 53. 
Srr also Auranitis. 
Arabia, the Jews of, similarity 
of, to the .\rabs, 3, 56. 
alienate Mahomet's followers, 
3, 74-5, 



Arabia, the Jews of (cnntinued), 
rejoice at Mahomet's death, 
3, S4. 

possess good taste, 3, 111. 

lind the authority of the Tal- 
mud irksome, 3, 119-20. 

in the Iwclftli century, 3, 436- 

Arabia, northern (Hejas), in- 
hal)itants of, descended 
from Ishmael, 3, 60, 61. 
Arabia, northern (Hejas), the 
J'ews of, 3, 54-6. 

lead a Bedouin life, 3, 57. 

distingiiish themselves in poe- 
try, 3, 57-8. 

intelligence of, 3, 58. 

religious afl'airs among, 3, 58- 
9. 

relation of, to the Arabs, 3, 
60-1. 

history of, 3, 67-71. 

dispossessed by Mahomet, 3, 
76-83. 

in the twelfth century. 3, 436- 
7. 
Arabia, southern, inhabitants 
of, descended from Yoktan, 
3, 60. 

called Knchtanites, 3, 61. 

See also lliniyarites, the; Ye- 
men. 
Arabia, southern, the Jews of, 
3, 56. 

the Jews of, trade with India, 
3, 57. 

a Jewish kingdom in, 3, 62- 
7. See under Yemen. 
Arabia Felix, .southern Arabia, 

3, 56. 
Arabic, sj)oken by Jews of Ma- 
hometan countries, 3, 110-11. 

used by llie Tiaon of Sora offi- 
cially. 3, 178. 

translation of the Bible into, 
3, 189-90. 



INDEX. 



177 



Arabic {continued), used in Sho- 
rira's responses, 3, 232. 

spoken by the Jews of Anda- 
lusia, 3, 235. 

the Mishna translated into, 3, 
237. 

spoken by Italian Jews in tlie 
twelfth century, 3, 423. 

translations from, made by 
Jews, 3, 593. 

taught as a means of conver- 
sion, 3, 597; 4, 245. 

forgotten by the Spanish 
Jews, 4, 60. 
Arabic poetry influences neo- 

Hebraic poetry, 3, 116, 224. 
Arabs, the, love the Scriptures, 
3, 59. 

adopt the Jewish calendar, 3, 
59-60. 

relation of, to the Jews, 3, 60. 

supremacy of, 3, 86-7. 

helped by the Jews and Sa- 
maritans, 3, 87. 

enthusiasm of, for their lan- 
guage, 3, 110-111. 

obtain access to scientific lit- 
erature through Jews, 3, 
111. 

influence the revival of He- 
brew, 3, 111. 

at war with the Chazars, 3, 
138. 

defeated by the Chazars, 3, 
139. 

unkindly treated by the Span- 
ish Berbers, 3, 261. 

See also under Mahometans, 
the; Nabathaeans, the. 
Arach, the family of, intermar- 
ries with the Ammonites, 1, 
362. 
Aradus, built by the Canaanites, 
1, 3. 

refuses obedience to Antiochus 
IV, 1, 463. 



Aragon, Jews in, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 384. 

ally of Castile against the Al- 
mohades, 3, 387. 

forced converts in, relapse into 
Judaism, 4, 180. 

Ferdinand of Castile becomes 
king of, 4, 205, 206. 

the Inquisition established in, 
4, 319. 

opposed to the Inquisition, 4, 
319, 328. 

privileges of, canceled, 4, 326. 

inquisitors appointed for, 4, 
326. 

exiles from, form a congrega- 
tion in Constantinople, 4, 
402. 
Aragon, the Jews of, under Al- 
fonso II, 3, 387-8. 

under Pedro II, 3, 497-8. 

prevent anti-Jewish legisla- 
tion, 3, 508. 

exempt from wearing the Jew 
badge, 3, 514-15. 

in the Maimunist controversy, 
3, 530, 536, 537. 

letter to, denouncing Solomon 
of Montpellier, 3, 544. 

under Jayme I, 3, 596-7. 

regarded as " servi camerse," 
3, 597. 

debate with Pablo Christiani, 

3, 602. 

persecuted in the fourteenth 

century, 4, 77. 
massacred on account of the 

Black Death, 4, 102-3. 
helped by the higher classes, 

4, 103. 

under Pedro IV and Juan I, 

4, 145. 
possess penal jurisdiction, 4, 

155. 
persecuted in 1391, 4, 170-1, 

172. 
converted, 4, 206, 214. 



1-8 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Aragon, the Jews of {cotitimtrd), 
at the disputation of Tor- 
tosa. 4, 214. 
under John II, 4, 274, 275. 
warned of approachins- dan- 
ger, 4, 33G. 
prochimation expelling, 4, 

347-S. 
possessions of, sequestrated. 
4, 350. 
Aragon, the Marranos of, 4, 
300. 
try to suppress the Inquisi- 
tion, 4, 329. 
Aram, home of Abraham. 1, 4. 

See Syria. 
Arama, Isaac. .SVr Isaac Anuna. 
Aramaeans, the, help the Ammo- 
nites against David, 1, 126-7. 
Sre lOKlrr Damascus, the king- 
dom of; Syria. 
Aramaic, learnt l)j- the Judaeans 
in Babylon, 1, 330-1. 
spoken by the Judaeans in 
Hasmona^an times, 2, 14, 15. 
spoken in Galilee, 2, 149. 
words in the Mishna, 2, 461. 
Aranda, Counts de, try to sup- 
press the Aragon Inquisi- 
tion, 4, 329. 
Aranda, de, Marrano bishop, 
burnt by Torquemada, 4, 333. 
Arari, David, accused of ritual 
murder, 5, 636, 638. 
persecuted, 5, 636-7. 
Araunah. Srr Ornah. 
Arbachshter. See Ardashir. 
Arbues, Pedro, de Epila, inqui- 
sitor in Aragon, 4, 326. 
plot against, by the Marranos, 

4, 329. 
killed in church, 4, 330. 
honor paid to the memory of. 

4, 330-1. 
Marranos concerned in the 
murder of, sheltered in Na- 
varre, 4, 357. 



Arcadius (:!95-40S), emperor of 
the East, insigniticance of, 
2, 615. 
the Jews under, 2, 616. 
Archelaus, of Cappadocia, daugh- 
ter of, 2, 112, 128. 
Archelaus (Herod II), son of 
Herod I, sovereign of Judaea 
and Samaria, 2, 119. 
promises to abolish unjust 

laws, 2, 120-1. 
attacks those offering the 

Passover sacrifices, 2, 121. 
forbids the celebration of 

Passover, 2, 122. 
I)uts Jerusalem under Quinti- 

lius Varus, 2, 122-3. 
ethnarch of .Tudani, 2, 127. 
deposes the high priest Joasar, 

2, 127. 
war of, against .\thronges, 2, 

128. 
marries Glaphyra, 2, 128. 
exiled bj' Augustus, 2, 128. 
property of, confiscated by 
Augustus, 2, 129. 
Archelaus, Julius, brother-in- 
law of Agrippa II. 2, 235. 
Archipelago, the, Cardoso in, 5, 

207. 
Archisynagogus, title of the 

rabbi of Speyer, 3, 297. 
Architecture, under Herod, 2, 

106-7, lis. 
Ardashir (Arbachshter), estab- 
lishes the d3-nasty of the 
Sassanides, 2, 513, 523. 
restores the Zoroastrian doc- 
trine, 2, 524. 
Ardashir, populated with Jews, 

2, 507. See also Ctesiphon. 
Ardebil, Armenian fortress, 
taken by the Chazars, 3, 139. 
" Are philosophical truths sus- 
ceptible of mathematical 
demonstration? " prize essay 
by Mendelssohn, 5, 303-4. 



INDEX. 



179 



" Are there means to make the 
Jews happier and more use- 
ful in France?" prize ques- 
tion of a Metz society, 5, 
434-5. 

Areobindus, minister of Justin- 
ian I, 3, 15. 

Aretas, Xabathoean king, and 
tlie high priest Jason, 1, 447, 
481. 

Aretas, Nabathsean king, over- 
thrown, 2, 45. 

Aretas, Nabathaean king, helps 
Hyrcanus II, 2, 59. 
besieges Aristobulus II, 2, CO. 
raises the siege of Jerusalem, 

2, 62. 
defeated by Aristobulus II, 2, 

62. 
attacked by Scaurus, 2, 70. 

Aretas, Nabathsean king, aids 
Quintilius Varus, 2, 126. 

Aretas, Nabathaean king, at war 
with Herod Antipas, 2, 173. 

Aretas Philodemus, Nabathaean 
king, creates the office of 
Judiean ethnarch, 2, 202. 

Argent, d', marquis, friend of 
Mendelssohn, 5, 304. 

Argentiere, the Jews of. oppose 
the study of science, 4, 33. 

Argob, fortress, besieged by 
Alexander Jannaeus, 2, 47. 

Argun (1284-1291), khan of the 
Perso-Mongolian realm, em- 
ploys Saad-Addaula as phy- 
sician and financier, 3, 638, 
646. 
distinguishes Saad-Addaula, 3, 

647. 
enters into diplomatic connec- 
tions with Europe, 3, 647. 
sickness and death of, 3, 649. 

Arianism, toleration of, under 
Valentinian I, 2, 603; 3, 44. 
hostility to, by Ambrosius of 
Milan, 2, 612. 



Arianism (continued), less hos- 
tile to Jews than Catholi- 
cism, 3, 26. 

persecuted in Spain, 3, 46. 
Arias Montana, publishes a 

polyglot Bible, 4, 651. 
Arias, Jean, instigates a perse- 
cution, 4, 2T9. 
Arias, Joseph Szemach, transla- 
tor of Josephus, 5, 113. 

uninfluenced by Spinoza, 5, 
117. 
Arioch. See Samuel. 
Aristides, Church teacher, dem- 
onstrates the independence 
of Christianity, 2, 431. 
Aristobulus (Judah) I, 5,on of 
John Hyrcanus, defeats An- 
tiochus IX, 2, 10. 

removes his mother from the 
regency, 2, 35. 

first Hasmonaean to asa"ame a 
royal title, 2, 35. 

coins of, 2, 35. 

dissensions under, 2, 36. 

imprisons his mother and 
brothers, 2, 36. 

hostile to the Pharisees, 2, 36. 

accused of matricide and fra- 
tricide, 2, 36-7, 38. 

campaign of, against the Itu- 
raeans and Trachonites, 2, 
37. 

death of, 2, 37-8. 
Aristobulus II, son of Alexan- 
der Jannaeus, 2, 47. 

protects the Sadducees, 2, 55. 

conspires against Hyrcanus, 2, 
56. 

character of, 2, 58. 

made king, 2, 58. 

besieged, 2, 60. 

bribes Scaurus, 2, 62. 

defeats Aretas, 2, 62. 

has coins struck. 2, 62. 

bribes Pompey, 2, 62-3. 



i8o 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Aristobulus II (cniir in itrd), sum- 
nuHied to Damascus by Pom- 
poy, 2, ().'i. 

at war with roiniicy, 2, ()4-7. 

in I'oiiipey's triumph, 2, 67. 

escapes from Rome, 2, 72. 

g-arrisons Alexandrion, 2, 7:!. 

stirrenders Macha^rus, 2, 73. 

second captivity of, at Komc 

2, 73. 

freed by Ca'sar. 2, 7."). 

poisoned, 2, 7.j. 

wife and daiig'hters of, in 
Chalcis, 2, 75. 
Aristobulus (III), brother of 
Mariamne, high priest, 2, 91. 

popularity of, 2, 92. 

murdered, 2, 92. 
Aristobulus, brother of Ag-rijjpa 
I, supphints him, 2, 11~). 

opposes Caligula, 2, 188. 

wife of, 2, 19;-,. 

l)eirs for a truce, 2, 197. 
Aristobulus, son of Mariamne, 
designated successor to 
Herod, 2, 112. 

marriage of, 2, 112. 

executed, 2, 113. 
Aristotle, the Ten Categories of, 
conijiared with the Ten Com- 
mandments, 3, 197. 

sa^'ings of, used by Ibn-Gebi- 
rol, 3, 207. 

system of, as presented by Je- 
huda Halevi, 3, 32S. 

dominance of, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 331. 

works of, translated into He- 
brew, 3, 398. 

popular among Jews, 3, 448-9. 

philosophy of, interpreted by 
Ibn-Sina, 3, 478. 

theories of. in Jewish writings, 

3, 479. 

denounced by Naehmani, 3, 
534. 



Aristotle {continiird), works of, 
traiislated into Latin, 3, 

in Imuiauuel Komi's work, 4, 6(5. 
op]K)sed by (Jersonides, 4, 93. 
authority of, questioned bj' 

Cha.sda'i Crescas, 4, 146. 
ICthics of, translated, 4, 193. 
(|U()1ed by Jewish preachers, 

4, 2:!2. 
writings of, expounded by 

Judah ben Yechiel, 4, 289. 
sj^stem of, expounded by Elias 

del ]\Iedigo, 4, 290. 
studied by Polish Jews, 4, 633. 
Ark of the Covenant, the, 1, 23, 
41. 
taken by the Philistines, 1, 

70-2. 
made by Achitub, 1, 79. 
removed to Jerusalem, 1, 119- 

120. 
transferred to the Temple, 1, 
IGG. 
Aries (city), Jews participate in 
l)attles before, 3, 36. 
Jews remain in, after their 
banishment from France by 
Charles VI, 4, 177. 
Aries (district), first Jewish 

settlement of Gaul in, 3, 35. 
Aries, kingdom of, demanded by 

Albrecht I, 4, 47. 
Armada, the, collapse of, 4, 663. 
Armenia, the Jews of, taken by 
Shabur II, 2, 591. 
invaded by the Chazars, 3, 138. 
visited by Petachya, 3, 421. 
Armenians (Tartars?), convert- 
ed to Judaism, 3, 439-40. 
Armentarius, name borne by 

(laiJic- Jews, 3, 36. 
Armleder (Leather-arras) per- 
secutions, the, of the Ger- 
man .Tews, 4, 97-8. 
Arnheim, adviser of the duke of 
Alva, 4, 602. 



INDEX. 



l8l 



Arnim, representative of the ro- 
niantie seliool, 5, 515. 

Arnold, eardinal bishop of Co- 
log'iie, iiroteets the Jews, 3, 
352. 

Arnold of Brescia, denonnees 
tlie popes. 3, 370. 

Arnold of Citeaux, org-anizes 
the crusade against the Al- 
bigenses, 3, 502. 
organizes a crusade against 
tlie Spanish Mahometans, 3, 
507. 
instigates an attack upon the 
Toledo Jews, 3, 507. 

Arnoldists, the, party opposed 
to Reuchlin, 4, 456. 

Arnstadt, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted, 3, 611. 

Arnstein, Nathan Adam von, 
wife of, 5, 414, 

Ar-Rabbi Mor (Arraby Moor), 
title of the chief rabbi of 
Portugal, 3, 018; 4, 158-9, 
380. 
duties, assistants, and juris- 
diction of, 4, 159. 

Arsaces, the dynasty of, fall of, 
2, 513, 523. 

Arsaces, satrap of Parthia, re- 
volts from Antiochus IV, 1, 
463. 

Arsenios, Samaritan favorite of 
Empress Theodora, 3, 17. 

Arta (Larta), the Jews of, in 
the twelfth century, 3, 424. 
Spanish exiles in, 4, 406. 
the Jews of, split up into na- 
tional groups, 4, 478. 

Artaban, fined for using Mezuz- 
zoth, 2, 424. 

Artabanu'S, of Parthia, invites 
Tzates to act as arbitrator, 
2, 217. 

Artabanus IV (211-226), of Par- 
thia, and Abba-Areka, 2, 513. 
overthrown, 2, 523. 



Artaxerxes I Longimanus, of 
Persia, assists Ezra, 1, 306. 
influenced bj' Judaean favor- 
ites, 1, :!7i. 
makes Nehemiah governor of 
Judaea, 1, 37/!. 
Artaxerxes II Memnon, of Per- 
sia, Egypt rebels against, 1, 
407. 
banishes Juda^.ans, 1, 408. 
killed, 1, 109. 
Artaxerxes III Ochus, of Per- 
sia, 1, 407. 
Artaxias, of Armenia, indepen- 
dent of Antiochus IV, 1, 463. 
Artemion, leader of a Jewish re- 
bellion on Cyprus. 2, 397. 
Artemion, the school of, deface 

the Septuagint, 2, 386. 
Artisans, among the Alexan- 
drian Juda^ans, 1, 505. 
among the teachers of the 
Law, 2, 344, 348, 441, 442, 575. 
See Handicrafts; Trades. 
Aruch, Talmudic dictionary, by 
Mar-Zemach I ben Paltoi, 3, 
179. 
by Nathan ben Yechiel, 3, 290, 

421. 
See also Lexicon, Talmudical. 
Arverna. See Auvergne. 
Arzilla, Jews taken captive at, 
4, 286, 339. 
Portuguese Marranos in, 4, 
381. 
Asa, king of Judah, accession 
of, 1, 189. 
forbids the worship of Astarte, 

1, 190. 
at war with Baasha, 1, 190-1. 
ally of Ben-hadad L 1, 191. 
Asahel, Joab's brother, killed 

by Abner, 1, 110. 
Asaph, psalmist, 1, 79, 120-1. 
Asaphites, descendants of Asaph, 
1, 120. 



1 82 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Asara be-Tebeth. f^ce Fast of 
Tebeth. 

Ascalon (Askelon), riiilistinc 
port, 1, 54. 
left in the posse.s.sion of tho 
Philistines by David, 1, 117. 

Ascalona, the Jews of, exter- 
minated, 4, 170. 

Ascarelli, Deborah, poetess, 5, 
08. 

Ascarelli, Joseph, husl)and of 
the jireceding', 5, GS. 

Ascension, the dog-ma of, at- 
tacked by Abbahu, 2, 5.']9- 

Ascetics, among- the Arabian 

Jews, 3, 4:;7. 
Asclepiadotus, lawyer, opposes 
Belisarius, 3, 32. 
murdered, 3, 32. 
Ashdod (.\zotns), Philistine 
jxirt. 1, .")4. 
the .\rk of the Covenant at, 1, 

71. 
left in the possession of the 

Philistines by David. 1, 117. 
conquered by X'zziah, 1, 2:il. 
destroyed, 1, VM). 
revenue from, left to Saloinc. 

2, 120. 

Asher, the tribe of, acquires 

land in the north, 1, 37. 
relation of, to the Phoenicians, 

1, 53. 
twent}' towns of, g-iven to 

Hiram, 1, 104. 
descendants of, around Nisha- 

bur, 3, 43.:. 
Asher, tribesmen of, join Gideon, 

1, r.2. 

jf>in Solomon's fh^et, 1, 170. 

Asher of Udine, apostate, 
charges Jews with blasphe- 
my, 4, .'iH4. 

Asher ben Jehuda, hero of Solo- 
mr)n Ilju-Sakbi'l's romance, 

3, 318. 



Asher ben Meshullam, ascetic, 

3, 39()-7. 

Asber ben Yechiel (Asherl, 1250- 
1327), Tossalist, 4, 34-5. 

accepts the evidence of bap- 
tized Jews, 4, 37. 

settles in Toledo, 4, 37. 

opposed to the study of 
science, 4, 37-8, 39, 50, 86-7. 

opinion of, sought by Abba- 
Mari, 4, 3S. 

influence of, on the Spanish 
Jews. 4, 51. 

as Talmudist, 4, 51. 

severity of, 4, 53. 

sons of, 4, S7. 

prefers Germany, 4, 90, 9G. 

See also Asheri family, the. 
Asher Lammlein, poses as the 
forerunner of the Messiah, 

4, 4S2. 
adherents of, 4, 483. 

Asher, Saul, deplores the decay 
of morality among- the Jews, 

5, 419. 

writes ag-ainst Fichte, 5, 463. 
Asheri. See Asher ben Yechiel: 
.Jacob ben .\sheri; Jehuda 
ben Asher T; Jehuda ben 
Asher II. 
Asheri family, the, loses mem- 
bers by the Black Death, 4, 
113. 

members of, martj-rs in 1391, 
4, 169-70. 

See Asher ben Yechiel. 
Ashi (352-457), principal of the 
Sora academy, wealth of, 2, 
005. 

re-builds the academy of Sora, 
2, 606. 

receives the tith' of Uabbana, 
2, 00(5. 

authority of, 2, 006. 

makes Sora the center of Jew- 
ish life, 2, r,07. 

collects the 'I'iilinud. 2, 007-9. 



INDEX. 



183 



Ashi {continued), completes the 
work of Judah I, 2, 009. 

decisions of, 2, 609. 

at the court of Jezdijird, 2, 
610. 

suppresses the Messianic hope, 

2, 610-11. 
death of, 2, 611. 
successors of, 2, 626. 
son of,, 2, 626. 

Ashkaba, prayer for the de- 
parted at the Babylonian 
academies, 3, 101. 

Ashkenasi. *S'tr Saul Cohen 
Ashlvenasi. 

Ashkenazi. Bee Solomon beii 
Nathan. 

Ashkenazi, Jacob, Talmudist 
and Sabbatian, 5, 150. 

Ashkenazi, Jacob Emden. Brc 
Emden, Jacob. 

Ashkenazi, Zevi. See Zevi Ash- 
kenazi. 

Ashmodai, a demon introduced 
from ISIagianism, 1, 403. 

Ashmun, a Canaanite god, 1, 
54. 

Ashura, name for the Atone- 
ment Day among' the Ara- 
bian Jews, 3, 58. 
fast day instituted by Ma- 
homet, 3, 73. 

Asia, the Jews of, esteem Ma- 
hometans, 3, 88-9. 
loses the leadership of Juda- 
ism, 3, 207. 
Karaites obtain influence in. 

3, 207. 

low estate of Judaism in, 3, 
440. 

Messianic hopes in, 4, 497. 

See also East, the; Abbasside 
Caliphate, the. 
Asia Minor, conquered by Alex- 
ander the Great, 1, 412. 

votive offerings from, seized 
by Flaccus, 2, 68-9. 



Asia Minor (continued), women 
in, converted to Judaism, 2, 
215. 
(] reek-Christian communities 

in, 2, 227. 
study of the Law in, 2, 358-9. 
chief seat of the Pagan Chris- 
tians, 2, 367. 
districts of, rebel against Ha- 
drian, 2, 399. 
the Spanish exiles in, 4, 405-6. 
Asia Minor, the Jews of, cele- 
brate two days of the new- 
moon, 2, 363. 
in the twelfth century, 3, 426. 
molested by Greek Catholics, 

4, 552-3. 
Sabbatians, 5, 137. 
Asia Minor, the Judseans of, 
send contributions to the 
Temple, 2, 52. 
protected by Caesar, 2, 76. 
have a synagogue at Jerusa- 
lem, 2, 201. 
make annual pilgrimages to 
Jeriisalem, 2, 220. 
Asinai (Chasinai), loljlier chief 

near Nahardea, 2, 202. 
" Asire ha-Tikwah," drama by 

Joseph Penso, 5, 113. 
Askaloni, Joseph, manager of 
Reyna Nassi's printing press, 
4, 628. 
Askelon. See Ascalon. 
Asma, poetess, satirizes Mahom- 
et. 3, 76. 
Asochis. See Sichin. 
Assad, teacher of the Law, con- 
verts the Yemenites to Ju- 
daism, 3, 62-3. 
Assassins, the. plot against 

Saad-Addaula. 3, 648-9. 
Assembly, the Great. See Great 

Assemljly, the. 
Asser, deputy to the Synhe- 
drion, 5, 497. 



1 84 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Asser, Carolus and Moses, mem- 
bers of the Felix Liljertate, 
5, 452. 

zealous in the emancipation 
struggfle, 5, 454. 
Assi, ralestinian Amora, subor- 
dinates himself to the Baby- 
lonian authorities, 2, 5:!1. 
537. 

investigates the educational 
institutions of Judaea, 2, 5152. 

investigates the observance of 
the Law in Samaria, 2, 534. 

appeals to Abbahu, 2, 538. 

meets Huna's corpse, 2, 54S. 

disei])les of, 2, 560. 
Assidseans, the. Sec Chassidim, 
the; Hasmonseans, the; Mac- 
cabees, the. 
Assyria, doom of, predicted by 
Isaiah, 1, 272-3. 

invaded by the Sc^-thians, 1, 
2S7. 

power of, declines, 1, 287, 2;h,. 

fall of, 1, 303. 
Assyrian customs introduced in- 
to Judah, 1, 260-1. 

characters used for the Scrip- 
tures, 1, 395-6. 
Assyrians, the, extend their ter- 
ritory, 1, 246. 

host of, destroyed at T.aehish, 
1, 277. 

defeat the Medes, 1, 287. 
Astarte, worship of, by the Ca- 
naaiiites, 1, 51. 

in Samuel's time, 1, 75. 

under Solomon, 1, 175. 

under Rehoboam, 1, 189. 

under Omri, 1, rJ5. 

under Jeroboam II, 1, 233. 

under Ilezekiah, 1, 269. 

See also Idolatry. 
Asti, French exiles settle in, 4, 

177. 
Astorga, the Jews of, converted 
by Vincent Ferrer, 4, 205. 



Astronomers and mathemati- 
cians, Jewish, list of: 

Abraham lieii Judah ben Moses 
Chiya Albars'o- Cohen, 

loiii, Judah Ibn-Verga, 

Abraham ben Levi ben Gerson, 

Metr Ibn-Ezra, Meir Alguades, 

Abraliaiu Zacuto, Moses ben Israel 
lionet de Lates, Isserles, 

David Gans, Profiat Uuran, 

Isaac ben Haruch Salial Kabban, 

Albalia, Samuel Ibn-Ab- 
Isaac ben .Toseph bas, 

Israeli II, Simon ben Ze- 
Jacob ben Maehir mach Duran, 

Tibbon, Vecinho, Joseph 
Zag Ibn-Said. 

Astronomical knowledge, the, 
of the teachers of the Law, 
2, 336, 344-5, 349, 521. 

Astronomy, studied in Portugal, 
4, 367-8. 
studied by Polish Jews, 4, 
633. 

Astruc En-Duran. See Abba- 
Mari ben Moses. 

Astruc Levi, at the Tortosa dis- 
putation, 4, 208. 
ascribes no authority to the 

Agada, 4, 214. 
refuses to accept baptism, 4, 
215. 

Astruc Raimuch (Francisco 
God-flesh, Dios-Carne), apos- 
tate, expounds Christian 
dogmas, 4, 182. 

Astruc Sibili, informs against 
the Palma Jews, 4, 246. 
imjirisoned and baptized, 4, 
217. 

Astruc, Aristides, founder of 
the " Alliance Israelite Uni- 
verselle," 5, 701. 

Astyages, of IMedia, dethroned 
by Cyrus. 1, 342. 

Asverus, name of Alexander 
Severus in the Jewish 
sources, 2, 482. 

Atel. See Volga. 



INDEX. 



185 



Athaliah, Ahab's daug-hter, mar- 
riage of, 1, 206. 
introduces idolatry into Judah, 

I, 209. 

upholds Baal woi'ship in Jeru- 
salem, 1, 212, 214. 

executes members of the house 
of David, 1, 213. 

six years' rule of, 1, 215. 

murder of, 1, 21G. 
Athenion, favorite of Ptolemy 

II, envoy to Jerusalem, 1, 
423. 

and Joseph, son of Tobiah, 1, 
424, 425. 
Athenion, general of Cleopatra, 

sent against Herod, 2, 95. 
Athens, gifts sent to, by Ju- 
da?an kings, 2, 193. 
Judgeans in, 2, 203. 
the Jews of, oppose Sabbatai 
Zevi, 5, 124. 
Athias, editor of the Ferrara 

Spanish Bible, 4, 576. 
Athias, Isaac, Chacham of Ham- 
burg, 4, 689. 
Athronges, a shejiherd, assumes 
the royal title, 2, 125. 
war of, with Archelaus, 2, 128. 
Atonement, Day of, forbidden to 
be observed, 2, 572. 
among the Arabs, 3, 58. 
liturgy of, 3, 113-14. 
a second, 4, G26. 
Atra, besieged by Trajan, 2, 399. 
Attains, of I'ergamvis, pro- 
claims Antiochus IV king of 
Syria, 1, 443. 
Attaman. See Hetman. 
Atzbaha. >SVf Elesbaa. 
Aubriot, Hugues, prevot of 
Paris, protects the Jews, 4, 
151. 
Auerbach, Jacob, fair-preacher 
in Leipsic, 5, 573. 
Heine on, 5, 577. 
Auerstadt, defeat of, 5, 495. 

12 



" Augenspiegel," the, Reuch- 
lin's pamphlet against Pfef- 
ferkorn, 4, 446-8. 

excitement created by, 4, 448. 

adverse oioinions of, 4, 450. 

charges against, 4, 451. 

burning of, ordered, 4, 451-2. 

cleared of the charge of her- 
esy, 4, 455. 

declared heretical by the Uni- 
versity of Paris, 4, 460. 

translation of, 4, 460. 
Augsburg, the Jews of, saved 
from the Rindfleisch perse- 
cution, 4, 36. 

perish during the Black Death 
persecutions, 4, 110. 

imprisoned, 4, 163. 

re-admission of, petitioned for, 
4, 127-8. 

expelled, 4, 249, 413. 
August, of Brunswick, has Tem- 
ple's work translated, 5, 
114-15. 
Augustine, Church Father, hates 

the Jews, 2, 625. 
Augustus (Octavius), member 
of the second triumvirate, 
2, 81. 

favors Herod, 2, 86. 

wins the battle of Actium, 2, 
96. 

confirms Herod's royal dig- 
nity, 2, 101-2. 

favors the Egyptian Judseans, 
2, 102-3. 

favors the Roman Judseans, 2, 
103. 

increases Herod's territory, 2, 
103. 

power of, over Herod, 2, 105. 

statue of, erected in Cpesarea, 
2, 106. 

asked to ratify Antipater's 
death-sentence, 2, 114. 

condemns the execution of 
Herod's sons, 2, 116. 



1 86 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Augustus (continued), exoutor of 

Herod's ^vil^ 2, 120. 
appealed to by the Herodians, 

2, 122. 
seizes Herod's treasures, 2, 

123. 
makes Judiva an ethuarchy. 

2, 12G-T. 

exiles Arclielaus, 2, 12S. 
instructions of, to the gover- 
nor of Syria. 2, 129. 
death of, 2, 1 ;;.'). 
Augustus III, of Poland, and 

the Frankists, 5, 28,3. 
Auranitis (Hauran, Havvoth 
Jair), the (iileadites take 
possession of, 1, 64. 
Paul flees to. 2, 220. 
given to Agrippa II, 2, 245. 
cavalry from, sent to Jerusa- 
lem. 2, 259, 2G0. 
See also Arabia. 
Aurelian, emperor, conquers Zc- 

nobia, 2, 530. 
Aurum coronarium (crown 
mone^), tax imposed on 
Judffia, 2, 463. 
collected by the Patriarchs, 2, 
487, 535. 
Austrasia, the Jews of, in the 

sixth century, 3, 40. 
Austria, Frederick the Valiant's 
Jewish statute confirmed for, 

3, 635. 

Jews emigrate to, fioni Hun- 
gary, 4, 111. 

John of Capistrano in, 4, 258. 

Jewish exiles from, take ref- 
uge in Poland, 4, 263, 420. 

Polish Jewish fugitives in, 5, 
IG 

at war with Prussia, 5, 251. 

willing to grant citizenship to 
the Jews, 5, 518. 

protects the Krardsfort Jews, 
5, 520. 



Austria {eoniinned), in the Quad- 
ruple Alliance, 5, 658. 
.lews concerned in the reor- 
ganization of, 5, 697. 
Jewish association in, 5, 703. 
Austria, the Jews of, till offices, 

3, 516, 567. 

protected bj' Frederick the 
Valiant's Jewish statute, 3, 
567-9. 

suffer during the Rindfleisch 
persecution, 4, 36. 

suiTer from the Deggenburg 
persecution, 4, 98. 

accused of well poisoning, 4, 
110. 

suffer during the Hussite agi- 
tation, 4, 222-4. 

charged with host desecration, 

4, 223-4. 
banished, 4, 224, 427. 
restrictions placed on, 4, 585. 
threatened with expulsion, 4, 

652. 
condition of, improved by 

Joseph II, 5, 357-8. 
letter addressed to, by Wessel3% 

5, 368. 

continued abasement of, 5, 461. 
freed from the poll-tax, 5, 464. 
new taxes impo.sed on, 5, 508, 
under Francis I, 5, 523. 
influence of Mannheimer on, 

5, 579. 
growing self-respect of, 5, 582. 
Austria, Lower, the Jews of, 

banished, 4, 585. 
Austrian Succession, the. War 
of, and the Jews of Prague, 
5, 251-2. 
Autobiography of Joscplius, 2, 
390. 
of Uriel da Costa, 5, 64-5. 
of Solomon Maimon, 5, 409. 
Auto-da-fe', the first, of Marra- 
nos, 4, 317. 



INDEX. 



187 



Auto-da-fe {contiiiurd). See also 
Miirraiios, the; Inquisition, 
the. 
Auvergne (Arverna), Jews in, 

in the sixth century, 3, 35. 
Auxerre, rabbi of, at the first 

rabbinical synod, 3, 377. 
Averroes (Ibn-Roshd), commen- 
taries by, on Aristotle, trans- 
lated, 3, 56G-7. 
views of, opposed by Gerso- 

nides, 4, 93. 
admired by Narboni, 4, 94. 
quoted by Jewish preachers, 4, 

232. 
system of, expounded by Elias 
del Medigo, 4, 290. 
Avesta, the, laws of clean and 

unclean in, 1, 402. 
Avicebrol (Avicebron), name of 
Solomon Ibn-Gebirol among 
the schoolmen, 3, 271. 
Avicenna. >Src Ibn-Sina. 
Avigedor Kara, rabbi of Prague, 
on friendly terms with Em- 
peror Wenceslaus, 4, 166. 
Avignon, the council of, forbids 
the emploj'ment of Jews in 
state offices, 3, 503-4. 
the papacy at, 4, 162. 
Jews remain in, after their 
banishment from France, 4, 
177, 659. 
David Reubeni in, 4, 499. 
the Sabbatian movement in, 

5, 141. 
Jews in, during the French 
Revolution, 5, 436. 
Avignon, the Jews of, oppose 
the study of science, 4, 33. 
tolerated by the popes, 4, 177. 
expelled, 4, 592. 
honor Cremieux and Monte- 
fiore, 5, 658. 
Avila, de, Marrano bishop, 
burnt by Torquemada, 4, 
333. 



Avila, the Messiah of, 4, 8-9, 
9-10, 
religious disputation at, 4, 

140-2. 
Henry IV deposed at, 4, 278. 
law of, 4, 229. 
Avila, the Jews of, under San- 
cho, 3, 617. 
converted by Vincent Ferrer, 
4, 205. 
Avitus, bishop, presides over 
the council of Epaone, 3, 37. 
forcibly converts the Jews of 

Clermont, 3, 38-9. 
celebrated in a poem, 3, 39. 
Avran, commander under Lysi- 
niachus the Benjamite, 1,449. 
Ayllon, Solomon (1667-1728), 
Sabbatian, profligacy of, 5, 
210. 
youth of, 5, 214. 
rabbi of London, 5, 214. 
rabbi of Amsterdam, 5, 215. 
on Chacham Zevi, 5, 221. 
mistrusted by the Portuguese 

community, 5, 222. 
supports Chaj^on's cause, 5, 

222-3. 
refuses reconciliation with 

Chacham Zevi, 5, 224. 
acquits Chayon of heresy, 5, 

224-5. 
Brieli writes to, 5, 225. 
summons Chacham Zevi be- 
fore the Council, 5, 226. 
abandons Chayon, 5, 231. 
Azael, name of a Sefirah, 4, 17. 
Azariah. See Uzziah. 
Azariah, general of Judas Mac- 

cabseus, 1, 476. 
Azariah, high priest, contest of, 

with Uzziah, 1, 245. 
Azariah ben Zadok, high priest 

under Solomon, 1, 167. 
Azarya ben Moses dei Rossi 
(1514-1578), attainments of, 
4, 614. 



1 88 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Azarya ben Moses dei Rossi 
ictiiitiiiiicd), connects the 
Talmnd with other ancient 
writings, 4, 614. 
works by, 4, 015. 
as a critic, 4, G15. 
deckired a heretic, 4, GIG. 
Azeka, oflVrs opposition to 

Nebnchadne/zar. 1, 311. 
" Azharoth," composed bj' Isaac 
ben Keuben Albergfeloni, 3. 
2S4. 



Aziz, of Emesa, husband of 
Drnsilhi, 2, 2:W. 

Azotus. See Ashdod. 

Azriel, Kabbalist, reduces the 
Kabbala to a system, 3, 548; 
4, 14. 
history of, unknown, 3, 548. 
clot lies the Kabbala in philo- 
sophical lang-uage, 3, 549, 
5 ."•)(;. 

Azzel Ibn-Samuel, one of the 
Benu-Kuraiza, 3, 81. 



Baal, altar to, in Samaria, 1, V.)7. 

priests of, assemble by order 

of Elijah. 1, 203-4. 

Baal, the ■worship of, among the 

Canaanltes, 1, 54. 

by Ammonites and Moabites, 

1, 55. 
at Ophrah, 1, G2. 
in Samuel's time, 1, 75. 
under Omri, 1, 195. 
under Athaliah, 1, 212, 214. 
removed from Jerusalem, 1, 

21G-17. 
under Jeroboam IT, 1, 233. 
abolished by Menahem, 1, 244. 
See also .\starte; Idolatry. 
Baal ha-Turim^. Sec Jacob ben 

Asheri. 
Baal-Peor. Sec Peor. 
Baal-Perazim, mount, scene of 

a Pliilistine defeat, 1, 116. 
Baal-Shem. See Israel of Mied- 

/.il)()Z. 
Baal-Zebub, idol, consulted by 

Aha/.iah. 1, 207. 
Baalbek, a Karaite center, 3, 

ir.h. 

captured by Ilulag-u, 3, GOG. 
Baalis, king of .Amnion, protects 
Jurla-an fugitives, 1, 318. 
instigates (Jedaliah's murder, 
1, 322. 



Baaltis. See .Astarte. 
Baasha, of Israel, kills Nadab, 
1, 189. 
ascends the throne, 1, 190. 
allied with the king of Egypt, 

1, 190. 
at war with Asa, 1, 190-1. 
allied with Ben-hadad I, 1, 191. 
takes Ramah, 1, 191. 
death of, 1, 191. 
Bab al Abwab, Persian wall 

against the Chazars, 3, 138. 
Baba ben Buta, follower of 

Shammai, 2, 133. 
Babenberg, the princes of, per- 
mit Jews to fill state offices, 
3, 567. 
Babylon, inhabitants of, colo- 
nized in Samaria, 1, 285. 
description of, 1, 330. 
fall of, 1, 349-50. 
the goddess of love wor- 
shiped in. 1, 408. 
the Judreans of, aid Judaea 

against Home, 2, 264. 
study of the Law in, 2, 358. 
Babylonia, the scene of Jewish 
activity, 2, 503-4, 531, 537; 
3, 160: 5, 726. 
three meanings of, in Jewish 
history, 2, 504-5. 



INDEX. 



189 



Babylonia {cotiti nticd) , resem- 
bles the Holy Land, 2, 544. 

Jewisli public life in, 2, 547. 

independent of Judiea, 2, 548. 

rise of, 2, 557. 

the study of the Law flour- 
ishes in, 2, 574-5. 

called Irak by the Arabs, 3, 
89. 

loses intellectual supremacy, 
3, 193, 210, 228. 

Jewish coinmunal life in, in 
the tenth century, 3, 194. 

visited by Petachya, 3, 421. 
Babylonia, Jewish, described, 2, 
504. 

compared with Judrea, 2, 505. 

districts of, 2, 505. 

towns of, 2, 505-8. 

fertility of, 2, 507-8, 

scene of the war between Ju- 
lian and Shabur II, 2, 601. 

Sora the center of, 2, 607. 

constitution of, 3, 91^-101. 

communal constitution of, 3, 
98-100. 

power of, 3, 100-1. 

mystic doctrines flourish in, 
3, 154. 
Babylonia, the Jews of, resist 
Trajan, 2, 393, 397. 

favorable position of, 2, 508. 

political chief of, 2, 508-11. 

needs of, produce a new devel- 
opment of the Law, 2, 511. 

resort to the academies of 
Galilee, 2, 511, 531. 

religious ignorance of, 2, 513. 

immorality of, 2, 516-17, 579. 

establish the sanctity of the 
law of the land, 2, 520. 

suffer imder Magian suprem- 
acy, 2, 524-5. 

on friendly terms with the 
Magi, 2, 525-6. 

injured by Odenathus, 2, 527. 

luxurious habits of, 2, 588. 



Babylonia, the Jews of (con- 

liniicd), oppressed by Sha- 
bur II. 2, 591-2. 
favor Julian the Apostate, 2, 

597. 
well treated by Jezdijird, 2, 

609-10. 
persecuted, 2, 620, 627-8; 3, 8. 
suffer under Zendik commun- 
ism, 3, 2-3. 
rebel under Mar-Zutra II, 3, 

3-4. 
independence of, 3, 3-4. 
kindly treated by Bahram 

Tshubin, 3, 8-9. 
prosperous under Cnosru II, 3, 

9-10. 
help the Arabs, 3, 89. 
form a separate community 

under the Exilarch, 3, 89. 
oppose Moawiyah, 3, 90, 92. 
ill-treated by the caliphs of 

the East, 3, 176-7. 
Babylonia, the Judseans of, 

kindly treated, 1, 329-30, 331. 
government and possessions 

of, 1, 330. 
easily learn Aramaic, 1, 330-1. 
practice idolatry, 1, 332. 
cherish Hebrew literature, 1, 

334-6. 
joined by the descendants of 

the Ten Tribes, 1, 335-6. 
mourning of, 1, 337-8. 
make proselytes, 1, 338-9. 
adopt Chaldsean superstitions, 

1, 339-40. 
occupations and wealth of, 1, 

339-40. 
literature produced by, 1, 340- 

2 

not desirous of returning to 
Palestine, 1, 340, 341. 

beg for permission to return 
to Palestine, 1, 342-3. 

hate Babylon, 1, 343. 

persecuted, 1, 343-4. 



I go 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Babylonia, the Judaeans of 
(c(nitiiiu((l), divided into the 
worldly and the pious, 1, 349. 

interested in the war with 
Cyrus. 1, :i40. 

cured of idolatry by the fall of 
Babylon, 1, 350. 

permitted to return to Pales- 
tine, 1, 351. 

number of, return! n<^ under 
Cyrus, 1, 352. 

sj'mpathj' of, with the return- 
ing exiles, 1, 354-5. 

national enthusiasm of, 1, 
363-5. 

accompany Ezra to Palestine, 
1, 366. 

send contributions to the Tem- 
ple. 2, 52. 

welcome llyrcanus 11, 2, 90. 

own large tracts of land, 2. 
202. 

in Batana?a, 2, 274. 

massacred by Varus, 2, 275. 

retreat to Camala, 2, 275. 
Bacchides, Syrian general, sent 
to Jerusalem, 1, 482. 

slays JudfPans at Beth-Zacha- 
riah, 1, 483. 

encamps before Jerusalem, 1, 
486. 

defeats the Jud.-paiis at Kleasa. 
1, 487. 

reduces the whole country, 1, 
491. 

leaves Juda-a, 1, 492. 

makes a truce with Jonatliau 
Haphus, 1, 493-4. 
Bacchus, wor.shiped in Alexan- 
dria. 1, 42S. 
Bacharach, the Jews of, massa- 
cred. 3, (V.'.C. 
Bachiel Ibn-Alkonstantini, phy- 
sician, Mainiunist, 2, 536, 537. 
Bachurim, Talmud students, 4, 
640; 5, 567. 



Bachya Ibn-Pakuda, moral phil- 
osoplu'r, system of, 3, 271-S. 

ascetic, 3, 272. 

work of. translated, 3, 392, 397. 
Badajoz, Henrique Nunes mur- 
dered at, 4, 490. 

attacked b^' Spanish Marranos, 
4, 498. 
Baden, the Jews of, the blood- 
accusation against, 3, 564. 

obtain political freedom, 5, 
502-3. 

])ersecuted, 5, 530-1. 

honor Riesser, 5, 601. 
Badis, Berber king, supported 
by Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, 3, 
25S. 

makes iiim \izir. 3, 258. 

makes liim chief of the Gra- 
nada congregations, 3, 259. 

avenges Balkin's death, 3, 275. 

orders the massacre of the 
(irauada Arabs, 3, 276. 

mistrusts Joseph Ibn-Nagrela, 
3, 277. 
Baflfa, sultana, favorite of, 4, 

629. 
Bagdad, a scientific center, 3, 
146. 

the Mutazilist theology taught 
at, 3, 147. 

in the Pumbeditlia district, 3, 
156. 

Saadiah at. 3, 196. 

Sahbatai Donnolo at, 3, 213. 

birth])lace of Dunash ben La- 
brat, 3, 226. 

Abraham Tbn-Rzra in, 3, 369. 
Bagdad, the Jews of, prosper- 
ous under Al-Mutadhid, 3, 
183. 

in the twelfth century, 3, 428. 

Talmud ical college of. 3, 429, 
438. 

invited to join David .\lrui, 3, 
431. 



INDEX. 



191 



Bagdad, the Jews of {continued), 
enthusiastic for David Alrui, 
3, 432. 
Maimunists, 3, 633. 
attacked by the Mongols, 3, 
649-50. 
Bagdad Caliphate, the. See Ab- 

basside Calipliate, the. 
Bagoas (Bagoses), Syrian com- 
mander, murders Artaxerxe.s 
III, 1, 409. 
levies a tax on the daily sacri- 
fice, 1, 409-10. 
Bahir, a Kabbalistic manuscript, 

3, 556, 557. 

Bahrain Tshubin, Persian gen- 
eral, ascends the throne, 3, 
8. 
friendly to the Jews, 3, 8-9. 
dispossessed by Chosru II, 3, 
9. 

Bahurim, David passes through, 
1, 142. 

Bail, defends the Jews, 5, 522. 

Bailly, mayor of Paris, favors 
the emancipation of the 
Jews, 5, 445. 

Bairut. See Beyrout. 

Bajazet (Bajasid) II, sultan, 
censures the expulsion of 
the Spanish Jews, 4, 356. 
receives Spanish exiles kindly. 

4, 364, 400. 
Jews under, 4, 402. 

Baki, Simon, rabbi, superstition 

of, 5, 201-2, 
Balaam, magician, employed 

against the Israelites, 1, 2S. 
Balak, king of Moab, hostile to 

the Israelites, 1, 28. 
" Balance, The," grammatical 

work by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, 

3, 371. 
Balanyiar, Jews settle in, 3, 124, 

139. 
Balch, birthplace of Chivi Albal- 

chi, 3, 198. 



Baldwin IV, of Jerusalem, ban- 
ishes the Jews, 3, 427. 

Baldwin, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, induces Richard I to 
dismiss the Jews from his 
palace, 3, 410. 
and Benedict of York's bap- 
tism. 3, 411. 

Balkin (Bologgin), of Granada, 
abdicates in favor of Badis, 
3, 258. 
death of, 3, 258, 275. 
partisans of, leave Granada. 3, 

258. 
Joseph Ibn-Nagrela secretary 
to, 3, 274. 

Bamberg, the council of, en- 
forces Jew badges, 4, 255. 
the Jews of, persecuted, 5, 
529. 

Band of Virtue, the, founded by 
Berlin Jewesses, 5, 423, 425. 

Bandito, suspected of well poi- 
soning, 4, 104. 

Baptism, the moral meaning of, 
taught by John the Baptist, 
2, 146. 
value of, examined by Chas- 
da'i Crescas, 4, ISS. 

Baptista, John (Solomon Ro- 
mano), grandson of Elias 
Levita, ajiostate, denounces 
the Talmud, 4, 564. 

Bar, the Jews of, slaughtered 
l\y Cossacks, 5, 11. 

Barak, judge, leads the Israelites 
against Jabin, 1, 61. 

Barbaro, Mark Antonio, Vene- 
tian consul, and Solomon 
Ashkenazi, 4, 605. 

Barbary states, the, Marranos 
emigrate to, 4, 485. 
Polish-Jewish fugitives in, 5, 
16. 

Barbastro, the Jews of, con- 
verted. 4, 214. 



192 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Barbastro (cotttinited), the Mar- 

raiius of, conspire against 

ArbiK's. 4, 330. 

Barcelona, the disputation at, 3, 

59S-601. 

bishop of, ajjpointed censor of 

the Talmud, 3, 603. 
report of the disputation at. 

3, 603-4. 

Kabbala taught in, 4, G. 
Marranos from, in Algiers, 4, 

199. 
the Inquisition established in, 

4, 332. 

Jews disappear from, 4, 3;j1. 

exiles from, form a congrega- 
tion in Constantinople, 4, 
402. 
Barcelona, the Jews of, the 
leaders of northern Spain, 
3, 387-8. 

entreat Nachmani to break oil' 
the disputation, 3, 600-1. 

opposed to the study of sci- 
ence, 4, 29, 33, 40. 

charged with causing tlie 
Black Death, 4, 102-3. 

persecuted, 4, 171-2. 
Bar-Chanina, teacher of .Je- 
rome. 2, 62.3-4. 
Bar-Cochba, attacks .\kiba, 2, 
409. 

described as the Messiali, 2, 
410. 

confidence of, 2, 1 11. 

victories of, 2, 411. 

coins of, 2, 411. 

hostile to Christians, 2, 412. 

restores the Jewish state, 2, 
412, 413. 

strongholds of, 2, 414-1.^>. 

particulars of the revolt of, 2, 
4ir,-16. 

loses the strongholds of the 
north, 2, 416. 

cuu.ses the death of Kleaz.ir of 
Moflin. 2, 11^. 



Bar-Cochba {continued), end of, 

uiilvnown, 2, 419. 
Barebones Parliament. See Par- 

lianient, the Short. 
Bar-Eleaza, son-in-law of Judah 

I, 2, 455-6. 
Barfat Crescas, imprisoned, 4, 

150. 
Barfat. tS'rc Isaac ben Sheshet 

liarfat; Zarak. 
Bari, the four Sora emissaries 

captured at, 3, 203. 
Baris. See Acra, the; Antonia. 
Bar-Kappara. Sec Simon bar 

Kappara. 
Bar-Kasha, and Rab, 2, 518. 
Bar-Kosiba, real name of Bar- 

Coeliba. 
Barlaeus, Caspar, Socinian, and 

Manasseh ben Israel, 5, 22. 
Barnabas. See Jose Barnabas. 
Barnave, favors the emancipa- 
tion of the Jews, 5, 441. 
Barrios, Miguel (Daniel) de, 

historian, 5, 202. 
versifier, 5, 204. 
Eartholomaion, demon exorcised 

1)\' Simon ben Vochai, 2, 449. 
Baruch, ancestor of the Ibn- 

Albalias, early settlement of, 

in Spain, 3, 43. 
Baruch of Benevento, Kabbalist. 

4, 4S1. 
Baruch ben Samuel, Talmudist, 

nuMiibcr of the Mayence 

synod, 3, 517. 
Baruch Ibn-Albalia, birth of 

the son of, 3, '.'>'22. 
Baruch, son of Neriah, reads 

Jeremiah's prophecies in the 

Temple, 1, 304. 
taken prisoner by the Chal- 

da^ans, 1, 315. 
attends Jeremiah in Mizpah, 

1, 320. 
taken captive by Ishmael, 1, 

322. 



INDEX. 



193 



Baruch, son of Neriah {con- 
tinued), rescued, 1, 152:5. 
in Egypt, 1, 324. 
in Babylon, 1, 328. 
brings Jeremiah's writings to 

Babylon, 1, 336. 
writes a history of Israel, 1, 

336-7. 
Letter of, translated, 2, 359. 
Baruch Gad, Palestinian emis- 
sary, on the Sons of Moses, 
5, 120. 
Baruch Yavan, carries the Eibe- 
schlitz controversy to Po- 
land, 5, 262-3. 
Baruch, Jacob, BiJrne's father, 
deputy to the Congress of 
Vienna, 5, 513. 
Baruch, Lob (Louis). Sec Borne, 

Ludwig. 
Barzaphernes, Parthian com- 
mander, 2, 82. 
Barzillai, aids David, 1, 1 14. 
Bashan, the inhabitants of, ap- 
peal to Judas Maccabseus, 1, 
474-5. 
Basilius (850-866), emperor, tries 
to convert the Jews, 3, 175-6. 
Basilius, Jewish slave-dealer, 

and Pope Gelasius, 3, 29. 
Basle, the Talmud printed at, 
4, 589. 
Alsatian Jews escape to, 5, 
437. 
Basle, the Council of, renews the 
anti-Jewish measures of pre- 
vious councils, 4, 245, 248, 
251, 264. 
excludes Jews from university 

degrees, 4, 245. 
favors baptized Jews, 4, 246. 
degrades Eugenius IV, 4, 249, 

250. 
decree of, concerning Jewish 
physicians disregarded, 4, 
407. 



Basle, the Jews of, protected 
from the Black Death per- 
secutions, 4, 106, 108. 

banishment of, demanded, 4, 
106-7. 

burnt, 4, 107. 
Basmath, daughter of Solomon, 

1, 177. 
Basnage, Jacob (1(')53-1723), his- 
torian of the Jewish disper- 
sion, 5, 195, 593. 

on the persecutions of the 
Jews, 5, 195-6. 

consults Jewish historians, 5, 
196. 

faults of the history by, 5, 
196-7. 

prejudiced, 5, 197. 

importance of the history by, 
5, 197. 

disciples of, 5, 197. 

history of, suggested by Mau- 
asseh ben Israel, 5, 202. 
Bassan, Isaiah, teacher of 
Moses Chayim Luzzatto, 5, 
235. 

espouses Luzzatto's cause, 5, 
238, 241. 

makes Luzzatto promise not 
to teach Kabbala, 5, 239. 

has Luzzatto's writings in 
safekeeping, 5, 239. 

permits Luzzatto to publish 
Kabbalistic works, 5, 239. 
Bassora, under the jurisdiction 
of the Sora academy, 3, 98. 

the Mutazilist theology taught 
in, 3, 147. 

the Gaon of Sora at, 3, 202. 

the Jews of, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 437. 
Bassus, Vespasian's governor of 

Judfea, 2, .'il5. 
Basula, Moses. See Moses 

Basula. 
Batansea, given to Philip by 
Herod's will, 2, 119. 



194 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Batan8ea(co/i/i« «<(/), iimlor I'liilip, 

2, 137. 

given to Agrippa 11, 2, 245. 

(.•avalry from, sent to Jerusa- 
lem, 2, 23'J, 2G0. 

Babylonian .Iiuheans in, 2, 
274. 

Porphyry a native of, 2, 502. 

the Henu-Kainulvaa settle in, 

3, 77-s. 

Batavian Republic, the, the Jews 
of, enianeii)ation of, 5, 452. 
number of, 5, 453, 455. 
disabilities of, 5, 453. 
writings hostile to, 5, 45!!. 
hold aloof from the National 

Assembly, 5, 454. 
emancipated, 5, 456-7. 
appointed to public offices, 5, 

458. 
protection of, in (jerniany, 5, 

458, 463. 
See also Emancipation of the 
Dutch Jews; Holland. 
Bath-Kol, heavenly voice, 2, 

337, 338. 
Bathori, Stephen, election of, as 
king of Poland, 4, (542. 
the Jews prosperous under, 4, 
642-3. 
Bathsheba, wife of Uriah the 
llittite, Vjecomes David's 
wife. 1, 132. 
sons of, 1, 133. 
made first queen, 1, 134. 
pleads for Solomon's succes- 
sion, 1, 153. 
Bathyra, Jndiran fortress in I'.a- 

tana-a, 2, 27J. 
Baudin, su|)presses evidence in 
favor of the Damascus Jews, 
5, 037. 
Bavaria, .John of C'apistrano in, 

4, 25S. 

the poll-lax abolished in, 5, 
468. 



Bavaria, the Jews of, suffer 
from the Kindlieisch perse- 
cution. 4, .';5-6. 
sulfer from the Ilartmann von 
Deggenburg persecution, 4, 
<J8. 
(luring the lilack Death per- 
secutions, 4, 110. 
accused of aiding the Hussites, 

•*, . — ~. 
assaulted by the imperial ar- 
my, 4, 225. 
expelled, 4, 253-4. 
during John of Capistrano's 

visit, 4, 258. 
ta.\ed for the defense of the 

Katisbon Jews, 4, 305. 
take refuge in Poland, 4, 420. 
accn.sed of child-murder, 4, 

545-6. 

])artial emancipation of, 5, 508. 

Bayonne, the kings of Castile 

and of France meet at, 4, 2. 

Bayonne, the Jews of, addressed 

in behalf of the Moravian 

and Bohemian Jews, 5, 253. 

in Alalesherbes" commission, 

5, 432. 
prosperit\- of, 5, 436. 
emancipated, 5, 442-3. 
Bayreuth, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted, 5, 530. 
Beatrice, wife of Juan 1 of Cas- 
tile, heir to Portugal, 4, 158, 
proposes David Negro as chief 
rabbi, 4, 161. 
Beaucaire (Belcaire), the Jews 
of, in the tw^elfth century, 
3, 400. 
Be-Chatim, home of Acha'i bar 

Ihma, 2, 631. 
Bechinath ha-Dath, work of 

Klias del Medigo. 4, 293. 
Bechinath Olam, by Yedaya 

P.edarcsi, 4, 49. 
Bedaresi. See Abraham; Yeda- 
ya En-Bonet, 



INDEX. 



195 



Bedr, battle of, between Maho- 
met and the Koraisliites, 3, 
76. 
Beer of Mizricz (Berisli, 1700- 
1772), fonnder of new Chas- 
sidisni, 5, 375, 379. 
learning- of, 5, 379. 
habits of, 5, 379-80. 
pilgrimages to, 5, 380, 407. 
simulates insjiiration, 5, 380-1. 
emphasizes the importance of 

the Sabbath, 5, 381-:i. 
apostles of, 5, 383. 
adopts the Portuguese ritual, 

5, 386-7. 
death of, 5, 392. 
a relative of, supreme Zaddik, 

5, 393. 
sayings by, 5, 393. 
disciples of, 5, 393. 
Beer, Jacob, private synagogue 

of, in Berlin, 5, 563. 
Beersheba, frontier town of an- 
cient Israel, 1, 129. 
pilgrimages to, 1, 232. 
Behaim, Martin, at Joao II's as- 
tronomical congress, 4, 367. 
Bekashoth ha-Memin, prayer 

by Yedaj'a Penini, 4, 43. 
Bekiin, center for the teaching 
of the Law under Gamaliel 
II, 2, 335, 348. 
Bel, temple of, rebuilt by Alex- 
ander the Great, 1, 415. 
Bela IV, of Hungary, invites 
Jewish agents into his co\m- 
try, 3, 613. 
introduces Frederick the Val- 
iant's Jewish statute, 3, 
613-14. 
Belgium, Jews in, in the sixth 
century, 3, 35. 
the Jews of, during the Black 

Death persecutions, 4, 112. 
Catholic agitators in, hostile 
to the Jews, 5, C55. 



" Belief of the Universe, The,"' 
by Chayon, 5, 219-20. 

Belillos, Jacob, rabbi of Venice, 
and Luzzatto, 5, 239. 

Belisarius, Jewish soldiers light 
against, 3, 4. 
removes the Temple vessels to 

Constantinople, 3, 26. 
in Italy, 3, 31. 

ojjposed by the Jews of Na- 
ples, 3, 32. 

Belkis, supposed name of the 
(^leen of Sheba, 1, 173. 

" Bellerophon," satire by Le- 
frank, 5, 471-2. 

Bellieta, suspected of well jioi- 
soning, 4, 104. 

Belmonte, Bienvenida Coen, 
Jewish poetess, 5, 203. 

Belmonte, Jacob Israel, poet, 
interested in the Amster- 
dam ]\larranos, 4, 665. 

Belmonte, Manuel, poet, founder 
of an academy of poetry, 5, 
113. 

Belmontes, the, millionaires at 
Amsterdam, 5, 205. 

Belvedere, the Nassi palace at 
Constantinople, 4, 597. 
Hebrew printing press at, 4, 
628. 

Ben-Adret. Sec Solomon ben 
Abraham ben Adret. 

Benaiah, commander of David's 
mercenaries, 1, 122. 
in the Ammonite war, 1, 126. 
opposes Absalom, 1, 141. 
acknowledges Solomon king, 

1, 153. 
kills Adonijah and Joab, 1, 160. 

Ben Asai (Azai). See Simon 
ben Asai. 

Ben Asher. See Moses and 
Aaron ben Asher. 

Benavente, the Jews of, con- 
verted by Vincent Ferrer, 4, 
205. 



196 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Ben-Batiach, Zealot leader, aids 
Jochanan ben Zakkai, 2, 
323. 
Bendama, and the Jewish Chris- 
tians. 2, 370. 
Ben David, Messiah, 2, 144. 
Ben-David. Lazarus (1702-1832), 
philosopher, 5, 405. 

admires Kanfs philosophy, 5, 
409. 

lectures on Kant, 5, 410. 

deplores the decay of morality 
among' Jews, 5, 419. 

leaves attacks on Judaism un- 
answered, 5, 409. 

influences Heine, 5, 540. 

member of the Society for 
Culture, 5, 5S3. 
Bene Amri, the, attack the lias- 

moua'ans, 1, 491. 
Bene Bathyra, presidents of the 
Synhedrion, 2, 90, 358. 

resifrn in favor of Hillel, 2, 99. 
Bene-Berak, home of Akiba, 2, 

.i55. 
Benedict XII, ijojjc, unable to 

])ro1eet the Jews, 4, 99. 
Benedict XIII (Tedro de Luna), 
pope, debates w-ith Shem- 
Tob ben Isaac Shaprut, 4, 
142. 

confers ecclesiastic offices 
upon Solomon Levi, 4, 184, 
190. 

employs a Jewish physician, 
^ 200. 

plans the conversion of the 
Spanish Jews, 4, 200-7. 

arraufjes the disputation at 
Tortosa, 4, 207. 

plans the annihilation of the 
Talnmd, 4, 209. 

and Jewish delegates to Tor- 
tosa, 4, 210. 

pomp displayed by, 4, 210-11. 

refuses to release the Jews 
from the disputation, 4, 211. 



Benedict XIII (co)iti>iiied), pre- 
sides over the disputation, 
4, 212. 
threatens the Jewish delegates 

with death, 4, 213, 239. 
issues a bull against the Tal- 
mud and the Jews, 4, 215- 
10. 
deposed by the council of Con- 
stance, 4, 210, 228. 
sets up a papal court at Penis- 
cola, 4, 217. 
originates the sermon for 
Jews, 4, 055. 
Benedict XIV, pope, acquits the 
Jews of the blood accusa- 
tion, 5, 282. 
Benedict of York, accepts bap- 
tism, 3, 411. 
returns to Judaism, 3, 411. 
death of, 3, 413. 
house of, burnt, 3, 413. 
Bene Korach. Sec Korah, the 

sons of. 
Bene Mikra. Sre Karaites, the. 
Benet, Mordecai, leader of the 

orthodox party, 5, 567, 572. 
Benevento, the Jew-s of, in the 
twelfth century, 3, 424. 
the Inquisition for Marranos 
at, 4, 385. 
Benfelden, the council at, ban- 
ishes the Jews of the upper 
Khine, 4, 107. 
Ben-hadad I, of Damascus, all}' 
of Israel and Judah, 1, 191. 
defeats Omri, 1, 195. 
Ben-hadad II, of Damascus, be- 
sieges Samaria, 1, 205. 
defeated by Ahab, 1, 205. 
treachery of, 1, 205. 
defeats Ahab and Jehosha- 

phat, 1, 20G. 
murdered, 1, 210. 
Ben-hadad III, of Damascus, 
defeated, 1, 221-2. 



INDEX. 



197 



Benisch, Abraham, founder of 

the " Anylo-Jewjsli Assoeia- 

tion," 5, 70:j. 

Benjamin, the tribe of, aequires 

Gibeon, 1, liS. 

holds assemblies at Shiloh, 1, 

41. 
opposed to intermarriages 

with the heathen, 1, 56. 
aids Ehud against the Moab- 

ites, 1, GO. 
attacked by the Philistines, 1, 

64. 
aids Saul, 1, 85. 
accuses David of destroying 

the house of Saul, 1, 124. 
sides with Absalom, 1, 139-40. 
hesitates to recall David, 1, 

146. 
meets David at the Jordan, 1, 

147. 
closely united with Judah, 1, 

174. 
loyal to Rehoboam, 1, 182. 
members 01, return from the 
Captivity. 1, 352. 
Benjamin of Canterbury, Tossa- 

fist, 3, 409. 
Benjamin of Fermo, patron of 

Immanuel Eomi, 4, 68. 
Benjamin of Tiberias, and Em- 
peror Heraclius, 3, 19, 22. 
Benjamin ben Jonah of Tudela. 

traveler, 3, 38S-9; 4, 127. 
Benjamin ben Moses of Xaha- 
vend (800-820), spreads the 
Mutazilist philosophy, 3, 
150-1. 
founder of the Makariyite 
sect, 3, 131. 
Benjamin Assia, physician, 
scorns the teachers of the 
Law, 2, 589-90. 
Ben-Kafren (Ephraim), defends 
Menachem ben Saruk, 3, 227. 
Ben Kohelet, work by Samuel 
Ibn-Xagrela, 3, 260. 



Ben Mishle, work by Samuel 

Ibii-Nagrela, 3, 260. 
Ben-Naphtali, criticises the Ben 

Ashers, 3, 207. 
Ben-Nazar. See Odenathus. 
Ben Shaltiel-Chen. 8ce Serach- 

ya ben Isaac. 
Ben Soma. Sec Simon ben Zo- 

ma. 
Ben Tehillim, work by Samuel 

Ibn-Xagrela, 3, 260. 
Benu-Aus, the, Arabic family, 
relations of, to the Jews, 3, 
55. 
conversions among, to Juda- 
ism, 3, 61. 
hostile to Jewish rule, 3, 67. 
the Jews of Yathrib depen- 
dent on, 3, 68. 
feuds of, 3, 70-1. 
Benu-Bachdal, the, Jewish-Ara- 
bic tribe, 3, 54-5. 
Benu-Kainukaa, the, Jewisii 
tribe in northern Arabia, 3, 
55. 
invited to accept Islam, 3, 74, 

76-7. 
forced to surrender to Maho- 
met, 3, 77. 
settle in Batanfsea, 3, 77-8. 
preserve love for Arabic, 3, 

111. 
object to Talmudic restraints, 
3, 119. 
Benu-Kinanah, the, Arab tribe 
converted to Judaism, 3, 61. 
Benu-Kuraiza, the, a Jewish- 
Arabic tribe, 3, 54-5. 
threatened by Mahomet, 3, 77. 
make war upon Mahomet, 3, 

80. 
slaughtered, 3, 81. 
Benu-Nadhir, the, a Jewish- 
Arabic tribe, 3, 54-5. 
threatened by Mahomet, 3, 77. 
meditate treachery against 
Mahomet, 3, 78. 



198 



HISTORV OF THE JEWS. 



Benu-Nadhir, tlic {roiithiiKd), 
forced to emigrate, 3, 78-9. 
war with, justified in the Ko- 
ran, 3, 79. 
org-auize an alliance against 

Mahomet, 3, 79-80. 
rouse the Jews of Chaibar to 

resist Mahomet, 3, 82. 
preserve love of Arabic, 3, 111. 
object to Talmudic restraints, 
3. 11 '.I. 
Ben Usiel, ('h;iinj)ion of the 

orthodox party, 5, (127. 
Benvenida Abrabanela, wife of 
Samuel 11 Abrabanel, char- 
acter of, 4, 409. 
friend of the duchess of Tus- 
cany, 4, 410, 544. 
supports David Reubeni, 4, 

493, 
prevents tlie banish nient of 
the Naples Jews, 4, 543. 
Benveniste. See Abraham Boii- 
veniste Senior; Benveniste 
Ibn-Labi; Benveniste, Chay- 
iin: Isaac; .Poseph ben E])li- 
raim lbn-I5enveniste Haic- 
vi; Judah; Sheshet; Vidal 
ben Benveniste Ibn-Labi. 
Benveniste Ibn-Labi, part trans- 
lator of Aristotle's Ethics, 4, 
193. 
Benveniste, Chasdm (lf)0:i-1673), 
ral)l)i of Smyrna, Sabbatian, 
5, 130. 
disappointed in Sabbatai Zevi, 
5, 155. 
Benveniste family, the, of the 
nobility of Jewish Spain, 3, 
230. 
Oracia Mendesia of, 4, 571. 
Ben Yasus. Sec Abu Ibraham 
Isaac Ibn-Kastar ben Yasus. 
Ben-Zeeb, one of the Measfim. 

5, 100. 
Be-Rab, Abba-Arcka's school. 2, 
514. 



Berab. See Jacob Berab. 
Berachoth, the eighteen, intro- 
duced by Gamaliel II, 2, 303. 
Berachya ben Natronai Nakdan 
(('i-isi)ia, 12:;()-i;JT()), t'al)ulist, 
3, 500. 
Berachya, son of Jacob Querido, 
Messiah, followers of, 5, 211. 
soul of, in Jacob Frank, 5, 274. 
l)rayers addressed to, 5, 274. 
Berber princes, the, receive Jew- 
ish refugees kindly, 4, 198 
Berbers, the, establish them- 
selves in southern Spain, 3, 
25(;. 
hostile to the Spanish Arabs, 

3, 201, 270, 316. 
incensed against the Jews, 3, 

slay Joseph Ibn-Nagrela, 3, 
278. 
Berdaa. See Derbend. 
Berenice, daughter of Agrippa I, 
marriage of, 2, 235. 

Drusilla envious of, 2, 230. 

:i|)])c'als to Gessius Florus, 2, 
254. 

l)opularity of, 2, 257. 

I)alace of, burnt, 2, 200. 

(•aj)tivates Titus, 2, 2S9, 299. 

wins Tiberius Alexander to 
Vespasian's side, 2, 300. 

influence of, over Titus, 2, 
302, 307. 

in the arena of Caesarea Thil- 
ippi, 2, 312. 

honored at the court, 2, 317. 

fall of, 2, 317. 

obtains pardon for Justus of 
Tiberias, 2, 319-20. 

consoles her conquered core- 
ligionists, 2, 333. 

abandoned by Titus, 2, 388. 
Berenice, Herod's niece, mar- 
riage of, 2, 112. 

friend of Antouia, 2, 176. 



INDEX. 



199 



Bergamo, Bernardimis of Feltre 

in, 4, 2'JC). 
Berish. See Beer of Mizricz. 
Berlin, settlement of Jews in, 5, 
174. 

Chayon at, 5, 218-20. 

subscribers to Mendelssohn's 
Pentateuch translation in, 
5, 329. 

the Free School of, 5, 41(5. 

the j)rogressive party in, ,5, 
418. 

Jewish physicians of, a class, 
5, 461. 

the University of, arbiter be- 
tween the Jews and the Sen- 
ate of Frankfort, 5, 520. 

Jacobson transplants the Re- 
form movement to, 5, 562-3. 

private synagogues in, closed, 
5, 563. 

appoints no rabbi, 5, 566. 

a German Jewish church in, 
5, 683. 

rabbinical colleges at, 5, 700. 
Berlin, the Jews of, threatened 
with expulsion, 4, 652. 

under Frederick I, 5, 190. 

split into two parties, 5, 219. 

culture of, 5, 294-5. 

enterprises of, 5, 396-7. 

devoted to literary pursuits, 5, 
397. 

encourage the Meassef, 5, 399. 

influenced by Herz, 5, 407. 

disseminators of culture, 5, 
410-11. 

the salons of, 5, 412-13, 422-23. 

millionaires, 5, 414. 

begin the emancipation strug- 
gle, 5, 414-16. 

influence of, 5, 416-17. 

apostasy among, 5, 420, 587. 

procure an order against anti- 
Jewish pamphlets, 5, 469. 

object to Napoleon's Synhe- 
drion, 5, 494-5. 



Berlin, the Jews of {rnntinucd), 
antipathy to, weakened, 5, 
091. 
See also lieform of Judaism, 
the. 

'' Berlin religion," the, opposi- 
tion to, 5, 333. 

Bernal, Abraham Nuiies and 
IMarcus da Almeyda, Marra- 
nos, martyrs, 5, 92. 

Bernaldez, Andreas, pastor, on 
the Spanish Jewish exiles, 
4, 349. 

Bernard of Clairvaux, abbot, 
preaches the second crusade, 

3, 349. 

preaches the repudiation of 
Jewish debts, 3, 349. 

prevents a persecution of th» 
French Jews, 3, 351, 356. 

appealed to, by the archbishf,p 
of Mayence, 3, 352. 

denounces Rudolph, 3, 353. 

influences Rudolph, 3, 353. 
Bernard of Sienna, master of 
John of Capistrano, 4, 257. 
Bernard, Isaac, Mendelssohn's 

employer, 5, 296, 303. 
Bernardinus of Feltre, Fran- 
ciscan, preaches against the 
Jews in Italy, 4, 296. 

failure of, 4, 296-7. 

in Trent, 4, 297. 

raises the blood accusation. 4, 
298. 
Bernardo, Dominican, incites 
the mob against Marranos, 

4, 487. 

Bernays, Isaac (1792-lS^it), op- 
poses the Hamburg reforms, 

5, 574. 

characteristics of, 5, 574-5, 577. 
chief work by, 5, 575. 
criticises Mendelssohn and his 

school, 5, 575. 
appointed to the Hamburg 

rabbinate, 5, 576. 



200 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Bemays, Isaac (amtinued), ch-.ir- 
aoter of the sermons by, 5, 
577. 

Heine on, 5, 577. 

respected by the orthodox, 5, 
o77-S. 

influence of, in Germany, 5, 
5S2. 

influence of, on Steinheini, 5. 
602. 

Ben Usiel disciple of, 5, (J27. 

forbids the use of the Keforni 
Temple prayer book, 5, (57:;. 

attacked by the Reform Tem- 
ple Union, 5, 073. 

supported by the rabbi of Al- 
tona, 5, G74. 
Bernays, Jacob, founder of the 

Breslau seminary, 5, 700. 
Berne, the Jews of, accused of 
well poisoning', 4, 104-5. 

consuls of, spread the charge 
ag-alnst the Jews, 4, 105. 
Bernhard, treasurer of the 
Frankish emjiire, friendly to 
the Jews, 3, 1G2. 

rebellion against, 3, Kifi. 
Bernstorff, Danish minister, de- 
cides against Eibeschiitz, 5, 
2G5. 
Bernstorff, deputy to the Con- 
gress of Vienna, favors the 
emancipation of the Jews, 5, 
519. 

on the emirjiicipation of the 
Jews at Aix, 5, 527. 
Berr, Berr Isaac (1744-jh2.s). 
member of ^Malesherbes' 
commission, 5, 4:51. 

a representative French Jew. 
5, 4:iO. 

delegate to the National As- 
sembly, 5, 438, 440. 

on the emancipation of the 
French Jews, 5, 448-9. 

projects a French Bible trans- 
lation, 5, 449. 



Berr, Berr Isaac {rn)ithiucd), 

son of, 5, 460. 
deputy to the Assembly of 

Jewish Notables, 5, 482. 
opposes Sabbath sessions, 5, 

486. 
candidate foi- the presidency, 

5, 487. 
answers the imperial commis- 
sioners, 5, 490. 
Berr, Cerf (Herz Medelsheim, 

1730-1793), representative of 

the Alsatian Jews, 5, 351. 
character of, 5, 430. 
services of, to the Alsatian 

Jews, 5, 430, 431. 
services of, to the government, 

5, 430. 
draws Jews to Strasburg, 5, 

431. 
member of Malesherbes' com- 
mission, 5, 431. 
a representative French Jew, 

5, 43G. 
accused of bribing, 5, 447. 
culture of the family of, 5, 

470. 
brother-in-law of, 5, 484. 
Berr, Lipmann Cerf, speaks in 

the Assembly of Jewish No- 
tables, 5, 487. 
Berr, Michael (1 780-1843), first 

Jewish attorn(\v in France, 

addresses tlie ])rinces of 

Europe, 5, 400. 
de))uty to the Assembly of 

Jewish Notables, 5, 482. 
a state oflicer in Westphalia, 

5, 500. 
member of the Westphalian 

Consistory, 5, 501. 
addresses the Congress of Aix 

on the emancipation of the 

Jews, 5, 527. 
Berthold, bishoj) of Strasburg, 

at Ihe council of Benfelden, 

4, 107. 



INDEX. 



20 1 



Bertinoro. Sec Obadiuh di JJer- 

tinoro. 
Bertolio, abbe, favors the eman- 
cipation of the Jews, 5, 445. 
Bertrand, cardinal-legate, foi'- 
bids baptized children to re- 
turn to Judaism, 3, 514. 
Berytus. See Beyrout. 
BesM. Sec Israel of Miedziboz. 
Bessarabia, Frankists in, 5, 283. 
Bethany, Jesus in, 2, 1(J0. 

the Synhedrion removed to, 2, 

240. 
suburb of Jerusalem, 2, 292. 
Bethar, fortress, 2, 414. 

Bar-Cochba retreats to, 2, 

416-17. 
legends about, 2, 417. 
siege of, 2, 417-19. 
fall of, 2, 418-19. 
Betharamata. Sec Beth-Rama- 

tha. 
Beth-Din, name of the Synhe- 
drion, 2, 325. 
Bethel, taken by the Ephraim- 
ites, 1, 34. 
description of, 1, 45. 
Samuel holds assemblies at, 1, 

78. 
a center of idolatry, 1, 186. 
an association of prophets at, 

1, 205, 234. 
visited by Elijah, 1, 208. 
bull-worship at, 1, 233. 
capital of Jeroboam II, 1, 233. 
Amos at, 1, 235, 236. 
Cuthseans worship at, 1, 285. 
purged of idolatry, 1, 294. 
priests of, killed, 1, 295. 
military station under Had- 
rian, 2, 419. 
Bethhagla, fortress, besieged by 

Bacchides, 1, 493. 
Beth-Haran, balm of Gilead 

found near, 1, 43. 
Beth-horon, battle of, won b\^ 
Judas Maccabseus, 1, 462. 



Beth-horon {continued}, cani]) of 

Nicanor at, 1, 485. 
Cestius Gallus retreats from, 

2, 2GC1-7. 
Beth Israel, thii-d Amsterdam 

synagogue, 4, 680. 
Beth Jacob, first Amsterdam 

synagogue, 4, 667, 671. 
poem in honor of, 4, 678-9. 
Bethlehem, birthplace of David, 

1, 95-6. 

camp of the Philistines, 1, 11(>. 
children of, murdered by 

Herod, 2, 116. 
the expected birthplace of the 

Messiah, 2, 161. 
statue of Adonis worshiped 

at, 2, 422. 
nunnery at, 2, 623. 
the Jews of, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 427. 
Bethmaon, Josephus and the 
men of Tiberias meet at, 2, 
279. 
Bethome, Pharisee fortress, 2, 

45. 
Bethoron. See Beth-horon. 
Bethpage, suburb of Jerusalem, 

2, 292. 

Beth-Bamatha (Betharamata), 
palace of, destroyed, 2, 125. 
re-named Livia, 2, 138. 
Bethsaida, Jesus in, 2, 157. 
Bethsan (Bethshan). Sec Beth- 

shean. 
Bethshean (Bethsan, Scythopo- 
lis), bodies of Saul and Jon- 
athan dishonored at, 1, 104. 
Greek citizens of, resist Jo- 
seph, 1, 425. 
refuge of Antiochus IX, 2, 10. 
recovered by the sons of John 

Hyrcanus, 2, 11. 
Judseans of, massacred, 2, 

sparselj' inhabited by Jews in 
the sixth century, 3, 12. 



13 



202 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Bethshearina, tL-inporary seat of 

the Synhedrion, 2, -i'l'.!. 
Beth-Shemesh, battle of, be- 
tween the kings of Israel 
and Judah, 1, 224-5. 
Bethsur. Sec Beth-Znr. 
Betli-Waad, relig-ioua school in 

the Sopheric age, 1, 390. 
Beth-Zachariah, the battle of, 
.Iiuhis ]^Iaecabanis defeate'l 
at, 1, 479. 
Judiieans slain at, by I5a<'- 
ehides, 1, 483. 
Beth-Zur (Bethsur), Judas IMae- 
cabanis victorious at, 1, 4G9- 
70. 
stronghold against the Idu- 

ma^ans, 1, 473. 
garrison of, surrenders to 

Lysias, 1, 479. 
reinforced by Eacehides, 1 

491. 
Hellenists take refuge in, 1. 

494. 
garrisoned by the llasmo- 

naeans, 1, 498. 
under Simon Tharsi, 1, 023, 521. 
Alexander .Jann;ens and Cleo- 
patra make a league at, 2, 
41. 
Beugnot, Napoleon's state eoun- 
eilor, favors Jewish emanci- 
pation, 5, 480. 
helps to frame the Westpha- 
lian constitution, 5, 500. 
Beyrout, the Juda>ans of, perish 

ill the arena, 2, 312. 
Beyix»ut (Bairut, Berytus), the 
Jews of, in the twelfth cen- 
tury, 3, 420. 
protected by European con- 
suls, 5, 041. 
appeal to Euro])ean Jews, 5, 
051. 
Bezalel Masserano, requests 
permission for Jews to own 
Talmud copies, 4, 058. 



Bezetha, suburb of Jerusalem, 

fortilied by -Vgrippa, 2, 195. 

(k'stroyed by Cestius Gallus, 

2, 2C5. 
seized by the Romans, 2, 303. 
Be'ziers (Biterra'), Jews in, in 
the sixth century, 3, 35. 
synagogue of, sold, 4, 48. 
Beziers, the council of, inflicts 
hardships upon the Albi- 
genses, 3, 581. 
renews ancient restrictions 

against the Jews, 3, 581-2. 
prohibits Jews from practic- 
ing medicine among Chris- 
tians, 3, 582, 583. 
Beziers, the Jews of, attacked 
at Eastertide, 3, 173-4, 394. 
in the twelfth century, 3, 

394-5. 
Tinder Count Roger, 3, 395. 
suffering of, during the Albi- 

gensian crusades, 3, 502-3. 
excommunicate Solomon of 
Montpellier, 3, 530. 
Bible, the. Sec Law, the; Old 
Testament, the; Pentateuch, 
the; Scriptures, the; Sep- 
tuagint, the; Translation; 
Vulgate, the; (i)i(l under its 
rr/r(o».s hoolc^. 
Bible exegesis. See Exegesis. 
"■ Bible for Israelites," by 

Sachs, 5, 093. 
'' Biblical Orient, The," ascribed 
to Isaac l'>erna,ys, 5, 575. 
on 1lu> symbolism of Judaism, 

5, 575-(). 
emphasizes the historical mis- 
sion of the Jews, 5, 570. 
Bidkar, follower of Jehu, 1, 211. 
Blester, admirer of Mendels- 
sohn, 5, 372. 
Bilbeis, the Jews of, in the 
twelfth century, 3, 444. 



INDEX. 



203 



Bing, Isaiah Berr (1759-1805), 
writes a defense of the 
Jews, 5, 434. 

Birah, the. See Acra, the; An- 
toiiia. 

Birath, camp of Bacchides, 1, 
48G. 

Birchath ha-Minim, curse of 
the Jewish Christians, 2, 
379-80. 

Biri, religiousness of the inhab- 
itants of, 2, 480. 

Birtha. See Bitra. 

Biterrse. See Beziers. 

Bither. See Bethar. 

Bitra, the Jews of, hostile to 
Julian the Apostate, 2, 601- 
o 

Black Death, the, ravages of, 4, 
100, 133, 135. 
Jews charged with having 
caused, 4, 101-2, 188; 5, 728. 
in southern France, 4, 102. 
in Spain, 4, 102-3, 112-13, 
in Switzerland, 4, 103-5, 106-7. 
in Germany, 4, 105, 111, 133. 
in Austria, 4, 110. 
in Hungary, 4, 111. 
in Poland, 4, 111-12. 
in Belgium, 4, 112. 
in Catalonia, 4, 112-13. 
in Castile, 4, 113. 
Black Forest, the, the Jews of, 
molested by Lutheran peas- 
ants, 4, 542-3. 
Black Prince, the. See Edward, 

prince of Wales. 
Black Sea, the, Jews settle on 
the shores of, 3, 123. 
serfs on, 5, 2. 
Blanche, mother of Louis IX, 
at the disputation on the 
Talmud, 3, 576. 
refuses to banish the Jews, 3, 
585. 
Blanche de Bourbon, wife of 
Pedro the Cruel, 4, 116-17. 



Blanche de Bourbon {cotitinucd), 

party of, 4, 117. 
meditates the banishment of 

the Spanish Jews, 4, 117. 
murder of, resolved on, 4, 

121-2. 
death of, attributed to the 

Jews, 4, 122. 
illegality of the marriage of, 

4, 122. 
Blandrata, disciple of Servetus, 

4, 647. 
Bloch, Mattathias, emissary of 

Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 133, 137. 
Blois, the Jews of, charged with 

the blood accusation, 3, 

378-81. 
fast prescribed for, 3, 380-1. 
Blood accusation, the, first pre- 
ferred in Blois in 1171, 3, 

378-81. 
under Philip Augustus, 3, 402. 
in Germany in the twelfth 

century, 3, 418. 
preferred by Innocent III, 3, 

499. 
against the Baden Jews, 3, 

564. 
in Germany and France in the 

thirteenth century, 3, 583-5. 
disproved by Innocent IV, 3, 

584-5, 635. 
in England under Henry III, 

3, 591. 
believed by Alfonso X, 3, 596. 
under Rudolph of Habsburg, 

3, 635-7. 

at Mayence, 3, 636. 

at Munich, 3, 636-7. 

in England, 3, 643. 

against the Jews of Austria, 

4, 223-4. 

in South Germany, 4, 227. 
against the Jews of Palma, 4, 

246-7. 
against the Jews of Silesia, 4, 

261-2. 



204 



HISTORY OF THE lEWS. 



Blood accusation, the (continued), 
forbidden by Casiniir IV of 
Poland, 4, 2(34. 

ag'ainst the Jews of Trent, 4, 
2'JS-f), 304, 307. 

in Ratisbon, 4, 301-2, 304-5. 

not believed by Emperor Fred- 
erick III, 4, 305. 

the Jews of Castile charged 
with, 4, ;;43-4. 

the Jews of Nenbiirg charged 
with, 4, 545. 

injustice of, shown by a Lu- 
theran pastor, 4, 545-t). 

preferred by Dr. John Eck, 4, 
546-7. 

preferred by Luther, 4, 550. 

denounced by Stephen Bathori, 

4, 642. 

j)referred by William T'rynne, 

5, 45. 

Manasseh ben Israel defciuls 

the Jews from, 5, 47-9. 
the Jews of Metz charged 

with, 5, 174-5. 
Richard Simon disproves, 5, 

175-6. 
Moses Germanus disproves, 5, 

177. 
denounced by John Wiilfer, 5, 

185. 
denounced by Wagenseil, 5, 

187. 
endorsed by Eisenmenger, 5, 

187, 188. 
preferred by the Frankists, 5, 

279. 
Jews acquitted of, b3' Bene- 
dict XIV, 5, 2S?. 
Jews acquitted of, by Clement 

XIII, 5, 285. 
believed bj' the papal nuncio 

Serra, 5, 2Sf,. 
not refuted at Lemberg, 5,287. 
threatened to be brought in 

Damascus, 5, 633. 



Blood accusation, the (roHfint<ed), 

the Damascus Jews charged 

with, 5, 636. 
alleged to be proved from the 

Talmud. 5, 639. 
brought against the Jews of 

Rhodes, 5, 640-1. 
a Jiilich Jew charged with, 5, 

642. 
groundlessness of, asserted by 

apostates, 5, 650. 
groundlessness of, asserted by 

the London rabbis, 5, 654-5. 
refuted by Mehemet Ali, 5, 

661. 
firman securing the Turkish 

Jews against, 5, 662. 
refuted by Zunz, 5, 669. 
8fc also Child-murder; Host- 
desecration. 
Boabdil. See Muley Abu-Abdal- 

lah. 
Bodenlaube, castle, Siisskind of 

Trimlierg at, 3, 420. 
Bodo, bishop, accepts Judaism, 

3, 16S-9. 
hatred of, towards Christians, 

3, 169. 
Boethius, a notability of the 

sixth century, 3, 31. 
Boethus, a family of high 

priests, 2, 108, 237. 
Boethusans, a Sadducee sect. 2, 

los. 
Bohemia, Jews in, in the ninth 

century, 3, 144. 
a Talmud center, 3, 420-1. 
adopts Frederick the Valiant's 

Jewish statute, 3, 569. 
Jews emigrate to, from Hun- 
gary, 4, 111. 
Austrian exiles settle in, 4, 

224. 
Polish Jewish fugitives in, 5, 

16. 
Jewish exiles from Vienna set- 
tle in, 5, 173, 



INDEX. 



205 



Bohemia (continued), the Sabba- 
tian movement in, 5, 20S, 
228. 

Jews excliuled from parts of, 
5, 523. 

rabbis of, oppose the Bruns- 
wick conference, 5, 682. 
Bohemia, the Jews of, carry on 
the slave trade, 3, o05. 

suffer during- the first crusade, 

3, 305. 

determine to emigrate, 3, 307. 

plundered, 3, 308. 

suffer during- the second cru- 
sade, 3, 356. 

address Solomon ben Adret on 
religious questions, 3, 620. 

suffer during- the Hartmann 
von Deggenburg persecu- 
tion, 4, 98. 

charged with host-desecration, 

4, 164-6. 

threatened with expulsion, 4, 
417. 

take refuge in Poland, 4, 420, 
631-2. 

charged with incendiarism, 4, 
544. 

exiled, 4, 544. 

recalled, 4, 545. 

submit religious questions to 
the Polish Talmudists, 4, 
639. 

heavily taxed, 4, 652, 702; 5, 
508. 

rights of, extended, 4, 707. 

suspected of treason, 5, 252. 

banished, 5, 252. 

modify their synagogue ser- 
vice, 5, 582. 
Bdhme, Jacob, mystic, disciple 

of, 5, 24. 
Boleslav Pius, confirms Freder- 
ick the Valiant's Jewish 
statute, 4, 111, 263. 
Bologgin. See Balkin. 



Bologna, synod at, 4, 218. 

Jewish printing house in, 4, 

2S9. 
jNIarranos well treated at, 4, 
525. 
Bologna, the Jews of, expelled, 
3, 421. 
persecuted by Pius V, 4, 590-1. 
flee to Ferrara, 4, 591. 
Bomherg, Daniel, publishes the 
Babylonian Talmud, 4, 468. 
a rabbinical Bible, 4, 476. 
Bonafides, character in " Nathan 

the Wise," 5, 325. 
Bonafoux Vidal, opposes the 

study of science, 4, 28. 
Bonafoux, Daniel Israel, Sabba- 
tian, 5, 207. 
convert to Islam, 5, 208. 
Bonald, Louis Gabriel Am- 
broise, French reactionary 
leader, and the emancipa- 
tion of the Jews, 5, 477-9. 
maligns the Jews, 5, 478, 485. 
in league with Mole, 5, 479. 
Bonastruc de Porta. See Moses 

ben Nachman. 
Bonastruc Desmaestre, at the 

Tortosa disputation, 4, 208. 
Bonastruc, Isaac. See Isaac 

Bonastruc. 
Bonet. See David Bonet Buen- 

Giorno. 
Bonet, a Jew of Montpellier, 3, 

395. 
Bonet de Lates, physician, to 
Pope Alexander VI, 4, 407-8. 
to Leo X, 4, 408. 
letter to, fi'om Eeuchlin, 4, 

453, 454. 
espouses Keuchlin's cause, 4, 
454. 
Bonfed. See Solomon ben Reu- 
ben Bonfed. 
Bonifaccio, Balthasar, accuser 
of Sarah Sullam, 5, 70. 



206 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Boniface VIII, popo, at odds 
with I'hilip l\ of France, 4, 
44. 

Boniface IX, pope, forbids the 
fureible baptism of Jews, 4, 
173. 

Bonnet, Caspar, work of, trans- 
lated by Lavater, 5, 309. 
works of, criticised by Men- 
delssohn, 5, 312-13, 314-15. 
disclaims connection witli 
Lavater, 5, 313-14. 

Bonosus, governor of the East, 
subdues the Jews of Anti- 
oeh. 3, IS. 

" Book of Creation, The," com- 
mentary on, 3, 197. 

" Book of Riches, The," work 
l)y Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, 3, 
:.'f,i. 

" Book of the Pious, The," by 
Judah Sir Leon ben Isaac, 3, 
408. 

Book of the Wars of God, early 
Hebrew poetry, 1, 29. 

" Book of Wisdom, The," 
af,'ainst paganism, 2, 205-s. 

Boppard, the blood accusation 
in, 3, 418, 637, 639. 

Boraita, an apocryphal Mishna, 
2, 470. 

Boraitas, explained b}' Abba- 
Areka, 2, 515. 
by Rabba bar Xachmani, 2, 
57S. 

Bordeaux, the Marranos in, 5, 
341. 
German Jews in, 5, 342. 
struggle in, between German 
and Portuguese Jews, 5, 
342-3. 
foreign Jews ejected from, 5, 
34.3-4. 

Bordeaux, the Jews of, mal- 
treated l)y crusaders, 3, 570. 
perish during the Pastou- 
reaux massacres, 4, 56. 



Bordeaux, the Jews of (con- 
tiiiiU(l), addressed in behalf 
of the Moravian and Bohe- 
mian Jews, 5, 253. 
in Malesherbes' commission, 
5, 4:;2. 

number of, 5, 435. 

prosperity of, 5, 436. 

join the National Guard, 5, 
438. 

on the Jewish question, 5, 
442. 

emancipated, 5, 442-3. 

not alVeeted by Napoleon's 
restrictive laws, 5, 499. 
Borgia, cardinal. See Alexan- 
der VI. pope. 
Borne, Ludwig (1786-1837), em- 
ployed in the Frankfort du- 
cal police, 5, 505, 541. 

defends the German Jews, 5, 
533. 

as a Jew-, 5, 536. 

as a German, 5, 536-7. 

apostle of libertjs 5, 537, 
538-9. 

resemblance of, to Mendels- 
sohn, 5, 538. 

despises the Jews of his time, 
5, 538, 540. 

sobriety of, 5, 538. 

life of, in Frankfort, 5, 539. 

style of, 5, 539. 

feeling of, for Jews, 5, 539-40. 

insults offered to, as a Jew, 5, 
540-1. 

defends the Jews, 5, 541-2. 

publishes a journal, 5, 542. 

becomes a Christian, 5, 542. 

wit of, 5, 542. 

on the " hep, hep! " persecu- 
tions, 5, 542-3. 

answers Dr. Hoist, 5, 543-4. 

compared with Heine, 5, 544. 

earl}' home-life of, 5, 545. 

debt of the Jews to, 5, 556. 

debt of Germany to, 5, 556. 



INDEX. 



207 



Borne, Ludwig (cont'Diucd), com- 
pared with Erter, 5, C)!"). 
Boso, king of Burgundy, and 

the Jews, 3, 175. 
Bosporus, the, Jews settle 011, 
3, 123. 
a Karaite community on, 3, 
182. 
Bosporus (Kertch), capital of 

the Crimea, 3, 222. 
Bossuet, bishop, applauds Rich- 
ard Simon's exegesis, 5, 179. 
Bostanai, Exilarch, restores the 
office to power, 3, 10. 
recognized as chief of the 

Jews, 3, 89. 
marries a daughter of Chosru, 

3, 89. 
vassal of the Mahometans, 3, 

89. 
permitted to wear a signet 

ring, 3, 89-90. 
dissensions among the sons 

of, 3, 91. 
descendants of, and the col- 
lege presidents, 3, 91. 
descendants of, inherit the 

Exilarchate, 3, 94. 
Sherira a descendant of, 3, 

232. 
line of, described in Sherira's 
" Letter," 3, 233. 
Bostra, birthplace of Simon ben 

Lakish, 2, 495. 
Botarel, Moses. See Moses Bot- 

arel. 
Bourbon dynasty, the, restored 
to the French throne, 5, 512, 
596. 
Bourges, the archbishop of, 
anti-Jewish sentiments of, 
3, 171. 
'' Bow and Buckler," polemic 
by Simon ben Zemach Dii- 
ran, 4, 238. 
Brabant, soldiers of, enlisted 
against the Hussites, 4, 225. 



Brahe, Tycho, astronomer, ami 

David (ians, 4, 638. 
Brancas, duke of, given the 

Jews of Metz, 5, 348, 446, 
Brandenburg, the Mark of, 

Jews settle in, 5, 173-4. 
Brandenburg, the Mark of, the 
Jews of, accused of host- 
desecration, 4, 439-40. 
charged with child murder, 4, 

440. 
burnt, 4, 440. 

threatened with expulsion, 4, 
652. 
Bray, the Jews of, suffer mar- 
tyrdom, 3, 404. 
Brazil, Paul de Pina in, 4, 670. 
the Jewish community in, 4, 
C93-4. 
Breidenbach, Wolff (1751-1829), 
interested in the abolition 
of the poll-tax, 5, 407, 468, 
472. 
Bremen, Jews admitted into, 5, 

507. 
Bremen, the Jews of, threat- 
ened with banishment, 5, 
513. 
banished, 5, 520. 
Brendel, professor, attacked for 
defending the Jews, 5, 528. 
Brentano, representative of the 

romantic school, 5, 515. 
Breslau, the clergy of, up- 
braided by John of Capis- 
trano, 4, 260-1. 
Chayon at, 5, 218. 
anti-Jewish pamphlets pub- 
lished in, 5, 470. 
rabbi of, opposes the Reform 

movement, 5, 571. 
the Hamburg reforms adopt- 
ed in, 5, 573. 
a German-Jewish church in, 

5, 682. 
a Jewish seminary at, 5, 609. 
700. 



208 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Breslau, the Jews of, duriiiq- 
the Black Death perseeu- 
tions, 4, 109-10. 
enfi;-aged in money-lending, 4, 

2G0. 
charged with host - desecra- 
tion, 4, 261. 
tortured, 4, 2G1. 
burnt or banished, 4, 262-3. 
join the "Societj^ of Friends." 

5, 418. 
apostasy among, 5, 420. 
Bresselau, Mendel J., Hebrew- 
style of, 5, :!9S. 
establishes a .society and a 

journal, 5, 398, 399. 
compiles a liturgy, 5, 564. 
scourges the orthodox jiarty, 

5, 572. 
secretary of the Reform Tem- 
ple Union, 5, 672. 
Bretagne, the Jews of, under 

Il.-nry II, 3, 409. 
*' Bridle for the Jews, The," by 

KaymuTid Martin, 3, 622. 
Brieli, Jehuda Leon (1643- 
1722), rabbi of Mantua, in- 
novations of, 5, 200. 
opponent of the Kabbala, 5, 

200. 
opposes Chayon, 5, 225. 
Bristol, a Jew of, tortured l)y 

King John, 3, ."O.). 
Britain, rebels against Hadrian. 

2, 399. 
Brody, the Chassidim in, 5, 3,ss. 
ban against the Chassidim 

published in, 5, 392. 
Chassidistic writings burned 

in, 5, 393. 
beginnings of culture amoiii.' 
the Jews of, 5, 612. 
Brog:lie, Due de, f)pposcs the 
enianeii)ation of the Jews. 
5, 4 17. 
Bromet, Herz, nicmlx'r of i]t,- 
I'Vli.x Liberlatc, 5, 4.J3. 



Bromet, Herz (coniiuucd), zeal- 
ous for the emancipation of 
the Dutch Jews, 5, 454. 
(h^puty to the National As- 
sembly, 5, 458. 

Broussa, the Spanish exiles in, 

4, 405. 

the Jews of, and the Pesaro 

trade. 4, 579. 
Briihl, Saxon minister. Jewish 

agent of, 5, 26:;. 
and Eibeschiitz's supporters, 

5, 263. 

liiditYerent about Polish af- 
fairs, 5, 282. 
Bruna, Israel. >SVc Israel Bru- 

na. 
Brunetta, a Jewess of Trent, on 
friendly terms with Chris- 
tians, 4, 297. 
charged with the blood accu- 
sation, 4, 298. 
Brunhilde, of Austrasia, permits 

Jews to own slaves, 3, 34. 
Briinn, the Jews of, banished, 
4, 263. 
Israel Bn|na exiled from, 4, 

302. 
.lews under restrictions in, 5, 
5"^3 
Brunswick, rahlunical confer- 

oucv a1. 5, 677-8, 681-2. 
Brunswick, the duke of, honors 
Mendelssohn, 5, 308. 
commends INlendelssohn's re- 
ply to Lavater, 5, 313. 
conver.sation of, with ^fen- 
delssohn. on Christian dog- 
7nas, 5, 31.". 
Brunswick, the Jews of, ex- 
])cllcd, 4, r,.-,2. 
dc|)i'ived of ei\il rights, 5, 512. 
Brunswick-Liineburg abolishes 

the poll-tax, 5, 467. 
Bruria (Valeria), wife of Rabbi 
Meir, 2, 436. 



INDEX. 



209 



Brussels, the Jews of, during' 
the Black Death persecu- 
tions, 4, 113. 
expelled, 4, GG2. 
Brutus, Koman leader, suicide 

of, 2, 81. 
Buchholz, opposes Jewish eman- 
cipation, 5, 468, 472. 
Buda, the council of, anti-Jew- 
ish decrees of, 3, 614-15. 
Buda-Pesth, rabbinical college 

at, 5, 700. Sec also Pesth. 
Budnians, anti-Trinitarian sect, 

4, 647. 
Budny, Simon, translates the 

Bible into Polish, 4, 647. 
Buen-Giorno. Sec David Bonet 

Buen-Giorno. 
BufEon, praises Pereira's sign 

language, 5, 343. 
Bugia (Buja), refuge for Sjian- 
ish Jews, 4, 197. 
suffering of Spanish exiles in, 
4, 361. 
Bulan, king of the Chazars, 
convert to Judaism, 3, 139- 
40, 327. 
Bulgarians, the, friendly to the 
Jews, 3, 123. 
vassals to the Chazars, 3, 13S. 
Bulls, papal, by Benedict XIII, 
4, 215-16. 
Boniface IX, 4, 173. 
Clement IV, 3, 602. 
Clement VI, 4, 103, 105, 173. 
Clement VII, 4, 507, 515, 516. 
Clement VIII, 4, 671. 
Eugenius III, 3, 349-51. 
Eugenius IV, 4, 229, 250, 351. 
Gregory IX, 3, 564. 
Gregory X, 3, 635. 
Innocent III, 3, 497. 
Innocent IV, 3, 584-5; 4, 165. 
Julius III, 4, 565. 
Martin V, 4, 219-20, 226. 
Nicholas V, 4, 253, 254, 256, 
287. 



Bulls, papal (continued), Paul III, 

4, 516, 532, 526. 
Paul IV, 4, 566. 
Pius IV, 4, 588, 589. 
I'ius V, 4, 591. 

Sixtus IV, 4, 311, 319, 321, 

322. 
Sixtus V, 4, 655-6, 658. 
against the immigration of 

Jews in Palestine, 4, 274. 
Buol Schauenstein, Count von, 

protects the Frankfort Jews, 

5, 530. 

Burgos, Kabbala taught in, 4, 
6. 
disputation at, 4, 140. 
coronation of Juan I at, 4, 
156. 
Burgos, the cortes of, make the 
Jews resjjonsible for the 
civil war, 4, 124-5. 
oppose the employment of 
Jews, 4, 229. 
Burgos, the Jews of, under 
Sancho, 3, 617. 
taxed heavily, 4, 133, 124. 
persecuted, 4, 170. 
converted, 4, 205. 
Burgundians, the, the empire 
of, the Jews of, not consid- 
ered a distinct race, 3, 35. 
occupations of, 3, 35-6. 
discriminated against, 3, 37. 
Burgundy, the Jews of, pre- 
sented to the Church, 3, 
175. 
Burnt-offerings, Samuel on the 
importance of, 1, 74. 
Jochanan ben Zakkai on, 2. 
324, 325. 
Burrus, Nero's secretary, bribed 
to oppose the JudjBans, 2, 
247. 
Bury St. Edmunds, the Jews of, 

butchered, 3, 415. 
Busche, Hermann von, partisan 
of Keuchlin, 4, 456. 



210 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Buxtorf, John, senior (1564- 
1639), renders rabbinical 
studies accessible to Chris- 
tians, 5, 21. 

Buxtorfs, the, introduce rabbin- 
ical literature to Christians, 
5, 179. 

Byk, Jacob Solomon, Hebrew 
style of, 5, 617. 

Byron, quoted, 4, 127. 

Byzantine emperors, the, Jews 
under, 5, 725-6. 

Byzantine empire, the, attacked 
by the Agadists, 3, 16. 
in fear of the Chazars, 3, liJS. 
fall of, 4, 267. 



Byzantine empir6,the(con<JMMed), 

toleration of, 4, 285. 
Byzantine empire, the, the Jews 
of, under Arcadius, 2, 615-16. 

forbidden to build syna- 
gogues, 2, 617. 

treated with hostility, 3, 10. 

forced into Christianitj', 3, 
122-3. 

emigrate, 3, 123-4. 

in the ninth century, 3, 175-6. 

in the twelfth century, 3, 
424-8. 

not admitted to military offi- 
ces, 3, 425. 

brutal treatment of, 3, 425. 

poets among, 3, 426. 



Cabades. See Kobad. 

Caballeria, Alfonso de, Marra- 
no, tries to suppress the 
Aragon Inquisition, 4, 329. 

Caballo, Jules, founder of the 
" Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle," 5, 701. 

Cabiri, the seven planets wor- 
shiped by the Canaanites, 
1, 54. 

Cabrera, governor of the castle 
of Segovia, 4, 283. 

Cabul, fortress, 2, 414. 
fall of, 2, 416. 

religiousness of the inhabit- 
ants of, 2, 480. 

Caceres, Simon de, opens a 
Jewish burial-ground in Lon- 
don, 5, 49. 

Cacina, Roman consul, and Ti- 
'tus, 2, 317. 

Cadiz, Marranos flee to, 4, 313. 
victims of the Inquisition in 
the archbishopric of, 4, 317. 
taken by the English, 4, 665. 

Caesar, Julius, in the first tri- 
umvirate, 2, 73. 



Caesar, Julius (continued), frees 
Aristobulus II, 2, 75. 

favors Antipater, 2, 75-6. 

kindly disposed to the Ju- 
daeans, 2, 76, 179. 

hated by the Judseans of Pal- 
estine, 2, 77. 

murder of, 2, 79. 

remits the tax during the 
Sabbatic year, 2, 469. 
Caesar, Sextus, governor of 
Syria, honors Herod, 2, 78. 

makes Hyrcanus II responsi- 
ble for the life of Herod, 2, 
78. 
Caesarea (Mazaca). See Mazaca. 
Caesarea (Straton), beautified by 
Herod, 2, 106. 

trade and shipping of, 2, 118. 

seat of the procurator, 2, 129. 

residence of Herod (Philip), 
2, 173. 

favored by Agrippa I, 2, 194. 

destroj^ed by an earthquake, 
2, 408-9. 

made an academic city, 2, 543. 

anti-Christian riot in, 3, 17. 



INDEX. 



211 



Csesarea (continued), played into 
the hands of the Arabs, 3, 
87. 
Caesarea (Straton), the Greek 
inhabitants of, rejoice over 
Agrippa I's death, 2, 196. 
hate the Judaeans, 2, 246-7. 
quarrel with the Judaeans, 2, 
252-3. 
Caesarea (Straton), the Jews of, 
Greek culture of, 2, 538. 
devoted to circus sports, 2, 
626. 
Caesarea (Straton), the Judaeans 
of, deprived of civil rights, 
2, 247. 
exterminated, 2, 262. 
perish in the arena, 2, 312. 
Caesarea Philippi, built by the 
tetrarch Philip, 2, 138. 
capital of Philip's tetrarchy, 

2, 158. 

Judaeans of, perish in the 
arena, 2, 312. 

Caesars, the, sacrifices offered 
for, 2, 103. 

Cafri, native town of Rabba bar 
Ghana, 2, 454. 

Cain, the Choic type of the 
Gnostics, 2, 377. 

Cainites, a Gnostic sect, 2, 375. 

Cairo (Fostat), a Karaite com- 
munity in, 3, 182. 
Talmud study encouraged in, 

3, 208, 210. 

Jehuda Halevi at, 3, 340-1. 
two synagogues of, 3, 444. 
Karaites of, 3, 444; 4, 71. 
Maimonides at, 3, 457-92. 
hospital at, 3, 495. 
Spanish spoken at, 4, 388. 
Spanish exiles in, 4, 392-96. 
Purim of, 4, 396. 
Joseph Delmedigo at, 5, 76. 
Cairo, the Jews of, in the 
twelfth century, 3, 444. 
maltreated, 4, 396. 



Cairo, the Jews of (continued), 
establish schools, 5, 664. 
reconciled with the Karaites, 
5, 664. 

Calabrese. See Chayim "Vital 
Calabrese. 

Calabria, the Jews of, subject 
to curial duties, 2, 616. 
invaded by the Mahometans, 
3, 212. 

Calahorra, Abraham ibn-Ezra 
dies at, 3, 374. 

Calatayud, the Marranos of, 
conspire against Pedro Ar- 
bues, 4, 330. 

Calatayud, the Jews of, excom- 
municate anti-Maimunists, 
3, 537. 
converted, 4, 214. 

Calatrava, fortress, taken by 
Jehuda Ibn-Ezra, 3, 361, 

Calderon, dramatist, 5, 112. 

Calderon, the Jewish, 5, 110-11. 

Calendar, the, arranged by the 
Jamnia Synhedrion, 2, 326. 
fixed by astronomical calcula- 
tions, 2, 336. 
fixed by the Patriarchs, 2, 

362-3. 
corrected by Akiba's disciples, 

2, 433. 

arranged by Chananya, 2, 443. 

drawn up by Mar-Samuel, 2, 
521-2, 574. 

the computation of, forbid- 
den, 2, 571. 

fixed adopted by Hillel II, 2, 
572-4. 

method of calculating, 2, 573. 

Jewish, adopted by the Arabs, 

3, 59-60. 

fixed, abolished by Anan ben 

David, 3, 131. 
fixed, rejected by the Tiflis- 

ites, 3, 158. 
key to, by Nachshon ben Za- 

dok, 3, 179. 



212 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Calendar, the (coH/i/i »(■(/), Karaite, 

attacked by Saadiah,3, 190-1. 
rules of, collected by Saadiah, 

3, 196. 
work on, bj' Dunash ben Ta- 

mim, 3, 211, 217. 
Isaac Ibn-Albalia on, 3, 283. 
accuracy of, demonstrated, 3, 

313. 
work on, b}' Maimonides,3, 451. 
used by the Karaites, 4, 270. 
See also Ibbur. 
Caligula, emperor, distinguishes 

Agrippa I, 2, 174-5, 176. 
divine honor to the images of, 

2, 183-4. 

hates the Judaeans, 2, 187. 
statues of, in the Temple, 2, 

188-9. 
assassinated, 2, ISO. 
Judaism defended before, 5, 

654. 
Caliphate of the East, the. See 

Abbasside Caliphate, the. 
Calixtus, pope, convenes a 

Church Council in France. 

3, 376; 4, 275. 
Callimandrus, Egyptian gen- 
eral against the Judaeans, 2, 
11. 

Calliopas, charioteer, causes a 
riot, 3, 11. 

" Calumniator, The," sobriquet 
of Joshua Lorqui, 4, 217. 

Calvin, and Micliael Scotus, 4, 
541. 

Cambridge, the Jews of, ex- 
pelled, 3, 641. 

Cambyses, of Persia, death of, 

1, 358. 

Camith, family of high priests, 

2, 2:i7. 

Campanton. See Isaac ben 
.Tacf)b Campanton. 

Campeggio, cardinal, on the 
commi.ssion on the Portu- 
guese Inquisition, 4, 514. 



Campo Fornaio, peace of, and 
the poll tax of French Jews 
in Germany, 5, 464. 
Campo-Mayor, refuge for Span- 
ish Marranos, 4, 498. 
" Can the Jews remain in their 
present condition without 
harm to the state? " anti- 
Jewish pamphlet, 5, 469-70. 
Canaan, entry of Israelites into, 
1, 1, 32. 

description of the coast of, 1, 
2-3. 

claimed by the Israelites, 1, 
4-5. 

rapid conquest of, 1, 39-40. 

becomes the Holy Land, 1, 41. 

not entirely conquered, 1, 
50-1. 

See Palestine. 
Canaanites, the, description of, 
1, 2-4. 

subdivisions of, 1, 3. 

trade of, 1, 3. 

cities of, 1, 3. 

at war with Asher and Naph- 
tali, 1, 37. 

dwell with the tribe of Judah, 
1, 39. 

in dread of the Israelites, 1, 
40. 

heathenism of, 1, 51. 

idol worship of, 1, 54. 

relations of, to the Israelites, 
1, 56-8. 

suffer under David, 1, 131. 

help to build the Temple, 1, 
163. 

See Gibeonites; Jebusites; Phil- 
istines, etc. 
Candia. See Crete. 
Canea, the Jews of, importance 

of, 4, 406. 
Canon, the, of the Holy Writ- 
ings, completed, 2, 344. See 
Scriptures, the. 



INDEX. 



213 



Cansino family, the, dragomans 
in Oran, 5, lt')9. 

Cantheras, family of high 
priests, 2, 237. 

Caorsini (Ultramontanes), us- 
ury practiced by, 3, 510. 

Capernaum (Kephar Nahum), 
Jesus successful in, 2, 153-7. 
the first church at, 2, 565. 

Capets, the first, the Jews op- 
pressed under, 3, 241-2. 

Caphar-Salama, the battle of, 
Judas Maccabaeus victorious 
at, 1, 484. 

Caphtor, the original home of 
the Philistines, 1, 54. 

Capistrano. See John of Capis- 
trano. 

Capnion. See Keuchlin, John. 

Capo d'Istrias, Russian pleni- 
potentiary, and the emanci- 
pation of the Jews, 5, 527. 

Cappadocia, study of the Law 
in, 2, 358. 
the Jews of, under Shabur I, 
2, 520, 52G. 

" Captives of Hope, The," dra- 
mia by Joseph Penso, 5, 113. 

Captivity, the, the return from, 
1, 351-6. 
See Babylonia, the Judseans 
of. 

Captivity, the, Princes of. See 
Exilarchate, the; Exilarchs, 
the. 

Capua, the Jews of in the 
twelfth century, 3, 424. 
Hillel of Verona in, 3, 629. 

Carabas, impersonates Agrippa 
I, 2, 182. 

Caracalla, emperor, vices of, 2, 
468. 
relation of, to the Jews, 2, 

468-9. 
exacts the tax during the 
Sabbatic year, 2, 469. 



Caraflfa, Pietro. See Paul IV, 

pope. 
Carca, Samuel. See Samuel 

Carga. 
Carcassonne, Jews in, in the 

sixth century, 3, 35. 
Cardoso, Abraham Michael 
(1630-1706), Alarrano, re- 
sumes Judaism, 5, 163. 
occupations and morality of, 

5, 164. 
figures as a Sabbatian pro- 
phet, 5, 164-5. 
proclaims himself Sabbatai's 

successor, 5, 207. 
writings of, 5, 208, 248. 
writings of, burned, 5, 220. 
Cardoso, (Isaac) Fernando 
(1615-1680), Marrano phy- 
sician, resumes Judaism, 5, 
163. 
occupations and life of, 5, 164. 
anti-Sabbatian, 5, 164, 165. 
Sachs compared with, 5, 688. 
Cardozo, Elihu Aboab, erects a 
synagogue at Hamburg, 4, 
689. 
Carenton, the Jews of, attacked 

by crusaders, 3, 355. 
Carians, the, mercenary troops 
employed by Athaliah, 1, 
214. 
in sympathy with Joash, 1, 
215-6. 
Carinthia, the Jews of, expelled, 

4, 427. 
Carlovingians, the last, the 
Jews oppressed under, 3, 
241-2. 
Carlsruhe, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted, 5, 530. 
the Hamburg reforms adopted 
in, 5, 573. 
Carmel, Mount, description of, 
1, 44. 
considered holy by the Ca- 
naanites, 1, 51. 



214 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Carmel, Mount (continued), Eli- 
jah lives on, 1, 203. 
Elisha lives on, 1, 20S. 
north-western limit of Judaea 
under Alexander Jaunaeus, 
2, 46. 
Carmelite district, the, of Paris, 
commends tlie Jews, 5, 444. 
Carmona, the Marranos of, re- 
sist the Inquisition, 4, 313. 
conspirators of, burnt, 4, 317. 
Carpentras, rabbi of, at the first 

rabbinical sj-nod, 3, 377. 
Carpentras, the Jews of, not 
banished bj' Charles VI, 4, 
177. 
wealth of, 4, 592. 
number of, 5, 436. 
honor Cremieux and Monte- 
fiore, 5, 658. 
Carrion, the Jews of, under 
Sancho, 3, 617. 
persecuted, 4, 170. 
Carthage, captured by Genseric, 
2, 611. 
the Temple vessels removed 
from, 3, 26. 
Carvajal, Fernandez (Isaac), a 
Jew secretly living in Lou- 
don, 5, 38. 
opens a Jewish burial ground, 
5, 49. 
Casalmaggiore, the Jews of, 

number of, 4, 653. 
Casimir III, the Great, of Po- 
land, extends the privileges 
of the Jews, 4, 111, 263. 
protects the Jews, 4, 111. 
Jewish mistress of, 4, 112. 
Casimir IV, of Poland, extends 
the privileges of the Jews, 
4, 263-5, 419. 
under Capistrano's influence, 

4, 265-G. 
revokes the privileges of the 

Jews, 4, 266. 
sons of, 4, 419, 631. 



Casimir IV (continued), statute 
of, confirmed by Sigismund 
III, 4, 643. 

Caspe, the Jews of, converted, 
4, 214. 

Caspian Sea, the, Jews settle on 
the coast of, 3, 123. 
island in, refuge of the Cha- 
zars. 3, 222. 

Cassander, ally of Ptolemy I. at 
the battle of Ipsus. 1, 417. 

Cassel, meeting place nf the 
Westphalian consistory. 5, 
501. 

Cassiodorus, minister of Theod- 
oric, 3, 30. 
homiletic exposition of the 

Psalms by, 3, 31. 
on the Jews, 3, 31. 

Cassius, Avidius, rebel, death 
of, 2, 463. 

Cassius lionginus, Caius, legate 
of Crassus, retreats before 
the Parthians, 2, 74. 
defeats the Judsean army, 2, 

74. 
governor of Syria, forces con- 
tributions from Judaea, 2, 
80. 
suicide of, 2, 81. 

Cassius Longinus, Caius, gover- 
nor of Syria, occupies Jeru- 
salem, 2, 197. 

Castel-Branco, Joao Rodrigo de. 
See Amatus Lusitanus. 

Castellane, de, deputy to the 
National Assembly, 5, 439. 

Castel-Narbonnais, refuge of 
the Jews from the Pastou- 
reaux, 4, 56. 

Castile, lacks Talmud schools 
in the twelfth century, 3, 
322. 
Jews in, in the twelfth cen- 
tury, 3, 384. 
war of, with Morocco, 4, 84. 



INDEX. 



215 



Castile (coutinitcd), civil war in, 
4, llS-19, 120-2, 123-6. 

union of, with Portugal, 4, 
161. 

quarrel about the rabbinate 
of, 4, 161-2. 

forced converts in, relapse in- 
to Judaism, 4, 180. 

Marranos of, 4, 309. See under 
Marranos. 

exiles from, form a congrega- 
tion in Constantinople, 4, 
402. 

See also under Spain. 
Castile, the Jews of, under Al- 
fonso VI, 3, 292-3. 

under Alfonso Raimundez, 3, 
361, 363. 

oppose the Almohades, 3, 387. 

under Alfonso VIII, 3, 499. 

first persecution of, 3, 507. 

in the Maimunist controversy, 
3, 530, 536, 544. 

under Alfonso X, 3, 592-6. 

under Ferdinand III, 3, 592. 

employed at court, 3, 593-4. 

degraded by Alfonso X, 3, 
594-6. 

fined, 3, 616. 

under Sancho, 3, 616-17. 

taxed, 3, 617; 4, 125-6. 

send deputies to Huete, 3, 617. 

number of, 3, 617. 

opponents of science, 4, 38. 

in the fourteenth century, 4, 
51-3. 

leaders of the Spanish-Jewish 
community, 4, 75. 

under Alfonso X, 4, 75-6. 

guilty of usury, 4, 80. 

Gonzalo Martinez conspires 
against, 4, 84-5, 

neglect Jewish science, 4, 
86-7, 91. 

not held responsible for the 
Black Death, 4, 113. 



Castile, the Jews of (continued), 

under Pedro the Cruel, 4, 

113-26. 
aid Maria de Padilla, 4, 117. 
in the civil war, 4, 118-19, 120- 

2, 123-6. 
Pedro's opponents hostile to, 

4, 120-1. 
held responsible for the civil 

war, 4, 124-5, 167. 
reduced to beggary by the 

civil war, 4, 137. 
under Henry II, 4, 137-8. 
hostility to, 4, 138. 
degraded by outward signs, 4, 

139. 
forced into religious debates, 

4, 140-2. 
jjossess penal jurisdiction, 4, 

155. 
deprived of criminal jurisdic- 
tion, 4, 157. 
accusations against, 4, 157. 
under Henry III, 4, 193. 
under Juan II, 4, 194, 203-4, 

205-6, 228-9. 
assaulted, 4, 204-5, 
bull against, 4, 250-1. 
appeal to Juan II, 4, 251. 
insecurity of, under Juan II, 

4, 252-3. 
under Henry IV, 4, 274-6. 
low position of, in Henry IV's 

statute book, 4, 278. 
indispensable as financiers, 4, 

279-80. 
warned of approaching dan- 
ger, 4, 336. 
protected by Isaac Abrabanel, 

4, 343-4. 
help the Marranos, 4, 344. 
proclamation expelling, 4, 

347-8. 
See also under Spain. 
Castile, New, the Jews of, 

taxed, 3, 617. 



2l6 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Castro, an English Jew, and the 

Damascus affair, 5, 653. 
Castro, de, a noble Castilian 

famil}', 3, 3G3. 
Castro, Abraham de, Selim I's 
master of the mint, benev- 
olence of, 4, 393. 
informs against the Egyptian 
viceroy, 4, 395. 
Castro, Balthasar (Isaac) Oro- 
bio de (1020-1GS7), Marrano, 
professor of metaphysics at 
Salamanca, tortured, 5, IIG. 
professor of medicine at Tou- 
louse, 5, 117. 
associates with Spinoza, 5, 117. 
refutes Spinoza's views, 5, 167. 
proniiiieiice of, 5, 199-200. 
Castro, Bendito (Baruch Nehe- 
m.iah) de, physician, Sabba- 
tian, 5, 140, 150. 
Castro, Moses de, antagonist of 

Jacob Berab. 4, 534-5. 
Castro, Rodrigo de (1560-1627), 
Marrano physician, ability 
of, 4, 686-7. 
owns landed propertj-, 4, 688. 
Castro-Tartas, Isaac de, Marra- 
no, martjrdom of, 5, 31-2. 
Casuistry, in the Mishna, 2, 

47.5-G. 
Catalina of liancaster, regent 
for Juan II of Castile, 4, 
193. 
issues edicts concerning the 

Jews, 4, 203-4, 205-6, 275. 
death of, 4, 217, 228. 
Catalonia, part of Aragon, 3, 

3S7. 
Catalonia, the Jews of, in the 
Mainiunist controversy, 3, 
530. 
massacred, 4, 102-3. 
provide against the Black 
Death persecutions, 4, 112- 
13. 



Catalonia, the Jews of {con- 
tinned), possess penal juris- 
diction, 4, 155. 
persecuted in 1391, 4, 172. 
converted, 4, 214. 
loyal to their faith, 4, 215. 
possessions of, sequestrated, 
4, 349. 
Catechumens, the house of, sup- 
ported by the Jews, 4, 566. 
Catherine, empress of Russia, 
member of the Berlin Acad- 
emy, 5, 308. 
at war with Poland, 5, 388. 
Catherine, of Portugal, hostile 

to the Marranos, 4, 489. 
Catherine de Medici, queen 
mother in France, and Jo- 
seph Nassi, 4, 598. 
proposes her son for the Pol- 
ish throne, 4, 604. 
Catholic Church, the, rise of, 2, 

500. 
Catholic Church, the German, 

established, 5, 682. 
Catholic reaction, the, 4, 650-1. 
the Jews suffer under, 4, 652- 
3. 
Catholicism, more hostile to 
the Jews than Arianism, 3, 
26. 
overthrown in England, 4, 

541. 
and the romantic movement, 

5, 516. 
Srr Christianity. 
Catholics, the, toleration of, un- 
der Valentinian I, 2, 603. 
hate Theodoric, 3, 29, 30. 
antagonized by the Arian Vis- 
igoths, 3, 44-5. 
in the Damascus affair, 5, 

650-1, 662. 
Fsi'C Christians, the. 
Catholics, the Greek, molest the 
Turkish Jews, 4, 552-3. 



INDEX. 



217 



Cathunho, Isaac, Marrano in 
I'ernanibuco, 4, 693. 

Catullus, Roman governor of 
Cyrene, executes Zealots, 2, 
318. 

Caucasus, the, Jews settle in, 3, 
123. 
under the Exilarch's jurisdic- 
tion, 3, 429. 

Cavilhao, Jewish center in Por- 
tugal, 4, 159. 

Ceba, Ansaldo, priest and poet, 
tries to convert Sarah Sul- 
1am, 5, 69-70. 

Cendebaeus, Syrian general, in- 
vades Judsea, 1, 529. 

Ceneda, wagers a pound of his 
own flesh, 4, 657. 

Cenedaeus, of Adiabene, rela- 
tives of, aid Judsea against 
Eome, 2, 264. 

Censorship of the press intro- 
duced by Caraffa, 4, 563. 
in Germany, 5, 532. 

Censorship of the Talmud un- 
der Jayme I of Aragon, 3, 
603. 
advised by two popes, 4, 658. 
abuses of, 4, 659, 660. 
See under Talmud, the. 

Census, a, taken by David, 1, 
137-8. 
of Judaeans ordered by Augus- 
tus, 2, 129. 
arouses terror and dissension, 

2, 130. 
resisted by the Zealots, 2, 

133-4. 
in 66, 2, 251. 

" Centuries," by Amatus Lusi- 
tanus, 4, 570. 

Cervera, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted, 4, 94, 103. 

Cesis, de, cardinal, on the com- 
mission on the Portuguese 
Inquisition, 4, 514. 



Ceuta, the Jews of, emigrate, 3, 
424. 
battle of, 4, 390. 
Ceylon, the Jews of, in the 

twelfth century, 3, 436. 
Chabar, teacher of the Law 
among the Arabian Jews, 3, 
59. 
Chaberim, fellows, 2, 364. 
Chabib. See Amatus Lusitanus. 
Chabulon. See Cabul. 
Chaburah, order, 2, 364. 
Chacham, officer of the Synhe- 
driou, 2, 360. 
office of, ceases, 2, 453. 
title of the Amsterdam rabbis, 

4, 681. 
title of the Hamburg rabbis, 

4, 689; 5, 577. 

Chacham Zevi. See Zevi Ash- 

kenazi. 
Chacon, Castilian farmer of 

taxes, 4, 275. 
Chadija, wife of Mahomet, 3, 

71. 
Chages, Jacob (1620-1674), rec- 
luse at Jerusalem, 5, 126. 
teacher of Nathan Ghazati, 5, 

131. 
threatens Sabbatai Zevi with 
excommunication, 5, 132. 
Chages, Moses, denounces Chay- 
on's work as heretical, 5, 
222. 
excommunicates Chayon, 5, 

224. 
abused by the Amsterdam 

Portuguese Jews, 5, 224. 
excommunicated and driven 

from Amsterdam, 5, 226. 
in Altona, 5, 231. 
opposes Luzzatto's Kabbala, 

5, 238. 

threatens Kabbalistic writers 
with the ban, 5, 239. 

forbids the study of Kabbala 
to young men, 5, 241. 



14 



2l8 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Chages, Moses {continued), dep- 
recates leniency towards 
Eibeschiitz, 5, 249-50. 
opposes the Eibeschiitz Tal- 

mnd edition, 5, 251. 
returns to Palestine, 5, 256. 
Chaggai (Haggai), teacher of 
the Law, attacks Judah II, 

2, 4S5. 

a Palestinian Amora, 2, 5G0. 

member of the last Synhe- 
drion, 2, 5G7. 
Chaibar, Israelites settle in, 3, 
54. 

the Benu-Nadhir settle in, 3, 
79. 
Chaibar, the Jews of, descend- 
ants of the Rechabites, for- 
tifications held by, 3, 55. 

threatened by I'klahomet, 3, 
81-2. 

roused against Mahomet, 3, 
82-3. 

driven away by Omar, 3, 85. 

preserve love for Arabic, 3, 
111. 

object to Talmudic restraints, 

3, 119. 

in the twelfth century, 3, 437. 

Chaifa, burial place of Nach- 
mani and Yechiel of Paris, 
3, COS. 

" Chain of Tradition, The," by 
Clcdiilya Il)n-Yachya, 4, 616. 

Chaireas, commander of the for- 
tress Joazer, 1, 474. 

Chakan (Chagan), title of the 
Chazar kings, 3, 138. 

Chalafta, member of the Jam- 
nia Synhedrion, 2, 357. 

Chalcis, prince of. f^re Herod II. 

Chaldaean garrison in .Tiidah, 1, 
321 

Chaldaeans, the. See Nebuchad- 
nezzar. 

Chaldaic translations of Scrip- 
tures, 2, 581-2. 



Chaldee, taught as a means of 

conversion, 4, 245. 
Chalil, vizir, tries to save Es- 
ther Kiera, 4, 030. 
Chama of Nahardea (356-377), 
Amora, 2, 593. 
principal of the Pumbeditha 

academy, 2, 594. 
insignificance of, 2, 594-5. 
Chama ben Anilai, a Jew of 

Sora, 2, 545-6. 
Chamath, military station un- 
der Hadrian, 2, 419. 
Chambery, supposed center of 

the well poisoners, 4, 102. 
Chamiz, Joseph, physician, and 
Leo Modena, 5, 67. 
Kabbalist, 5, 74. 
Champagne, the home of Talmud 
studies after Rashi, 3, 289. 
Talmud college of, 3, 403. 
Chanan, prince of the Jews of 

Taima, 3, 437. 
Chanan of Iskia, restores the 

Pumbeditha academy, 3, 9. 
Chananel ben Chushiel, recog- 
nized as a Talmud authori- 
ty, 3, 211, 248. 
busies himself with the Jeru- 
salem Talmud, 3, 249. 
consults Hai Gaon, 3, 252. 
eulogizes Hai Gaon, 3, 253. 
Alfassi disciple of, 3, 285. 
writings of, the basis of Na- 
than ben Yechiel's lexicon, 
3, 290. 
Chananel Ibn-Askara, Kabbal- 
ist, 4, 74. 
Chananya, .Agadist, 2, 575-6. 
Chananya (Achunai), brother 
of Anan ben David, candi- 
date for the Exilarchate, 3, 
129. 
death of, 3, 137. 
Chananya, nephew of Joshua 
ben Chananya, joins Chris- 
tianity, 2, 370. 



INDEX, 



219 



Chananya (continned), with- 
drawn from Jewish Chris- 
tian influences, 2, 443. 
establishes a Synhedrion at 

Nahor-Pakod, 2, 443. 
arranges the calendar, 2, 443. 
and Simon II, 2, 443-4. 
dissolves his Synhedrion, 2, 
444. 
Chananya, principal of the Sora 

academy, 3, 10. 
Chananya. See also Chanina. 
Chanceller, Jewish Portuguese 

official, 4, 159. 
Chanilai. See Anilai. 
Chanina, teacher of the Law, 2, 

330. 
Chanina. See Mar-Chanina. 
Chanina bar Chama, refused 
permission to teach, 2, 456. 
to be appointed teacher by 
J Gamaliel III, 2, 466. 

the oldest of the Amoraim, 2, 

490. 
work of, 2, 490-1. 
compared with Eliezer ben 

Hyrcanus, 2, 491. 
deserted by his disciples, 2, 

491. 
veneration for, 2, 491. 
characterizes the people of 

Sepphoris, 2, 491-2. 
old age of, 2, 492. 
protects Mar-Samuel's daugh- 
ter, 2, 528. 
disciples of, 2, 531. 
Chanina ben Abbahu, at Tibe- 
rias, 2, 543. 
Chanina (Chananya) ben Tera- 
dion, member of the Jamnia 
Synhedrion, 2, 357. 
refuses obedience to Hadrian's 

decrees, 2, 427. 
suffers martj-rdom, 2, 429. 
wife and daughter of, 2, 429, 
436. 



Chaninai, Babylonian Jewish 
judge, declares Bostana'i's 
son legitimate, 3, 91. 
Chaninai, Exilarch, 3, 10. 
Chaninai, principal of the Pum- 

beditha academy, 3, 10. 
Chaninai Kahana ben Huna 
(765-775), Gaon of Sora, 3, 
137. 
Chanoch ben Moses (940-1014), 
attainments of, 3, 229. 
rabbi of Cordova, 3, 230. 
chief of the Andalusian Jews, 

3, 236. 
dispute about the position of, 

3, 237-8. 
deposed and re-instated, 3, 

240. 
on the death of Jacob Ibn- 

Jau, 3, 241. 
death of, 3, 241. 
Chanukah (Hanukkah), Feast 
of Lights, instituted, 1, 472- 
3. 
introduced into Egypt, 2, 6-7. 
observed by pagans, 2, 384. 
abolished by Anan ben David, 
3, 132. 
Charag, poll-tax of the Babylo- 
nian Jews, 2, 508. 
Chares, leader of the Zealots in 

Gamala, 2, 289. 
Charisi. See Jehuda Alcharisi. 
Charlemagne, predecessors of, 
and the Jews, 3, 40. 
contributes to the advance- 
ment of the Jews, 3, 141, 
143. 
protects the Jews, 3, 142. 
embassy of, to Haroun Alra- 

shid, 3, 143. 
oath imposed by, on Jews tes- 
tifying against Christians, 
3, 144. 
Charles IV, emperor, protects 
the Jews, 4, 106. 



220 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Charles IV (continued) , gives the 
Jews of Worms to the town, 
4, lOS. 

at war with Gunther of 
Schwarzburg-, 4, 109. 

punishes the murderers of 
Jews, 4, 109-10. 

and the Jews of Nuremberg, 
4, 110. 

asked to permit Jews to re- 
turn to Augsburg, 4, 127-8. 

grants " servi cameras " to the 
electors, 4, 12S. 

deed of, concerning the Jews, 
4, 095. 
Charles V, emperor, ambassa- 
dor of, einploj's a Jewish 
physician, 4, 411. 

opposed to Reuchlin, 4, 404. 

adherents of, 4, 408. 

declares Luther an exile, 4, 
469. 

refuses freedom of belief to 
Marranos, 4, 484. 

empowers the Inquisition to 
proceed against Lutherans, 
4, 485. 

Nunes sent to, to learn about 
the Inquisition, 4, 490. 

threatens tlie libert3' of Italy, 
4, 492. 

treats Rome as a hostile city, 
4, 497. 

liberates Reubeni from the 
Spanish Inquisition, 4, 499. 

crowned king of Italy, 4, 503. 

instrumental in the establish- 
ment of the Portuguese In- 
quisition, 4, 507, 509, 517, 
518. 

delivers Molcho and Reubeni 
to the Mantua Inquisition, 
4, 510. 

imprisons Reubeni, 4, 511. 

hated by Clement VII, 4, 514. 

victorious at Tunis, 4, 517. 

hostile to Paul III, 4, 520. 



' Charles V (continued), banishes 

the Jews from Naples, 4, 544. 

renews the privileges of the 

Jews, 4, 547. 
in debt to the Mendes bank, 

4, 572. 
orders the Mendes property to 

be seized, 4, 573. 
expels the Jews from the 
Netherlands, 4, 601-2. 
Charles VII, anti-emperor, oc- 
cupies Prague, 5, 251. 
Charles of Anjou, king of Sici^', 
emploj's a Jewish phj'sician, 
3, 028. 
Charles, of Baden, grants the 
Jews political freedom, 5, 
502-3. 
Charles I, of England, promotes 

the cause of libertj% 5, 25. 
Charles II, of England, the 

Jews under, 5, 141. 
Charles II, the Bald (843), king 
of the western Franks, 
friendly to the Jews, 3, 
170, 172. 
condition of the Jews under, 

3, 170-4. 

Charles III, the Simple (899- 
914), of France, grants the 
possessions of the Narbonne 
Jews to the Church, 3, 175. 

Charles IV, of France, death of, 

4, 77. 

Charles V, of France, permits 
Jew's to return, 4, 129. 

increases the privileges of the 
Jews, 4, 131, 133. 

prohibits forced attendance 
of Jews at churches, 4, 132. 

death of, 4, 150. 
Charles VI, of France, protects 
the Jews, 4, 152. 

and the rights of Jewish cred- 
itors, 4, 174. 

banishes the Jews, 4, 175-6. 

protects the exiles, 4, 176. 



INDEX. 



221 



Charles VIII, of France, con- 
quers Naples, 4, ;iGO. 
alliance against, 4, 373. 
Charles IX, of France, and the 
election of a Polish king, 4, 
604. 
Charles X, of France, the eman- 
cipation of the Jews under, 
5, 596. 
Charles III, of Navarre, em- 
ploys a Jewish phj^sician, 4, 
184. 
Charles X, of Sweden, at war 

with Poland, 5, 15. 
Charles XI, of Sweden, inquires 

into Karaism, 4, 182. 
Charles XII, of Sweden, in- 
quires into Karaism, 4, 184. 
Chasda of Cafri (217-309), a 
Babylonian Amora, 2, 545. 
disciple of Eab, 2, 552-3. 
good fortune of, 2, 553, 576, 

585. 
estrangement between, and 

Huna, 2, 553, 
principal of the Sora acade- 
my, 2, 553. 
death of, 2, 553, 583. 
Chasdai (670-730), Exilarch, 3, 

92. 
Chasdai ben Abraham Crescas 
(1340-1410), philosopher, 4, 
145-7. 
as Talmudist, 4, 146. 
exposes the weakness of Aris- 

totelianism, 4, 146. 
disciple of Nissim Gerundi, 4, 

146. 
character of, 4, 147. 
orthodoxy of, 4, 149. 
authority of, 4, 149-50, 230. 
imprisoned, 4, 150, 155. 
appealed to about the French 

rabbinate, 4, 150, 153. 
son of, martyr, 4, 172. 
describes the persecution of 
1391, 4, 172. 



Chasdai ben Abraham Crescas 

{continued), intrigue against, 

4, 185. 
attaclvS'the Christian dogmas, 

4, 187-8. 
influences Profiat Duran, 4, 

190. 
religious philosophy of, 4, 191- 

3, 240. 
creed of, 4, 193. 
disciple of, 4, 208, 239. 
anti-Christian polemic by, 

translated, 4, 235. 
views of, endorsed by Isaac 

Abrabanel, 4, 342. 
studied by Spinoza, 5, 88. 
Chasdai ben Solomon of Tudela, 

rabbi, denounces Chayim 

ben Gallipapa, 4, 149. 
ambition of, 4, 162. 
Chasdai Ibn-Shaprut (915-970), 

makes science a principle of 

Judaism, 3, 187. 
first representative of Judaeo- 

European culture, 3', 188. 
protects Moses ben Chanoch, 

3, 209-10, 228. 
corresponds with Dunash ben 

Tamim, 3, 211, 217, 
the founder of Judaeo-Spanish 

culture, 3, 215, 223. 
modern character of, 3, 215-16. 
attainments of, 3, 216. 
as diplomat, 3, 216, 218-19. 
homage paid to, 3, 217, 
corresponds w^ith Dossa, son 

of Saadiah, 3, 217. 
translates the work of Dios- 

corides, 3, 218. 
grieves over the Jewish dis- 
persion, 3, 219. 
communicates with the king 

of the Chazars, 3, 219-22. 
honored by Alhakem, 3, 222. 
inspires poets, 3, 223-4. 
and Menachera ben Saruk, 3, 

224-5, 226-7. 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Chasdai Ibn - Shaprut (con- 
tinued), invites Duiiash Ibn- 
Labrat to Cordova, 3, 220. 

encourages the study of the 
Talmud in Spain, 3, 227-8. 

favors Chanoch ben Moses, 3, 
230. 

death of, 3, 230. 

unique in Spanish-Jewish his- 
torj', 3, 313. 
Chassidixn (Chasidim, Assida;- 
ans), the, Nazarites under 
Simon the Just, 1, 422. 

opposed to the Hellenists, 1, 
435-6. 

piety of, 1, 436, 490. 

exponents of the teachings of, 
1, 436. 

incite the Judaeans to stead- 
fastness, 1, 457. 

hiding-places of, betrayed, 1, 
457-8. 

killed in the caves, 1, 458. 

follow Mattathias the Hasmo- 
na>an, 1, 400. 

betrayed bj- Alcimus, 1, 483. 

a distinct party, 1, 489. 

compared with the Hasmo- 
naean party, 1, 489-90. 

incensed at the destruction of 
the " Soreg," 1, 492. 

withdraw from public life, 2, 
16. 

called Essenes, 2, 10. See 
Essenes, the. 

give rise to the Pharisees, 2, 
16. See Pharisees, the. 

See also under Hasmonseans, 
the; Maccabees, the. 
Chasinai. See Asinai. 
Chassidim, the, Polish Sabba- 
tian sect, emigrate, 5, 212. 

exhort to penance, 5, 212. 

supported by Samuel Oppen- 
heim. 5, 213. 

accept Islam and Christianity, 
5, 213. 



Chassidim, the (new), mock at 
the Talnuidists, 5, 379. 

form a brotherhood, 5, 383-5. 

introduce innovations, 5, 386. 

divide into two branches, 5, 
3S8. 

slander Elijah Wilna, 5, 391. 

excommunicated, 5, 391-2. 

conduct of, under persecu- 
tion, 5, 392-3. 

put themselves under " Reb- 
bes," 5, 392. 

read only Chassidistic works, 
5, 393. 

second interdict against, 5, 
393-4. 

writings of, burned, 5, 393. 

resist the opening of secular 
schools, 5, 394. 

writings of, forbidden in Gali- 
cia, 5, 394. 

efforts to suppress, 5, 394. 

persecute readers of non-He- 
brew books, 5, 608, 611. 

attacked by Joseph Perl, 5, 
612. 

joined bj' Erter, 5, 613. 
Chassidism, the (new), opposed 
to Rabbinical Judaism, 5, 
375, 379. 

founders of, 5, 375. 

character of, 5, 380-1. 

the leaders of, 5, 381-3. 

circumstances favoring the 
spread of, 5, 383-6, 387. 

opposed by the Mendelssohn- 
ians, 5, 394. 

prevents the spread of culture 
among Russian Jews, 5, 473. 

revolt from, and culture in 
Oalicia, 5, 611. 
Chastelard, the Jews of, sus- 
pected of well poisoning, 4, 
104. 
Chateaubriand, on Judaism, 5, 
427, 428. 



INDEX. 



223 



Chateaubriand (continued), re- 
actiouary inllueiice of, 5, 
477, 478. 

Chatel, the Jews of, suspected 
of well poison-ing, 4, 103-4. 

Chatelet, refuge of the Jews of 
Paris, 4, 151. 

Chaumette, instrumental in set- 
ting up the religion of Kea- 
son, 5, 450. 

Chaves, Jacob de, pupil of Luz- 
zatto, 5, 242. 

Chaves, Moses de, patron of 
Luzzatto, 5, 242. 

Chaya, daughter of Elias Schor, 
Frankist, 5, 275. 

Chayim of Landshut, appoints 
three rabbis for Germany, 
4, 227. 

Chayim of Lublin, excommu- 
nicates Eibeschiitz's oppo- 
nents, 5, 201, 262. 
deprived of his rabbinate, 5, 
263. 

Chayim ben Gallipapa (1310- 
1380), rabbi of Pampeluna, 
proposes innovations, 4, 
148-9. 

Chayim Ibn-Musa (1390-1460), 
polemic writer against 
Christianity, 4, 235-7. 
controversy of, with a Chris- 
tian, 4, 236. 
refutes Nicholas de Lyra's 

charges, 4, 237. 
rules by, for religious contro- 
versies, 4, 237. 

Chayim. Benveniste. See Ben- 
veniste, Chayim. 

Chayim Cohen, disciple of 
Jacob Tam, 3, 381. 

Chayim Malach, leader of a 
Sabbatian sect, 5, 212. 
doctrines of, 5, 213. 
joins the Donmah, 5, 214. 
travels of, 5, 214. 



Chayim Vital Calabrese (1543- 

1G20), Kabbalist, youth of, 

4, 623. 
meets Isaac Lurya, 4, 623-4. 
spreads reports about Lur- 

ya's gifts, 4, 624. 
usurps authority over Lurya's 

discii^les, 4, 625. 
alleged forerunner of the Mes- 
siah, 4, 625; 5, 53. 
in Palestine and Syria, 5, 52-3. 
invites Kabbala enthusiasts 

to Damascus, 5, 53. 
alleges possession of Lurya's 

manuscripts, 5, 53. 
brother and son of, 5, 53. 
writings of, sought, 5, 54. 
Messianic speculation in the 

Kabbala of, 5, 120-1. 
adherents of, in Jerusalem, 5, 

125. 
descendant of, 5, 267. 
disfigures Judaism, 5, 559. 
Chayon, Nehemiah Chiya (1650- 

1726), Sabbatian, education 

of, 5, 215. 
character of, 5, 215-16. 
doctrines of, 5, 216-17. 
excommunicated, 5, 216. 
publishes a pamphlet, 5, 217. 
preaches Sabbatian doctrines 

at Pragile, 5, 217-18. 
submits his work to Naphtali 

Cohen, 5, 218. 
enters into relations with 

Lobele Prosnitz, 5, 219. 
prints his work in Berlin, 5, 

219-20. 
at Amsterdam, 5, 220. 
denounced, 5, 221-2. 
work of, denounced, 5, 222. 
supported by Ayllon and 

Pinto, 5, 223. 
work of, examined by a Por- 
tuguese committee, 5, 223. 
excommunicated, 5, 224, 231. 
acquitted of heresy, 5, 224-5. 



224 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Chayon, Nehemiah Chiya {con- 
tinued), homage paid to, 5, 
225. 

opposed by Brieli, 5, 225. 

calumniates his opponents, 5, 
226. 

exposed, 5, 227. 

disgrace of, 5, 227. 

ban removed from, 5, 22S. 

returns to Europe, 5, 230-1. 

death of, 5, 231. 

son of, 5, 231. 

influences Eibeschiitz, 5, 2-lS. 
Chayuj. See Jehuda Ibn-Daud. 
Chajryat. See Judah ben Jacob 

Chayyat. 
Chazanuth, synagogue chant- 
ing, 3, 118. 
Chazaria, the Crimean penin- 
sula, 3, 138. 

the Ten Tribes in, 3, 141. 
Chazars, the, friendl3^ to the 
Jews, 3, 123. 

Jews settle in the capital of, 
3, 124. 

found a kingdom, 3, 138. 

warlike, 3, 138. 

conquer the Crimea, 3, 138. 

converted to Judaism, 3, 130- 
40, 327-30. 

victorious over the Arabs, 3, 
139. 

taught the Bible and Talmud. 
3, 140. 

influencesof Judaism on, 2, 141. 

judicial system of, 3, 141. 

information about, brought to 
Spain, 3, 219-20. 

power of, in the tenth cen- 
tury, 3, 221. 

flee before Sviatislav, 3, 222. 

Jewish princes of, take refuge 
in Spain, 3, 254. 

the land of, visited by Petach- 
ya. 3, 421. 
Chazraj, the, Arabic family, re- 
lations of, to the Jews, 3, 55. 



Chazraj, the {continued), conver- 
sions among, to Judaism, 3, 
Gl. 
hostile to Jewish rule, 3, 67. 
Jews of Yathrib, dependent 

on, 3, 68. 
feuds of, 3, 70-1. 
Chebrath Dorshe Leshon Eber, 
society for the promotion of 
the Hebrew language, 5, 
398-9. 
Chelebi, Baphael Joseph, mint- 
master at Cairo, benevo- 
lence of, 5, 124-5. 
devotee of the Kabbala, 5, 125. 
interested in Sabbata'i Zevi, 5, 

125, 127. 
the Jerusalem Jews appeal to, 

5, 127-8. 
Sabbatai Zevi married in the 

house of, 5, 129. 
letter to, from Nathan Gha- 

zati, 5, 131. 
rewarded by Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 

145. 
encourages the Italian Sabba- 
tians, 5, 160. 
Chemnitz, leader hostile to the 

Jews of Worms, 4, 698. 
Chemosh, Ammonite and Moab- 
ite god, 1, 55. 
worshiped on the IVfount of 
Olives, 1, 175. 
Chepez Alkuti. Sec Alkuti. 
Cherem. Sec Excommunication. 
Cherethites, the, mercenary 
troops under David, 1, 122. 
in the Ammonite war, 1, 126. 
emplojned against Sheba, 1, 

149. 
attend Solomon, 1, 153. 
Chesheb-Efod, mathematical 
work byProfiat Duran,4, 191. 
Chess, inventor of, 3, 7. 
Chiddush, a novelty in Talmud 
explanations, 4, 641. 



INDEX. 



225 



Chiddushim, Talmudic explana- 
tions by Xachmani, 3, 532. 
Chiddushim, theoretic discus- 
sion of the Talmud, 3, 345. 
Child-murder, charged against 
Israel Bruna, 4, 302-5. 
Manasseh ben Israel exoner- 
ates the Jews from, 5, 42. 
Child-murder, the charge of 
against the Jews, of Zurich, 
4, 105. 
of Spain, 4, 270. 
of Sepulveda, 4, 278-9. 
of Trent, 4, 298-9. 
discredited by the Doge of 

Venice, 4, 299. 
of Frankfort, 4, 299-300. 
forbidden in Portugal, 4, 372. 
believed by Maximilian I, 4, 

414. 
of the Mark of Brandenburg, 

4, 440. 
See also Blood accusation, the. 
Childebert I, forbids the Jews 
to appear on the street at 
Eastertide, 3, 37. 
anti-Jewish decrees of, re- 
vived, 3, 171. 
Chillon, the Jews of, suspected 
of well poisoning, 4, 103-4. 
the castellan of, spreads evi- 
dence against the Jews, 4, 
108. 
Chillukim, hair-splitting Tal- 
mudic discussions, 4, 641. 
Chilperic, Merovingian king, 
forces Christianity upon the 
Jews, 3, 39. 
Chindaswinth (642-652), Visi- 
gothic king, kindly disposed 
towards the Jews, 3, 101-2. 
Chinon, college of, sold, 4, 48. 

the Jews of, martyrs, 4, 57-8. 
Chintila (638-642), Visigothic 
king, forces Jews into Ca- 
tholicism, 3, 51-2, 101. 



Chinuch Nearim, Berlin Free 

School, curriculum of, 5, 

416, 

Chios, the Jews of, in the 

twelfth century, 3, 424. 

prophets on, silenced by Sab- 

batai's apostasy, 5, 157. 
Nathan Ghazati on, 5, 160. 
Chiskiya, Gaon of Pumbeditha 
and Exilarch, executed, 3, 
254. 
sons of (Ibn-Daudi), in Spain, 
3, 254, 275. 
Chiskiya, prince of the Cairo 

Karaites, 3, 444. 
Chiskiya ben Chiya, offends 
Judali ha-Nassi, 2, 457. 
adds supplements to the Mish- 

na, 2, 470. 
disciple of Judah I, 2, 511. 
Chiskiya ben Reuben, member 
of the Mayence synod, 3, 
517. 
Chivi Albalchi, the first ra- 
tionalistic Bible critic, 3, 
199. 
Chiya, a Babylonian buried in 

Palestine, 2, 548. 
Chiya (Achiya) bar Abba, 
Amora, characterization of, 
2, 454, 531. 
punished by Judah I, 2, 455. 
sons of, 2, 457, 470, 511. 
announces the new-moon at 

Ain-tab, 2, 458. 
adds supplements to the Mish- 

na, 2, 470. 
Mishnic compilation of, au- 
thoritative, 2, 471. 
intercedes for Abba-Areka, 2, 

512. 
investigates the Judsean edu- 
cational institutions, 2, 532. 
collects the Patriarch's tax, 2, 

536. 
supported by Beth-Silvani, 2, 
536, 



226 



HISTORY OF THE lEWS. 



Chiya (Achiya) bar Abba (con- 
tinued), leaves Judaea, 2, 536. 
ignorant of the Bible, 2, 536. 
rigor of, 2, 536-7. 
appeals to Abbahu, 2, 538. 
Agadist, 2, 540. 
Cbiya, son of Abba-Areka, 
learned in the Law, 2, 518. 
Chmielniecki, Bogdan (1595- 
1657), grievances of, against 
Jews, 5, 7. 
organizes the Ha ida male troops, 

5, 8. 
conditions of peace, proposed 
by, 5, 12, 14. 
Chochmoth, the sciences, studied 
under Mea.sfim influence, 5, 
■102-3. 
Chocim, Jacob Frank at, 5, 27. 
Chodar-Warda, son of Jezdijird 
III, at war with his brother, 

2, 628. 

Choics. See Gnostici-sm. 
Chorazin, Jesus in, 2, 157. 
Choreas, Caligula's murderer, 2, 

ISO. 
Chorin, Aaron, aids the Reform 
movement, 5, 571. 
recalls his approval of the 
movement, 5, 571. 
Chosru (Chosroes) I Nushir- 
van, of Persia, imposes a 
poll-tax upon the Jews, 3, 
5. 
son of, 3, 7. 

protects his dominions against 
the Chazars, 3, 138. 
Chosru II (590-028), of Persia, 
supplanted, 3, 8-9. 
protected by Mauritius, 3, 9. 
prosperity of the Jews under, 

3, 9-10. 

at war with the Byzantine 

empire, 3, 19. 
incapacity of, 3, 22. 
death of. 3, 22. 



Chozari (Chosari), philosophical 

work by Jehuda Halevi, 3, 

327-36, 338. 

translated into Hebrew, 3, 

397. 

Chrestus, apostle at Eome, 2, 

202, 231. 
Christ, the. See Messiah, the. 
Christian IV, of Denmark, in- 
vites Jews to settle there, 
4, 675. 
employs a Jewish physician, 
4, 092; 5, 115. 
Christian VII, of Denmark, 
subscribes to Mendelssohn's 
Pentateuch translation, 5, 
334. 
" Christian Denunciation, The," 

by Wagenseil, 5, 180. 
Christian dogmas, in the Zohar, 
4, 23. 
debated at Avila, 4, 141. 
expounded by Astruc Eai- 

much, 4, 182. 
in the Kabbala, 4, 292. 
belief in, threatened, 5, 682. 
Christian dogmas, the, criti- 
cised, by Abbahu, 2, 539-40. 
Solomon Bonfed, 4, 182. 
Joshua Ibn-Vives, 4, 186-7. 
Chasdai Crescas, 3, 187-8. 
Profiat Duran, 4, 189. 
Joseph Ibn-Shem Tob, 4, 235. 
See also under Disputation; 
Polemical works against 
Christianity. 
Christian nam^es forbidden to 
Jews, in Spain, 4, 52, 139. 
in Prussia. 5, 030. 
Christian nurses, Jews forbid- 
den to employ, 3, 294, 400, 
508, 582; 4, 506. 
Christian servants, Jews for- 
bidden to keep, by the 
third Lateran Council, 3, 
400. 418, 422. 



INDEX. 



227 



Christian servants, Jews for- 
bidden to keep (cuntinni'd), 
by the Council of Avignon, 
3, 504. 
■ by French Church Councils, 
3, 508. 

by the Council of Oxford, 3,516. 

by the Council of Beziers, 3, 
581, 582. 

by the code of Alfonso X, 3, 
595. 

by the Council of Vienna, 3, 
611. 

under Juan II, of Castile, 4, 
203, 205. 

by Eugenius IV, 4, 250, 253. 

by Paul IV, 4, 566. 

by Pius IV, '4, 588. 
Christian servants, Jews keep, 
under Charles the Bold, 3, 
172. 

in Speyer, 3, 298. 
Christian slaves, not permitted 
to become Jews, 2, 564, 567, 
615; 3, 46, 171-2. 

become Jews in Visigothic 
Spain, 3, 45. 
Christian slaves, Jews forbid- 
den to keep, by the Theodo- 
sian code, 2, 617; 3, 28-9. 

by Gregory I, 3, 33-4. 

by Eeccared, 3, 46. 

by Sisebut, 3, 48. 

by the Council of Rouen, 3, 294. 

in Hungary, 3, 521. 

See also Slave-trade, the; 
Slaves. 
Christian state, the, founded 

by Constantius, 2, 568. 

Christianity, Essenism with 

foreign elements, 2, 142. 

origin of, in Messianic long- 
ings, 2, 142-3. 

helped by the exegesis of the 
Pharisees, 2, 166. 

averse to Phariseeism, 2, 171. 

power of, over Eome, 2, 174. 



Christianity (continued), indebt- 
ed to the ajjostle Paul, 2, 
225, 365. 

does not appeal to cultivated 
Greeks, 2, 229. 

relation of, to Judaism, ac- 
cording to Paul, 2, 229-30. 

schism in, 2, 230, 232, 365. 

influences the Jewish peas- 
ants, 2, 364. 

development of, belongs to 
Jewish history, 2, 365. 

equivalent to the teaching of 
Paul, 2, 373. 

elements of, 2, 373-4. 

as viewed by the Gnostics, 2, 
377. 

influences Judaism, 2, 380-1. 

mocked at by Hadrian, 2, 
407-8. 

independent of Judaism, 2, 
431. 

laws hostile to, promulgated 
by Severus, 2, 464. 

admired by Alexander Seve- 
rus, 2, 481. 

becomes the Catholic Church, 
2, 500. 

new dogmas of, 2, 500-1. 

oppresses Judaism and Sam- 
aritanism, 2, 535. 

proselytizing efforts of, 2, 
539. 

persecuted by Diocletian, 2, 
539. 

triumphant, 2, 559, 560. 

influence of, on Constantine, 

2, 561-2. 

completely separated from 
Judaism, 2, 563-4. 

shaped by Constantius, 2, 566. 

confined by Julian the Apos- 
tate, 2, 596. 

and Magianism, 2, 627. 

forced upon the Samaritans, 

3, 16-17. 



228 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Christianity {continued), toler- 
ant in western Europe, 3, 34. 

among the Chazars, 3, 139-40. 

barbarous during the Middle 
Ages, Z, 187. 

objections of, to Judaism an- 
swered by Saadiah, 3, 198. 

contest of, with Islam, 3, 297. 

characterized by Jehuda Ha- 
levi, 3, 328-9, 33"0. 

belief of, in the supernatural, 
5, 305. 

dethronement of, by the 
French thinkers. 5, 305-0. 

Mendelssohn on, 5, 313-14. 

characterized by Heine, 5, 552. 

See also Christian dogmas; 
Christians; Polemical works 
against Christianity. 
Christianity, conversions to. Sec 
Apostasy-; and under Conver- 
sion. 
Christianity, Pauline, hostility 
of, accentuates the legal 
character of Judaism, 2, 
471. 

produces the Talmud, 3, 127. 
Christians, the, regarded as 
conjurors, 2, 170. 

consider the Apocrypha part 
of the Bible, 2, 359, 489. 

accuse Jews of cursing Jesus, 
2, 380. 

propaganda of, in the pagan 
world, 2, 383. 

tamper with the Septuagint, 
2, 385-6. 

of Judjea, receive Hadrian 
with servility, 2, 400. 

accounts bj', of Bar-Cochba, 2, 
412. 

persecuted by Hadrian, 2, 
430-1. 

separate themselves from the 
Jews, 2, 431. 

appeal to Marcus Aurelius, 2, 
449. 



Christians, the (continued), inter- 

course of, with the heathen 

interdicted, 2, 476-7. 
complain of the indifference 

of the Jews, 2, 483. 
primitive sects of, merged 

into the Catholic Church, 2, 

500. 
persecuted by the Magi, 2, 

524. 
persecuted by Diocletian, 2, 

533, 539. 
called Galilfeans by Julian, 2, 

596. 
reproached for having for- 
saken Judaism, 2, 597. 
malign Julian, 2, 599. 
object to the rebuilding of the 

Temple, 2, 600-1. 
well treated by Jezdijird, 2, 

609-10. 
oppress Judaea, 2, 611. 
refuse to recognize the au- 

thoritj' of the Patriarchs, 2, 

012-13. 
forbidden to trade with Jews, 

2, 020. 
controversies with, interest 

the Jews in Scripture 

studies, 2, 623. 
persecuted by Jezdijird III 

2, 627-8. 

of Babylonia suffer from Zen- 

dik communism, 3, 2-3. 
persecuted by Hormisdas IV, 

3, 8. 

in possession of Palestine, 3, 
11. 

Jewish witnesses cannot tes- 
tify against, 3, 12, 102, 520; 

4, 250. 

of Jerusalem perish at the 
hands of Persians and Jews, 
3, IG. 

forbidden to eat at Jewish 
banquets in Gaul, 3, 36, 37, 



INDEX. 



229 



Christians,the (continued) , forbid- 
den to hold intercourse with 

Jews, 3, 36, 37, 407, 499, 595, 

611; 4, 216, 245, 250, 560, 590. 
forbidden to marry Jews in 

Spain, 3, 44, 46. 
ill-treated in Yemen, 3, 64, 65. 
Mahomet's revelation against, 

3, 78. 
driven out of Najaran, 3, 85. 
restrictions against, in the 

covenant of Omar, 3, 87-8. 
Jewish testimony against, ac- 
cepted, 3, 144. 
persecuted under the sons of 

Haroun Alrashid, 3, 145. 
Frankish, respect Judaism, 3, 

163. 
antagonized by Bishop Bodo, 

3, 169. 
called Mozarabs among the 

Mahometans, 3, 215. 
persecuted by Hakim, 3, 247. 
invade Mahometan Spain, 3, 

291. 
persecuted by Abdulmumen, 

3, 359. 
permitted to testify against 

Jews, 3, 422. 
deny equal rights to the Mar- 

ranos, 4, 256-7. 
study Hebrew, 4, 471-4, 
interested in the Kabbala, 4, 

481. 
devote themselves to Hebrew 

literature, 5, 21-2. 
interested in the Sabbatian 

movement, 5, 137, 151. 
interested in Judaism and the 

Jews, 5, 176. 
attracted by Jewish literature, 

5, 178-9. 
Hebraists, attack the Jews, 5, 

184. 
and the Eibeschiitz-Emden 

controversy, 5, 262. 



Christians (continued), subscrib- 
ers to Mendelssohn's Penta- 
teuch translation, 5, 329. 
See also Christianity; Ebio- 
nites; Greek Christians; 
Jewish Christians; Judaean 
Christians; Nazarenes; Pa- 
gan Christians. 
Christians, the early. See Jew- 
ish Christians, the; Judaean 
Christians, the; Nazarenes, 
the, etc. 
Christians, the Judaizing, un- 
der Receswinth, 3, 104. 
under Erwig, 3, 106-7. 
forbidden to own real estate, 

3, 107-8. 
See also ]\Iarranos, the. 
Christians, the Nestorian, help 
the Arabs in Babylonia, 3, 
89. 
side with Ali, 3, 90. 
Christians, the Syrian, and the 
science of grammar, 3, 7. 
make scientific literature ac- 
cessible to the Arabs, 3, 111. 
Christina, of Sweden, studel t of 
Hebrew, 5, 21. 
Manasseh ben Israel recom- 
mended to, 5, 22, 23, 
Manoel Texeira's guest, 5, 140. 
intercedes for the Jews of Vi- 
enna, 5, 171. 
Chronicles, the Books of, writ- 
ten by a Levite, 1, 411. 
Chrysostom. See John Chrysos- 

tom. 
Church appurtenances, Jews 

forbidden to buy, 3, 377. 
Church councils, occupied with 
the Jewish question, 3, 25. 
discuss the slave-trade of the 

Jews, 3, 40. 
convened in France by the 
fugitive popes, 3, 376-7. 



230 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Church councils, list of: 

Alby, Moutpellier, 

Avife'non (1209), Xarboune (1227), 

Bamberfe' (1451), Nice (.325), 

Basle a-131-1443), Orleans (538,545), 

B^ziers (1246), Oxford (1222), 

Buda(1279), Paris (615, 846, 
Clermont (1095), 1212), 

Constance (1414), Rome (1078), 

Epaone (517), Rouen (1231), 

Exeter (1287), Toledo (589, 633, 
Illiberis (320), 652 V), 

Lateran,the third Tours (1231), 

(1179) Trent (1545), 

Lateran, the under Chintila 

fourth (1215) (638), 

Lateran, the lifth under Erwig, 

(1512-1517) under Wamba, 

Lyons (829), Vanues (465), 

Macon (581), Vienna (1267), 

Meaux (845), Zamora (1313). 

Church Fathers, the, works of, 
connected with the Talmud, 
4, 614. 

" Church of the Mother of God,"' 
sj'nagogue in Constantino- 
ple, 3, 26. 

Chushiel (950-980), emissarj^ 
from Sora, settles in Kai- 
ruan, 3, 20S, 210. 
title of, 3, 211. 
disciples of, 3, 211. 

Chuzpit, interpreter of the 
Jamnia Synhedrion, 2, 357, 
429. 

Cicero, animosity of, to Ju- 
dteans, 2, 68-70. 
indebted to Greek writers, 2, 
179. 

Cidellus, Jewish adviser of Al- 
fonso VI of Castile, 3, 292. 

Cilicia, mercenaries of, hired by 
Alexander Jannaeus, 2, 39. 
Greek-Christian communities 

in, 2, 227. 
the Jews of, punish an apos- 
tate, 2, 565. 

Cincinnati, rabbinical college 
at, 5, 700. 



Circumcision, observed by Baby- 
lonian ijrosehtes, 1, 339. 

observed by Babylonian Ju- 
dyeaus, 1, 364. 

whether optional or impera- 
tive with proselytes, 2, 384- 
5. 

forbidden by Hadrian, 2, 422, 
424. 

permitted by Antoninus Pius, 

2, 433. 

of slaves, forbidden, 2, 567, 

615; 3, 46. 
practiced bj^ the heathen 

Arabs, 3, 61. 
discussed in Frankfort, 5, 676- 

7. 
See also under Proselytes, 
" Citizen's Cry against the 

Jews, The," published in 

Metz, 5, 434. 
Citizenship granted to Judaeans 

in Egypt, 1, 418, 503. 
granted to Judseans in Anti- 

och, 1, 419. 
granted to Judaean athletes, 

1, 445. 
withdrawn from the Alexan- 
drian Judaeans, 2, 182. 
restored to the Alexandrian 

Judaeans, 2, 191. 
Judseans of Caesarea deprived 

of, 2, 247. 
Roman, under Caracalla, 2, 

468. 
Roman, of the Jews, guarded 

by Gregory I, 3, 33. 
accorded to the Jews of Gaul, 

3, 35. 

enjoj'ed by the Jews of Cas- 
tile, 3, 292-3. 

obtained by the Jews of Tu- 
dela, 3, 388. 

enjojed by the Jews of Messi- 
na, 3, 423. 

enjoyed by Jews in the Hoi}' 
Roman Empire, 4, 443. 



INDEX. 



231 



Citizenship (continued). See also 
Emancipation of the Jews, 
the. 
Civil offices, Honorius III ob- 
jects to Jews in, 3, 515. 

Henry II of Castile refuses to 
exclude Jews from, 4, 125. 

exclusion from, requested in 
Lisbon, 4, 160. 
Civil offices, Jews excluded 
from, by Theodosius II, 3, 
28, 171. 

by the Council of Toledo, 3, 46. 

by the Council of Macon, 3, 39, 
171. 

in the Empire of the East, 3, 
175, 425. 

by the Arabs, 3, 216. 

by Greg-ory VII, 3, 293. 

by Innocent III, 3, 400. 

by the Council of Avignon, 3, 
504. 

by the Fourth Lateran Coun- 
cil, 3, 510. 

in Hungary, 3, 521. 

by Frederick II, 3, 567, 569. 

by the Council of Beziers, 3, 
582. 

by Alfonso X, 3, 595. 

by the Council of Vienna, 3, 
611. 

by the Council of Buda, 3, 614. 

by Rudolph of Habsburg,3,635. 

by Juan II, 4, 194-5, 203, 228, 
229. 

by Benedict XIII, 4, 216. 

by the Council of Basle, 4, 
245. 

by Eugenius IV, 4, 250. 

by Henry IV, 4, 278. 

See IMagisterial offices. 
Civil offices, Jews fill, under Al- 
Mutadhid, 3, 183. 

in Moslem Spain, after Abdul- 
Rahman III, 3, 234-5. 



Civil offices, Jews fill {con- 

tiniwd), under Alfonso VIII 

of Castile, 3, 384. 
in Messina, 3, 423. 
in Toulouse, 3, 501, 514. 
in Austria, 3, 516-17, 567. 
under Alfonso X, 3, 593, 596, 

615. 
See Magisterial offices. 
Civil war, between the houses 

of Saul and David, 1, 109-10. 
David and Absalom, 1, 138-44. 
the Zealots and the Peace 

Party in Jerusalem, 2, 259- 

70. 
the Zealots and the Moderates 

in Jerusalem, 2, 295. 
the Zealots and the Sicarii, 2, 

297-9. 
Pedro the Cruel and Henry 

de Trastamare, 4, 118-26. 
" Claims of the Jews to German 

Citizenship," by Riihs, 5, 

517. 
Claudius, emperor, makes Agrip- 

pa I king over Palestine, 2, 

190. 
makes Herod II prsetor and 

prince of Chalcis, 2, 190. 
treats the Judseans well, 2, 

190-1, 193. 
and the fortification of Jeru- 
salem, 2, 195. 
and Agrippa II, 2, 196. 
makes the governor of Judaea 

independent of the governor 

of Syria, 2, 197. 
makes Herod II titular king 

of Judsea, 2, 198. 
names Tiberius Julius Alex- 
ander governor of Judfea, 2, 

198. 
expels Judaeans from Rome, 2, 

202. 
makes Agrippa II king of 

Chalcis, 2, 235. 



232 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Claudius {continued) ,ma\<.Qs Felix 
g-overnor of Galilee, 2, 242. 

banishes Cumanus, 2, 245. 

gives Agrippa II a kingdom, 
2, 245. 

death of, 2, 245. 
Clemens of Alexandria, Father 
of the Church, critical spirit 
of, 2, 4SS. 
Clemens, Flavius, proselyte, 
sons of, proclaimed Caesars, 
2, 387. 

and four teachers of the Law, 
2, 387, 389, 391. 

condemned to death, 2, 389. 

and Josephus, 2, 389, 391. 
Clement III, pope, resists the 
return of forced converts to 
Judaism, 3, 30G, 308. 

orders the confiscation of the 
Talmud, 3, C02. 
Clement IV, pope, appealed to 

against Xachmani, 3, 605. 
Clement VI, pope, has Ger- 
sonides' astronomical trea- 
tise translated, 4, 93. 

arrests the Black Death per- 
secutions, 4, 103. 

declares the Jews innocent of 
well poisoning, 4, 105. 

forbids the forced baptism of 
Jews, 4, 173. 
Clement VII, pope, friendly to 
the Jews, 4, 407. 

grants David Reubeni an aud- 
ience, 4, 492. 

efforts of, for the liberty of 
Italy, 4, 492. 

treats Reubeni v/ith distinc- 
tion, 4, 492-3. 

addressed on the Portuguese 
Inquisition, 4, 500. 

permits Marranos to profess 
Judaism, 4, 500. 

intercourse of, with Molcho, 
4, 503. 



Clement VII {continued), honors 
Molcho publicly, 4, 505. 

opposes the Portuguese Inqui- 
sition, 4, 505. 

saves Molcho from the stake, 
4, 507. 

establishes the Portuguese In- 
quisition, 4, 507. 

sj'mpathizes with the Marra- 
nos, 4, 509. 

innocent of Molcho's death, 4, 
512. 

stays the Portuguese Inquisi- 
tion, 4, 513. 

absolves Marranos for leaving 
the Church, 4, 513-14. 

motive of, in protecting the 
Marranos, 4, 514. 

appoints a commission on the 
Portuguese Inquisition, 4, 
514. 

death of, 4, 515. 

briefs of, enforced by Paul IV, 
4, 51C. 

absolves the Marranos of An- 
cona, 4, 568. 
Clement VIII, pope, grants an 
amnesty to the Marranos, 4, 
528. 

expels the Jews from the Pa- 
pal States, 4, 659. 

forbids the reading of the Tal- 
mud, 4, 659. 

incorporates Ferrara with the 
Papal States, 4, 660. 

absolves Portuguese Marranos, 

4, 671. 

Clement IX, pope, death of, 5, 

171. 
Clement XIII, pope, acquits the 

Jews of the blood accusation, 

5, 285-6. 

Clemente, Philip, Marrano, tries 
to suppress the Aragon In- 
quisition, 4, 329. 



INDEX. 



233 



Cleopatra I, sister of Antiochus 
IV, wile of Ptolemy V, 1, 
450. 

Cleopatra II, sister and wife of 
rtolemy VI, claimant of the 
Egyptian throne, 1, 506, 
marries Ptolemy VII Physcon, 

1, 518. 

Cleopatra III, second wife of 

Ptolemy VII, mother of 

Ptolemy VIII, espouses the 

cause of Judaea, 2, 10. 

defended by Judaean soldiers, 

2, 12. 

sends an army against her 

son, 2, 40-1. 
in league with Alexander 

Jannseus, 2, 41. 
Cleopatra VI, friendly to Herod, 

2, 80. 
favors Aristobulus (III), 2, 

92. 
summons Herod to answer for 

Aristobulus' death, 2, 92-3. 
receives the district of Jeri- 
cho, 2, 93. 
unkind to the Alexandrian 

Judseans, 2, 94. 
schemes against Herod, 2, 94- 

5. 
death of, 2, 102. 
body-guard of, given to Herod, 

2, 103. 
Cleopatra, wife of Demetrius 

Nicator, kills her son, 2, G. 
Cleopatra of Jerusalem, wife of 

Herod, 2, 119. 
Clermont, the Jews of, and 

Bishop Avitus, 3, 38-9. 
the council of, resolves upon a 

crusade, 3, 297. 
Clermont-Tonnerre, Count, de- 
fends the Jews, 5, 440. 
favors the emancipation of 

the Jews, 5, 441. 

15 



Closener of Strasburg, histo- 
rian, on the persecution of 
the Jews, 4, lOG. 

Clotaire II, Merovingian king, 
hostile to the Jews, 3, 40. 

Clovis, founder of the Prankish 
kingdom, 3, 35. 
Jews in the army of, 3, 3G. 
converted, 3, 36. 

Coblenz, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted, 3, 611. 

Cochelet, French consul-general, 
interferes in the Damascus 
affair, 5, 647. 
ordered to stop the Damascus 

trial, 5, 649. 
hinders Montefiore and Cre- 
mieux in Egypt, 5, 659, 
660. 

Codes, general, defining the sta- 
tus of the Jews. See under 

Alfonso X of Cas- Henry IV of Cas- 
tile, tile, 

Alfonso V of Por- Napoleon, 
tug-al, Theodosius, 

Visigothic. 

Codes, Jewish religious. See 

Asher ben Ye- Mordecai Jafa, 

chiel, Moses ben Israel 

Mishna, the Isserles, 

Mishne Torah, Shulchan Aruch, 

Turim. 

Coelesyria, Macedonian prov- 
ince, Judaea belongs to, 1, 
414. 
conquered by Ptolemy I, 1, 

416. 
revolts from Ptolemy II, 1, 

423. 
Joseph, tax-gatherer of, 1, 

425. 
Herod governor of, 2, 79. 
Cohen, Aaron. See Aaron Cohen. 
Cohen, Chayim. See Chayim 

Cohen. 
Cohen, Daniel, scientist, 4, 
405. 



234 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Cohen (Soncino), Gershon, es- 
tablishes a printing house 
in Prague, 4, 41S. 

Cohen, Isaac. See Isaac Cohen 
Shalal. 

Cohen, Jehuda. See Jehuda ben 
Solomon Cohen Ibn-Matka. 

Cohen, Jonathan. See Jonathan 
Cohen. 

Cohen, Joseph ben Joshua. Sec 
Joseph ben Joshua Cohen. 

Cohen, Joshua Falk, president 
of the S\'nod of the Four 
Countries, 4, 045. 
Talmudist, 4, 70:i. 

Cohen, Judah. Sec Judah ben 
Moses Cohen. 

Cohen, Malachi, rabbi of Leg- 
horn, espouses the cause of 
Eibeschiitz, 5, 2G4. 

Cohen, Moses. See Moses Cohen 
de Tordesillas; Moses ben 
Judah. 

Cohen, Moses Gerson. See An- 
ton, Charles. 

Cohen, Naphtali, Kabbalist, pa- 
tron of Chayon, 5, 217. 
approves of Chayon's work, 5, 

218. 
refrains from exposing Chay- 
on, 5, 219. 
exposes Chajon, 5, 227. 

Cohen, Nehemiah, announces 
the approach of the ifes- 
siah, 5, 152. 
summoned by Sabbatai Zevi, 

5, 152. 
disagrees with Sabbatai, 5, 153. 
turns Mahometan, 5, 153. 
betrays Sabbatai, 5, 153. 
returns to Poland, 5, 154. 

Cohen, Nehemiah Vital, rabbi 
of Venice, and Luzzatto, 5, 
239. 

Cohen, Perachyah,i)liysician and 
scientist, 4, 405. 



Cohen, Raphael (1722-1803), rab- 
bi of the " three communi- 
ties," opposes JSIendelssohn's 
Pentateuch translation, 5, 
330, 331, 333. 
objects to the study of the 

sciences, 5, 402. 
retirement of, 5, 566. 
son-in-law of, 5, 570. 
grandson of, 5, 598. 
Cohen, Sabbatai, commemorates 
the Cossack massacres, 5, 13. 
Cohen, Samuel. See Samuel Co- 
hen ben Daniel. 
Cohen, Saul. See Saul Cohen 
Ashkenazi; Saul Astruc Co- 
hen. 
Cohen, Shalom, employed by 
the Hamburg Dayanim, 5, 
573. 
Cohen, Simcha. See Simcha Co- 
hen. 
Cohn, Isidore, founder of the 
" Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle," 5, 701. 
Coimbra, the Inquisition at, 4, 

508. 
Coin, counterfeiting of, de- 
nounced bj^ the Mayence 
sj'nod, 3, 517. 
clipping of, charged against 
the English Jews, 3, 642. 
Coinage, the right of, enjoyed 
by the Jews of Hungary, 3, 
521. 
Coins struck by Simon Tharsi, 
1, 525, 528. 
by John Hj^rcanus, 2, 12. 
by Aristobulus I, 2, 35. 
by Alexander Jannreus, 2, 46. 
by Salome Alexandra, 2, 48. 
by Aristobulus II, 2, 62. 
b^^ Alexander, son of Aristob- 
ulus II, 2, 70. 
by .\ntigonus, 2, 83. 
for Agrippa I, 2, 190, 194. 
by the Zealots, 2, 268. 



INDEX. 



235 



Coins (continued), in honor of 
Simon beti Gamaliel, 2, 2G9. 
Judaean, under Vespasian, 2, 

292. 
commemorating Titus' victor^-, 

2, 314. 
by Xerva, 2, 392. 
by Hadrian, 2, 407, 419. 
by Bar-Cochba, 2, 411. 
Collectants, a Dutch sect, 5, 94. 
Colleges, established in Spain 

by the law of Avila, 4, 229. 
Colleges, Rabbinical, at Aletz, 
5, 597-S, 700. 
at Padua, 5, 624, 700. 
at Breslau, 5, G99-700. 
at various places, 5, 700. 
Colleges, Talmudical, at Nar- 
bonne, 3, 143, 242, 392. 
in western countries founded 
by emissaries from Sora, 3, 
208. 
at Cordova, 3, 209, 228. 
in Egypt and the Fatimide 

Caliphate, 3, 210. 
at Kairuan, 3, 210-11, 248. 
in Spain, 3, 236. 
at Mayence, 3, 243, 247. 
at Lucena, 3, 322. 
at Toledo, 3, 338, 362. 
in Spain, closed, 3, 361, 384. 
at Dampierre, 3, 403. 
at London, 3, 409. 
at Bagdad, 3, 429, 633. 
in France, closed, 4, 48. 
at Paris, 4, 133. 
at i^:^lcala, 4, 145. 
at Padua, 4, 410. 
in Poland, 4, 420, 634, 639. 
at Cremona, 4, 582. 
at Prague, 5, 249. 
the decay of, 5, 566-7, 569. 
See also under Academies; 
Schools. 
Collegium Germanicum, propa- 
gandist seminary, 4, 654. 



Collier, Thomas, refutes anti- 

Jowish charges, 5, 46. 
"Colloquium Middeiburgense," 

controversial work, 4, 691. 
Colmar, the Jews of, banished. 

4, 416. 
Cologna, Abraham Vita di 
(1755-1832), deputy to the 
Assembly of Jewish Nota- 
bles, 5, 488, 490. 
second vice-president of the 

Synhedrion, 5, 495. 
member of the French con- 
sistory, 5, 502. 
conservative, 5, 559. 
Cologne, fair of, visited by 
Jews, 3, 243. 
university of, and the confis- 
cation of Hebrew books, 4, 
437, 441. 
theologians of, sanction the 
burning of the " Augen- 
spiegel," 4, 452. 
Cologne, the Dominicans of. See 
Dominicans, the, of Cologne. 
Cologne, the Jews of, privileges 
of, abolished by Constantine. 
2, 563. 
settlement of, 3, 41. 
protected during the first cru- 
sade, 3, 304. 
massacred at Neus, 3, 304-5. 
persecuted during the second 

crusade, 3, 352. 
represented at the first rabbin- 
ical synod, 3, 377. 
protected during the Black 
Death persecutions, 4, 106, 
108. 
banished, 4, 227, 413. 
Columbus, aided by Joseph Ve- 

cinho, 4, 368. 
Comet, a, orbit of, calculated 
by Joshua ben Chananj-a, 2, 
349. 
Comino, the isle of, Abraham 
Abulafia on. 4, 8. 



236 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



" Commentary," Talmudical 

work by Kashi, 3, 2SS. 
Commerce, under Uzziah, 1, 230. 

pursued by Alexandrian Ju- 
da^ans, 1, 504. 

under the Herodians, 2, 118. 

between Jews and Christians 
forbidden, 2, G20; 4, 203, 216. 

among the Jews of the Frank- 
ish and Burgundian king- 
doms, 3, 35. 

in the hands of Jews in the 
eighth century, 3, 142-3. 

international, in the hands of 
Jews. 3, 1()2. 

in the hands of the Jews un- 
der the Saxon emperors, 3, 
242-3. 

the, of southern France, car- 
ried on by Jews, 3, 391. 

the, of Venice, in the fifteenth 
century, 4, 285. 

of the Turkish Jews, 4, 401. 

of the Jews in roland, 4, 41',). 

capacity- for, an argument for 
the admission of Jews into 
England, 5, 40-1. 

the, of the Jews, described by 
Simone Luzzatto, 5, 82-3. 

stagnation of, during the Sab- 
batian movement, 5, 149. 

forbidden partly to the Jews 
of Alsace, 5, 348. 

the, of Jews under the Napo- 
leonic law, 5, 521-5. 
Commercial Hall, meeting place 
of the Synhedrion in Beth- 
any, 2, 239. 
Com^modus, emperor, profligacy 
of, 2, 447. 

death of, 2, 448, 403. 
" Communities of the Friends 
of Light," Protestant socie- 
ties, 5, 682, 683. 
" Compositions," grammatical 
work by Yizchaki, 3, 273. 



" Concerning the Jews and 
their Lies," by Luther, 4, 
548-9. 

" Concerning the superstitions 
of the Jews," letter ad- 
dressed to Louis the I'ious, 

3, 167-8. 

Conciliador, the, by Manasseh 
ben Israel, translated, 5, 22. 
Concordance of the Bible, by 
Isaac Nathan ben Kalony- 
mos, 4, 234-5, 
Condottieri, Italian mercena- 
ries, 4, 286. 
Confederation War, the, Jews 

suffer during, 5, 387-8. 
Confession of Faith, the, recital 

of, forbidden, 3, 15. 
Confessional, the, discussed by 

the Jews of France, 3, 343. 
'* Confessions," by Heine, 5, 

553-5. 
Confirmation, the rite of, intro- 
duced into German Jewish 
communities, 5, 562, 573. 
Confiscation and biirning, the, 
of Hebrew books, by the 
Dominicans, 3, 542-3. 
by Gregory IX, 3, 574-6, 578- 

9. 
by Pfefferkorn, 4, 429-31, 437- 

8, 441, 444. 
under Julius III, 4, 56,'. 
under Paul IV, 4, 567, 583, 

584-5. 
under Pius V, 4, 590. 
under Gregory XIII, 4, 654. 
at Kamieniec, 5, 282. 
See also under Talmud, the. 
" Conflict of Duties, the, Letter 
on," by Solomon Duran I, 

4, 238. 

Conforte, David, itinerant rabbi 
and historian, 5, 202. 

Congress. See Aix-la-Chapelle; 
Kastadt; Vienna. 

Coniah. Sec Jehoiachin. 



INDEX. 



237 



Conrad III, emperor, protects 
tlie .lews during the second 
crusade, 3, 351, 416. 

joins the second crusade, 3, 
353, 354. 
Conrad, of Wintertur, excul- 
pates the Jews from the 
cliarg-e of well poisoning, 4, 
IOC, 108. 
Consistorial organization, in 
France, approved by Napo- 
leon, 5, 498. 

established in Westphalia, 5, 
501-2. 
" Consolation for the Sorrows 
of Israel," by Samuel Usque, 
4, 558-61. 
Constance, the Council of, and 
Benedict XIII, 4, 212, 216. 

condemns Ferrer, 4, 217. 

anarchy during, 4, 218. 

elects Martin V pope, 4, 219. 

condemns John Huss to death, 
4, 221. 

expenses of, borne by the 
Jews, 4, 248. 
Constance (Costnitz), the Jews 
of, charged with well poi- 
soning, 4, 105. 

wait on Martin V, 4, 219. 
Constance (lake), the cities on, 
the Jews of, charged with 
well poisoning, 4, 105. 
Constantia, queen-mother, con- 
tends for the regency in 
Castile, 4, 52. 
Constantine I, emperor, puts 
Judaism on an equality with 
Christianity, 2, 561. 

under the influence of Chris- 
tianity, 2, 561-2. 

abolishes the privileges of the 
Jews, 2, 563; 5, 725. 

closes Jerusalem to the Jews, 
2, 564; 3, 11-12. 

protects the Jews against 
apostates, 2, 564. 



Constantine I {continued), anti- 
Jewish restrictions of, re- 
vived, 3, 2:;, 171. 
Constantine VIII (944-949), By- 
zantine emperor, and Abdul- 
Rahman III, 3, 218. 
Constantine, African town, ref- 
uge for Spanish Jews, 4, 197. 
Constantine Dragosses, last By- 
zantine emperor, 4, 267. 
Constantinople, the Temple ves- 
sels in, 3, 26-7. 
Karaite center, 4, 69, 71, 269. 
fall of, 4, 267. 

Spanish spoken at, by the ex- 
iles, 4, 388. 
the Spanish exiles in, 4, 402-4. 
the Mendes-Nassi family in, 

4, 577. 

rabbis of, advise the diver- 
sion of Jewish trade from 
Ancona, 4, 580. 

rabbis of, excommunicate 
Daud, 4, 599. 

description of, by Moses Al- 
mosnino, 4, 608. 

Joseph Delmedigo at, 5, 76. 

Sabbatai Zevi at, 5, 145-8. 

effect of Sabbatai's apostasy 
in, 5, 157. 

Sabbatians excommunicated 
in, 5, 157, 159. 

Sabbatai Zevi banished to, 5, 
166. 

Cardoso at, 5, 207. 

Chayim Malach banished from, 

5, 214. 

Chayon at, 5, 227-8. 

rabbis of, espouse the cause 

of Eibeschiitz, 5, 264. 
a rabbi of, accused of using 

human blood, 5, 640. 
revision of the Rhodes trial at 

5, 647. 
Constantinople, the Jews of, in 

habit a separate quarter, 3, 

26, 



238 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Constantinople, the Jews of 
(couti?iucd), expelled, 3, 2G. 
in the twelfth century, 3, 42,'). 
divided into national groups, 

4, 402, 478. 
taxed, 4, 402. 

have a political representa- 
tive, 4, 404. 

collect a ransom for Polish- 
Jewish captives, 5, S. 

appeal to the European Jews, 

5, 651. 

Constantius, emperor, influence 

of, on the Church, 2, 566. 

teachers of the Law banished 

from Judaea under, 2, 5G6-7. 

hostile to the Jews, 2, 567-8. 

founder of the Christian state, 

2, 568. 
re-enacts Hadrian's edicts 

against the Jews, 2, 571. 
makes Julian co-emperor, 2, 

595. 
law of, with regard to tne 
slaves of Jews revived, 2, 
615. 
law of, concerning the I'atri- 
archs re-enacted, 2, 616. 
Constitutio Judaeorum, issued 

by Innocent III, 3, 497. 
Constitution of the Directory, 
the, recognizes the emanci- 
pation of the Jews, 5, 452. 
Constitution, the French, rati- 
fied by Louis XVI, 5, 447. 
" Constitutions, The," code of 
the Inquisition compiled b3' 
Torquemada, 4, .'526-8. 
introduced into Portugal, 4, 
508. 
Conti, Vincent, prints the Zo- 

har, 4, 5S3. 
Contra-Remonstrants, the, a 

Dutch sect, 4, 673. 
" Contrasts and Greatness of 
Constantinople," by Moses 
Almosnino, 4, 608. 



Controversial literature, in 
S^jain in the tifteenth cen- 
tury, 4, 232-8. 
See also Polemical works 
against Christianity. 

" Conversations and Recollec- 
tions," by Moses Ibn-Ezra, 

3, 320. 

Conversion, the, of the Himya- 

rites, 3, 56. 
Conversion, the, of the Jews to 

Christianity, promoted by 

Constantine, 2, 562, 564. 
desired by Theodoric, 3, 29-30. 
hoped by Bernard of Clair- 

vaux, 3, 353. 
means used for, by Raymond 

de Penyaforte, 3, 520. 
encouraged by Louis IX, 3, 

570. 
projected by Benedict XIII, 

4, 206-7. 

designed by the Council of 

Basle, 4, 245-6. 
attempted in Ratisbon, 4, 301. 
measures for, devised oy Pfef- 

ferkorn, 4, 425-6. 
unpopular, 4, 426-7. 
measures for, devised by Gre- 
gory XIII, 4, 654-5, 706. 
hoped for by Cromwell, 4, 43. 
agitated by Charles XI of 

Sweden, 5, 182. 
agitated by Wagenseil, 5, 186. 
iirged by Riihs, 5, 517. 
See also Apostasy; Apostates. 
Conversion, the forced, of Jews 

to Christianity, objected to 

by Gregory I, 3, 33. 
objected to by llenrj' IV, 3, 

298. 
forbidden bj^ the third Lat- 

eran Council, 3, 421. 
deprecated by Gregory IX, 3, 

570. 
deprecated by Gregory X, 3, 

635. 



INDEX. 



239 



Conversion, the forced, of Jews 
to Christianity {cDittiiincd), 
advised by Duns Scotus, 3, 
644; 4, 277. 

forbidden by Clement VI, 4, 
103, 173. 

deprecated by Innocent IV, 4, 
1G5. 

forbidden by Boniface IX, 4, 
173. 

deprecated by Martin V, 4, 
220. 

advocated by John of Capis- 
trano, 4, 277. 

condemned by Ferdinand 
Coutinho, 4, 375. 

attempted by Manoel of Por- 
tugal, 4, 377. 

objected to by Paul III, 4, 
517-18. 

Sec also Marranos, the. 
Conversions, forced, of Jews to 
Christianity, in Magona, 2, 
619-20. 

in Clermont, 3, 38-9. 

under Chilperic, 3, 39. 

under Sisebut, 3, 48, 49-50. 

under Chintila, 3, 51-2, 101. 

under Receswinth, 3, 102-4. 

under Erwig, 3, 106-7. 

under Leo the Isaurian, 3, 
122-3. 

under Basilius, 3, 176. 

in Mayence, 3, 246, 303. 

in Treves, 3, 300. 

in Worms, 3, 301-2. 

in Bohemia, 3, 305, 356. 

in Blois, 3, 380. 

in France, 3, 403, 570; 4, 48, 
56. 

in Toulouse, 3, 514. 

during the Rindfleisch perse- 
cution, 4, 36. 

in Speyer, 4, 107. 

in Strasburg, 4, 108. 

in Hungary, 4, 111. 

in Castile, 4, 126, 137, 205. 



Conversions, forced, of Jews to 

Christianity {continued), in 

Seville, 4, 169. 
in Cordova, 4, 169. 
in Toledo, 4, 170. 
in Valencia, 4, 171. 
in Gei'ona, Barcelona, and Le- 

rida, 4, 172. 
in Aragon, 4, 206, 214. 
in Austria, 4, 224. 
in Palma, 4, 247. 
in Bavaria, 4, 254. 
of children in Breslau, 4, 262. 
in Trent, 4, 298. 
in Spain at tlie expulsion, 4, 

351. 
in Navarre, 4, 358. 
in Genoa, 4, 363. 
in Malaga, 4, 370. 
of children at San Thomas, 4, 

371. 
in Portugal, 4, 374, 375-6, 378. 
in the Mark of Brandenburg, 

4, 440. 
in Poland, 5, 7-8. 
See also Apostasy; Apostates; 

Marranos, the. 
Conversions, forced, of Jews to 

Islam, by Omar, 3, 120. 
decreed by Hakim, 3, 247-8. 
in Morocco, 3, 358-9. 
in northern Africa, 3, 359-60. 
in Lucena, 3, 311-12, 361. 
under Abdulmumen, 3, 451-6. 
in Yemen, 3, 461. 
Maimonides on, 3, 462-4. 
See also Apostasy; Apostates. 
Conversions, forced, of Jews to 

Magianism, 2, 629. 
Conversions to Judaism, in 

Babylon, 1, 338-9. 
under Zerubbabel, 1, 356, 
made by Alexander Jannseus, 

2, 46. 
among the Romans under Ti- 
berius, 2, 136-7. 



240 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Conversions to Judaism {con- 
tinued), among the heathen, 
2, 215-19, 383-5. 
among the Roman soldiers of 

Titus, 2, 306, 
Tacitus and Josephus on, 2, 

3S4. 
forbidden by Antoninus Pius, 

2, 433. 
forbidden by Constantine, 2, 

562. 
among slaves forbidden, 2, 564, 

567-8, 615; 3, 46. 
during the Persian occupa- 
tion of Palestine, 3, 21. 
forbidden by the councils of 

Orleans, 3, 37. 
among the Arabs, 3, 61-3. 
punishable with death by the 

code of Alfonso X, 3, 595. 
See also Circumcision; Prose- 
lytes. 
Conversions to Paganism in Al- 
exandria, 2, 1S4. 
Converts, forced, to Christiani- 
ty, a menace to the Spanish 
Jews, 4, 179. 
emigrate from Spain, 4, 179. 
relapse into Jewish ceremo- 
nies, 4, 180. 
See Marranos, the. 
Converts, forced, to Judaism, 
the Idumicans under John 
Hyrcanus, 2, 8-9. 
the Ituraeans and Trachonites 
under Aristobulus I, 2, 37. 
Converts to Christianity, cannot 
retnrn to Judaism, 3, 49-50, 
306, 308. 
See also Apostates: Christians, 
Jndaizing: Marranos, the. 
Converts to Judaism. Sec Cir- 
cumcision; Conversions to 
Judaism; Proselytes. 
Copenhagen, the Jews of, per- 
secuted, 5, 531. 



Copia, Sarah. -See Sullam, Sa- 
rah Cojiia. 
Copia, Simon, father of Sarah 

Sullam, 5, 69. 
Coponius, first procurator of Ju- 
daea, 2, 129. 
administration of, 2, 135. 
Cordova, ancient gateway in, 3, 
42. 
Jews masters of, 3, 109. 
seat of a Talmud school, 3, 

210, 228, 230. 
birthplace of Samuel Ibn-Na- 

grela, 3, 255. 
taken by Suleiman, 3, 255, 262. 
medical school at, 3, 261. 
home of the Albalias, 3, 283. 
sj^nagogues of, destroyed, 3, 

360. 
Talmud school of, destroyed, 

3, 384. 
taken by the Almohades, 3, 

447-8. 
the Inquisition in, 4, 325. 
Jews disappear from, 4, 354. 
exiles from, form a congrega- 
tion in Constantinople, 4^ 
402. 
disturbance in, caused bj' the 

Inquisition, 4, 484. 
autos-da-fe in, 5, 91, 92. 
Cordova, the Jews of, ransom 
]Moses ben Chanoch, 3, 209. 
choose him as their rabbi, 3, 

209. 
ajjpeal to .\l)dul-lvahman HI, 

3, 209-10. 
Chasdai Ibn-Shaprut political 

chief of, 3, 217. 
prosperity of, 3, 229. 
side against Joseph ibn-Abi- 

tur, 3, 238. 
Jacob Ibn-Jau chief of, 3, 239. 
emigrate, 3, 255. 
murdered in 1391, 4, 169. 
Cordova, the Marranos of, at- 
tacked, 4, 281-2. 



INDEX. 



241 



Cordova, the Marranos of {cnn- 
tlnucd), flee to Granada, 4, 
351. 
Corfu, the Spanish exiles in, 4, 
363-4. 
Isaac Abrabanel at, 4, 384. 
rites of the Jews of, followed 

in Greece, 4, 40G. 
Nathan Ghazati at, 5, 160. 
honors shown to Cremieux in, 
5, 668. 
Corinth, Judfeans in, 2, 203. 
Paul establishes a Christian 

community in, 2, 228. 
the Jews of, in the twelfth 
centiiry, 3, 424. 
Cornelianus, Atidius, governor 
of Syria, defeated by the 
Parthians, 2, 447. 
Cornelius, Judsean envoy to 

Claudius, 2, 197-8. 
Coronal, baptismal name of 
Abraham Senior's family, 4, 
351. 
Coronel, David Senior, Marrano 

in Pernambuco, 4, 693. 
Coronello, Joseph Nassi's depu- 
ty, 4, 597. 
Correa, Isabel, Marrano poetess, 

5, 114. 
" Correction of the False Teach- 
er," by Isaac Nathan ben 
Kalonymos, 4, 234. 
Cosmas, bishop of Prague, pro- 
tects the Jews during the 
first crusade, 3, 305, 307. 
Cossacks, the, origin and inde- 
pendence of, 5, 2. 
efforts to convert, 5, 2-3. 
highly taxed, 5, 3. 
Jews further the enslavement 

of, 5, 6. 
insurrections of, 5, 6, 7. 
organized into Haidamak 

troops, 5, 8. 
massacres of the Jews by, 5, 
9-12. 



Cossacks, the (continued), make 
jieace with the Poles, 5, 12. 

attack the Jews, 5, 14, 15. 

second treaty with, 5, 14. 

losses inflicted upon the Jews 
by, 5, 15. 

persecutions by, influence Ju- 
daism, 5, 16-17. 

ravages of, in Poland, 5, 388. 
Costa, Duarte Nunes da, I'ortu- 
guese agent in Hamburg, 4, 
692. 
Costa, Emanuel da, Marrano, 

martyrdom of, 4, 520-1. 
Costa, Isaac Atias da, civic hon- 
ors of, 5, 458. 
Costa, Joseph da, and Manasseh 

ben Israel, 5, 34. 
Costa, Uriel (Gabriel) da (1590- 
1640), as a Marrano, 5, 56. 

studies the Scriptures, 5, 57. 

returns to Judaism, 5, 57. 

at odds with Amsterdam Ju- 
daism, 5, 58-9. 

excommunicated, 5, 59. 

attacked by Samuel da Silva, 
5, 59. 

pviblishes a work hostile to Ju- 
daism, 5, 59-60. 

retracts, 5, 60-1. 

formulates a natural religion, 
5, 61. 

fails to conform to Jewish 
usages, 5, 62. 

restrains Christians from be- 
coming Jews, 5, 62. 

refuses to do penance, 5, 62. 

penance imposed upon, 5, 63-4. 

autobiography of, 5, 64-5. 

suicide of, 5, 64. 

violence of, 5, 84. 

case of, compared with Spino- 
za's, 5, 92, 93, 97. 
Costnitz. See Constance. 
Costobar, prevents the escape of 
fugitives from Jerusalem, 2, 
89. 



242 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Costobar, of the Herodian fam- 
ily, wickedness of, 2, 236. 
accuses Gessius Florus before 
Nero, 2, 268. 
Cotys, king of Armenia Minor, 

ally of Agrippa I, 2, 195. 
Cotys, Byzantine commander, 
s\ibdues the Jews of Anti- 
och, 3, IS. 
Council of Elders, the, institu- 
ted by Moses. 1, 2,"i-6. 
Council of Seventy, the. Sec 

Council, the Great. 
Council, the Great, of Seventy, 
work of, 1, 304-5. 
institutes Chanukah, 1, 472-3. 
informs the Eg-j^ptian Ju- 
dfeans of the independence 
of Judaea, 1, 522. 
composed of Sadducees, 2, 42. 
chief post in, given up to the 

Pharisees, 2, 48-9. 
reorganized, 2, 50. 
called the Great Synhedrion, 

2, 71. 
See Synhedrion, the. 
Council, the Great, couples at 
the head of: 

Jos6, son of Joe- .Tos^, son of Jo- 

zer. hanan. 

Joshua, son of Matthai of Ar- 

Perachia. bela. 

Judah ben Tab- Simon beu She 

bai. tach. 

Shcma3'a. Abtalion. 

Hilk'l I. Shammai. 

Councils, Church. See Church 

Councils. 
" Counsels and Lessons," by 

Santob de Carrion, 4, 115. 
Couples. See Couiicil, the Great. 
Courts of justice, held on Mon- 
days and Thursdaj's in Ju- 
daea, 1, 394. 
restored to the Jews by Alex- 
ander Severus, 2, 482. 
purified by Abba-Areka, 2, 
."517. 



Courts of Justice (continued). 
See also Jurisdiction, Jew- 
ish, autonomous. 
Coutinho, Ferdinand, bishop of 
Algarve, oj^iioses the forci- 
ble baptism of Jews, 4, 375. 
describes the baptism of Jew- 
ish children, 4, 376. 
opposes the Portuguese Inqui- 
sition, 4, 500. 
Cracow, Jews massacred in, on 
the charge of well poison- 
ing, 4, 111. 
the Jews of, number of, 4, 632. 
the German population of, 5, 

3. 
Chassidistic writings burned 
in. 5, 393. 
Cranganor, destroyed, 2, 630. 
Crassus, member of the first 
Triumvirate, receives Syria. 

2, 73. 

robs the Temple, 2, 74. 
slain, 2, 74. 
Creation, Kabbalistic theory of, 

3, 552-3. 

theory of, held by Isaac Lur- 

ya, 4, 619. 
Creed, the, by Albo, 4, 240. 

by Chasdai Crescas, 4, 193. 
Creed, the, by Maimonides, 3. 

459-60. 
effect of, 3, 469, 470. 
objected to, by Chasdai Cres- 
cas, 4, 193. 
Creizenach, Michael (1789-1842), 

advocate of the Reform 

movement, 5, 674-5. 
Cremieux, Adolf (1796-1880), 

espouses the cause of the 

Danuiscus Jews, 5, 643-4. 
acts in conjunction with the 

English Jews, 5, 645, 651. 
appeals to Louis Philii^pe, 5. 

645. 
announces the faithlessness of 

Louis Philippe, 5, 651. 



INDEX. 



243 



Cremieux, Adolf {continued), ap- 
peal to, from Damascus, 5, 
651. 

sent to Egypt, 5, G52. 

at the London meeting, 5, 65.'?. 

hampered by the French min- 
istry, 5, 658. 

sets out for Egypt, 5, 658. 

lionors shown to, 5, 658-9, 
667-8. 

introduces himself to Mehmet 
Ali, 5, 659. 

influences the European con- 
suls and Mehmet Ali, 5, 660. 

tries to establish schools in 
Egypt, 5, 663, 671. 

services of, acknowledged, 5, 
669-72. 

declines a medal, 5, 671. 

president of the " Alliance 

Israelite Universelle," 5, 702. 

Cremona, the Talmud burnt at, 

4, 582-3. 
Cremona, the Jews of, number 
of, 4, 653. 

expelled, 4, 660. 
Crescas, Barfat, imprisonment 

of, 4, 150. 
Crescas, Chasdai. See Chasdai 

ben Abraham Crescas. 
Crescas Vidal, opiDoses the study 
of science, 4, 28-9. 

reproaches Samuel Sulami for 
harboring a heretic, 4, 29. 
Crete (Candia), the Judaeans of, 
make annual pilgrimages to 
Jerusalem, 2, 220. 

a false Messiah in, 2, 610-11. 

restored to Turkey, 5, 661. 

the Spanish exiles in, 4, 363-4, 
406. 

the Talmud burnt in, 4, 565. 

Cardoso on, 5, 207. 
Crimea, the, Jews of the Byzan- 
tine empire settle in, 3, 123- 
4. 

the Karaites spread to, 3, 182. 



Crimea (continued), the land of 
the Chazars, 3, 222. 

the Karaites in, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 435. 

Karaites emigrate from, 4, 
269. 

Jews of Poland transported 
to, 5, 8. 
Crispia. See Berachya ben Na- 
trona! Nakdan. 
Crissa, the Jews of, in the 

twelfth century, 3, 424. 
" Critical History of the Old 
Testament, The," by Rich- 
ard Simon, 5, 179. 
Croatia, the Jews of, proscribed, 

3, 614. 
Croesus, at war with Cyrus, 1, 

343. 
Cromwell, Oliver, obtains reli- 
gious liberty for England, 5, 
25-6. 

inspired by the Old Testa- 
ment, 5, 26, 27. 

regards the Jews favorably, 5, 
27. 

dissolves the Long Parliament, 
5, 34. 

Protector, 5, 35. 

favors the re-settlement of 
Jews in England, 5, 35, 42-3. 

invites Manasseh ben Israel 
to England, 5, 38. 

receives Manasseh, 5, 38-9. 

hopes to convert the Jews, 5, 
43. 

assembles a commission on 
the Jewish question, 5, 43-5. 

followers of, favor the admis- 
sion of Jews, 5, 44. 

reported the ^Messiah of the 
Jews, 5, 45, 

dismisses Manasseh honora- 
bly, 5, 49. 

acquits the Marrano Robles, 5, 
49. 



244 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Cromwell, Oliver (cuntiiiiKd), 
permits a Jtnvish burial 
yround in London, 5, 49. 

Crossen, the duchy of, Jews set- 
tle in, 5, 173. 

Crown money. Sec Aurum cor- 
onarium. 

Crusade, a, as'ainst the Albigen- 
ses, 3, 501-3. 
against the Mahometans in 

Spain, 3, 507. 
preached by order of Gregory 

IX, 3, 570. 
organized by Louis IX with 
Jewish money, 3, 585. 

Crusade, tlie first, Jews during, 
3, 298-305, 308, 309. 
disgraceful end of, 3, 306. 

Crusade, the second, Jews dur- 
ing, 3, 319-5G. 

Crusade, the third, participa- 
tors in, 3, -!04, 411, 418. 
preached by Fulko de Neuilly, 
3, 405. 

Crusade, the fourth, and the 
Jews, 3, 49G-7. 

Crusaders, fall upon Jews in 
the English towns, 3, 412-13. 

Crusades, the, begin with mas- 
sacres of the Jews, 4, 222. 

Crzemieniec, Jewish children 
slauglitered in, 5, 12. 

Ctesiphon (Ardashir), capital of 
the Parthians, 2, 506. 
populated with Jews, 2, 507. 
escapes seizure by .Julian the 
Apostate, 2, 002. 

Cuenca, the Jews of. under San- 
cho, 3, 017. 
autos-da-fe in. 5, 01, 92. 

Cuenqui, Abraham, Sabbatai 
Zcvi's biogrnplier, 5, 212. 

Cumanus (4S-52), procurator of 
Juda-a, 2, 241. 
places a cohort in the Temple, 
2, 242. 



Cumanus {continued), punishes 
the i^rofanation of the Scrip- 
tures, 2, 242-3. 
sides with the Samaritans, 2, 

243. 
hated in Jerusalem, 2, 244. 
called to Rome to justify him- 
self, 2, 244. 
banished, 2, 245. 
Curiel, Jacob, unites the Portu- 
guese congregations of Am- 
sterdam, 4, 681. 
Portuguese agent in Hamburg, 
4, 692. 
Cuthfeans, the, a mixed popula- 
tion colonized in Samaria, 1, 
285. 
See Samaritans, the. 
Cyaxares, of Media, defeats the 
Assyrians, 1, 287. 
puts an end to Assyria, 1, 303. 
Cyclades, the, Joseph Nassi 

duke of, 4, 596. 
Cycle of Rabbi Nachshon, the, 
\<.ey to the Jewish calendar, 
3, 179. 
Cydonia, original home of the 

Philistines, 1, 54. 
Cypres, wife of Agrippa I, ap- 
peals to Herodias, 2, 175. 
hostage for her husband, 2, 
176. 
Cypres, wife of Antipater, 2, 77. 
Cyprus, refuge of I'tolemy VIII, 
2, 12. 
seized by Ptolemy VII 1, 2, 40. 
wheat imported from, for Je- 
rusalem, 2, 218. 
the JudjEans of, make annual 
pilgrimages to Jerusalem, 
2, 220. 
promi.sed to Joseph Nassi, 4, 

600. 
taken by the Turks, 4, 601. 
as a Jewish state, 4, 611. 
Cypi'us, the Jews of, rebel 
against Trajan, 2, 394. 



INDEX. 



245 



Cyprus, the Jews of (continued), 

Ahirtius llurbo sent against, 

2, 398. 
join an expedition against the 

Christians of Tyre, 3, 20. 
in tlie twelfth century, 3, 424- 

5. 
Cyrenaica, the Judwans of, have 

a synagogue in Jerusalem, 

2, 201. 
the Jews of, rebel against 

Trajan, 2, 394, 395, 396. 
Cyrene, Judaeans settle in, 1, 

419. 
position of the Judaeans in, 1, 

503, 
given to Ptolemy VII, 1, 507. 
the Judaeans of, make annual 

pilgrimages to Jerusalem, 2, 

220. 
Zealots take refuge in, 2, 317, 

318. 
Jewish revolt in, 2, 331. 
the Jews of, revolt from Tra- 
jan, 2, 395, 397. 



Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, ill- 
treats the Jews, 2, 018-19; 
3, 23. 
Cyrus, of Persia, dethrones the 
Median king, 1, 342. 
at war with CrcBsus, 1, 343. 
called the instrument of God 

by Isaiah, 1, 348. 
conquers Babylon, 1, 349-50. 
proclaims himself king of 

Babylon, 1, 350. 
permits the Judaeans to re 
turn to Palestine, 1, 351-2. 
sends an escort with the re 
turning exiles, 1, 355. 
Czarnicki, Polish general, ill- 
uses the Jews, 5, 15. 
Czechowic, Martin, Polish Uni- 
tarian, writes against Juda- 
ism, 4, 648. 
Czenstochow, Frank imprisoned 

at, 5, 288, 289. 
Czernigov, the Jews of, massa- 
cred, 5, 10. 



D 



Dabaritta, the Judaeans of, plun- 
der Agrippa II's agent, 2, 
279. 

Daevas, Persian evil spirits, 1, 
403. 

Dafiera. Sec Solomon Dafiera. 

" Dagger of Faith, The," anti- 
Jewish work by Raymund 
Martin, 3, 622-3. 

Dagobert (629), Merovingian 
king, hostile to the Jews, 3, 
40. 

Dagon, Philistine god, 1, 55. 
temple of, burnt, 1, 496. 

Dal, forerunner of the Messiah, 
3, 124. 

Dalalat al Hairin. See " Guide 
of the Perplexed, The." 



Dalberg, Karl von, imperial 
chancellor, aids Breiden- 
bach, 5, 408. 
favors the emancipation of 

Jews, 5, 504, 
grants civil rights to the Jews 
of Frankfort, 5, 505. 

Dalburg, bishop of Worms, re- 
fuses to judge the Reuchlin 
case, 4, 454. 

Dallim (Ebionim), disciples of 
Isaiah, 1, 254. 

Dalmatia, the Jews of, pro- 
scribed, 3, 614. 

Damascus (Aram, Syria), be- 
longs to the king of Israel, 
1, 127. 
king of, defeated by David, 1, 
127. 



246 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Damascus (continued), taken by 

Rezon, 1, 177, 183. 
king of, makes a treaty with 

Eehoboam, 1, 1S3. 
extended by Tabrimon, 1, 183. 
conquered by Jeroboami II, 1, 

232. 
besieged by Tiglath-Pileser, 1, 

259. 
subdued bj- Sennacherib, 1, 

270. 
tlie goddess of love, worshiped 

in, 1, 408. 
taken by the Hasmonaeans, 1, 

498. 
number of Judaeans in, 2, 202. 
women of, adopt Judaism, 2, 

215. 
the Nazarene community in, 

2, 222-3. 
the apostle Taul in, 2, 220, 

227. 
Jehuda Ilalevi at, 3, 342. 
captured b^' Hulagu, 3, 606. 
the Spanish exiles in, 4, 399- 

400. 
Chayim Vital Calabrese in, 5, 

52-3. 
Damascus affair, the, reported 

in the French journals, 5, 

642. 
taken up by Ci'emieux, 5, 644. 
considered in Eng-land, 5, 645. 
the Austrian report on, 5, 646. 
in the hands of Mehmet Ali, 

5, 647. 
tried by a court of European 

consuls, 5, 648. 
trial of, stopped by Thiers, 5, 

649. 
in the French Chamber of 

Deputies, 5, 649-50. 
view of, among Catholics, 5, 

650-1. 
in Parliament, 5, 652-3. 
discussed by London Jews, 5, 

653-4. 



Damascus affair, the (continued), 

a Mansion House meeting 

protests against, 5, 650-7. 
rejoicing at the termination 

of, 5, 667, 669. 
plans for commemorating, 5, 

669, 670, 671. 
account of, by Ei-ter, 5, 071. 
Munk on, 5, 671-2. 
Damascus, the Jews of, in an 

expedition against the Chris- 
tians of Tyre, 3, 20. 
in the twelfth centur3% 3, 420- 

7. 
liturgy of, changed, 3, 406. 
cause of, espoused by various 

governments, 5, 633. 
number of, 5, 634. 
suspected of ritual murder, 5, 

635, 636. 
arrested and tortured, 5, 630- 

7. 
houses of, destroj'ed, 5, 037. 
evidence favoring, suppressed, 

5, 037. 
confess under lorture, 5, 038. 
pronounce<l guilty b^^ llatti 

Menton, 5, 040. 
appeal to tl)e European Jews, 

5, 642, 651. 
torture of, stopped, 5, 648. 
release of, 5, 000-1. 
new crusade against, incited 

by Catholics, 5, 002. 
Dan, the tribe of, late settle- 
ment of, 1, 39. 
isolation of, 1, 51. 
attacked by the Philistines, 1, 

64. 
oppressed by the Philistines, 

1, 66. 
around Nishabur, 3, 433. 
Dan, northern frontier town of 

Israel, 1, 129. 
occupied by Sheba's followers, 

1, 149-50. 



INDEX. 



247 



Dan (contimied), center of idola- 
try, 1, 186, 233. 

subjugated by Ben-hadad I, 1, 
191. 
" Danger to the Welfare and 
Character of the Germans 
through the Jews," by J. F. 
Fries, 5, 521. 
" Dangerous Courses, The," by 

Joseph Penso, 5, 113. 
Daniel, the supposed grave of, 

causes a quarrel, 3, 434-5. 
Daniel, the Book of, written 
during thelNIaccabiBan strug- 
gle, 1, 465-6. 

language of, 1, 465. 

consolations offered by, 1, 
465. 

prophesies the end of the Sy- 
rian power, 1, 465-6. 

additions to, 2, 359. 

prophecy of, thought to be 
verified, 2, 482-3. 

explained by Jochanan bar 
Napacha, 2, 494-5. 

as explained by Christians, 2, 
502. 

commentary on, by Porphyry, 
2, 502. 

a verse of, applied to Odena- 
thus, 2, 527. 

a prophecy of, applied to Ju- 
lian the Apostate, 2, 59S. 

commentary on, by Abraham 
Ibn-Ezra, 3, 373. 

Nissim Gerundi on, 4, 120. 

Gallipapa on, 4, 149. 

commentary on, by Isaac 
Abrabanel, 4, 482. 

Simone Luzzatto on, 5, 81. 
Daniel, friend of Immanuel Ro- 

mi, 4, 66. 
Daniel, Karaite,, candidate for 

the Exilarchate, 3, 155. 
Daniel ben Saadiah, anti-Mai- 
munist, 3, 525-6. 

excommunicated, 3, 526. 



Daniel, son of Solomon (Chas. 
dai?, 1165-1175), Exilarch, 3, 
438. 
death of, 3, 439. 

Dante, friend of Immanuel Ho- 
mi, 4, 65. 
imitated by Immanuel Komi, 

4, 66, 67. 
quoted, 4, 325. 

Danz, Frankfort deputy to the 
Congress of Vienna, objects 
to the emancipation of the 
Jews, 5, 519. 

Daphne, Verus Commodus at, 2, 
447. 

Darius, king of Persia, permits 
the rebuilding of the Tem- 
ple, 1, 359. 

Darius, commander of Agrippa 
II's troops, 2, 259. 

" Dark Age," the Jewish, 4, 617. 

Darke ha-Talmud, work by 
Isaac Campanton, 4, 230. 

Darmstadt, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted, 5, 530. 

Daroca, the Jews of, converted, 
4, 206, 214. 

Darshanim, Jewish preachers, 
deliver sermons in the ver- 
nacular, under Louis the 
Pious 3, 163. 

Daub, professor, protects the 
Jews of Heidelberg, 5, 531. 

Daud, physician, traduces Jo- 
seph Nassi, 4, 598-9. 
banished and excommuni- 
cated, 4, 599. 

Dauphine, Jews remain in, af- 
ter the expulsion by Charles 
VI, 4, 177. 

David, king, anointed, 1, 95-6. 
poetic talent of, 1, 96. 
under Samuel's influence, 1, 

96-7. 
and Goliath, 1, 97. 
soothes Saul's melancholy, 1, 
98. 



248 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



David (continued), victorious 
over the Philistines, 1, 98-9. 
attacked by Saul, 1, 99. 
marries Michal, 1, 100. 
outlawed, 1, 100. 
in friendly relations with xVm- 
monites and Philistines, 1, 
100-2. 
at Ziklag, 1, 101-2. 
to help the Philistines against 

Saul, 1, 102. 
routs the Amalekites, 1, 106-7. 
chosen king by Judah, 1, 107. 
ally of Achish, 1, 107-8. 
resides at Hebron, 1, 109. 
and Abner, 1, 110-12. 
rules over the whole kingdom, 

1, 112. 
subdues the Jebusites, 1, 113- 

14. 
resides at Jerusalem, 1, 114. 
at war with the Philistines, 1, 

115-18. 
at Adullam, 1, 116. 
saved by Abishai, 1, 117. 
ally of Hiram, 1, 118. 
builds a cedar palace, 1, 119. 
makes Jerusalem the center of 

religious life, 1, 119-20. 
introduces choral song into 
the religious service, 1, 120. 
as Psalmist, 1, 120-1. 
as king, 1, 121. 
loyalty to, 1, 121-2. 
army of, 1, 122. 
favorite and councilor of, 1, 

122-3. 
surrenders Saul's descendants 

to the Gibeonites, 1, 123. 
buries the remains of Saul 

and Jonathan, 1, 124. 
at war with the Moabites, 1, 

125-6. 
at war with the Ammonites, 

1, 120-7. 
at war with the Aramaeans, 1, 
127. 



David {continued), at war with 
the Ammonites and Idu- 
majans, 1, 128-9. 
enlarges his territory', 1, 129- 

30. 
faith of, 1, 130. 
lenient towards conquered 

races, 1, 131. 
betrays Uriah, 1, 131-2. 
rebuked by Nathan, 1, 133. 
and Absalom, 1, 134-7. 
orders a census, 1, 137-8. 
conspiracy against, 1, 138-44. 
leaves Jerusalem, 1, 140-1. 
faithful followers of, 1, 141-2, 

144. 
enemies of, 1, 142. 
victorious over Absaloin, 1, 

144. 
mourns Absalom, 1, 145. 
invited to Jerusalem by the 

northern tribes, 1, 146. 
pardons Amasa, 1, 146. 
met by embassies of Benjam- 

ites and Judasans, 1, 146-8. 
suppresses Sheba's revolt, 1, 

148-50. 
returns to Jerusalem, 1, 150. 
i-estrained from building a 

Temple, 1, 150-1. 
debility of, 1, 151. 
has Solomon acknowledged 

king, 1, 153. 
death of, 1, 154. 
summarj^ of the reign of, 1, 

154-5. 
number of wives of, 1, 161. 
descendants of, the only ones 
entitled to the crown, 1, 
527-8. 
a descendant of, the Messiah, 

2, 143, 144. 
descent from, traced by Span- 
ish families, 3, 43. 
Israelites under, settle in 
northern Arabia, 3, 54. 



INDEX. 



249 



David (continued), in Immanuel 
Komi's work, 4, 67. 
favorite character of the Puri- 
tans, 5, 2G. 
David, candidate for the Exil- 

archate, 3, 439. 
David, German immigrant in 

Turkey, 4, 271. 
David, principino of the Neapol- 
itan Jews, 3, 424. 
David of Mosul, Exilarch in Je- 
rusalem, 3, 506. 
excommimicates Daniel ben 
Saadiah, 3, 526. 
David de Pomis (1525-1588), 
physician, employed by 
Christians, 4, 653. 
attainments of, 4, 656. 
defense of Jewish physicians 

by, 4, 656-7. 
Talmudic dictionary by, 4, 
657. 
David ben Daniel, Exilarch of 
Mosul, excommunicates Sol- 
omon Petit, 3, 632. 
David ben Judah (825-840), Ex- 
ilarch, 3, 155-6. 
David ben Kalonymos, Tossa- 
fist, member of the Mayence 
synod, 3, 517. 
David ben Maimun, brother of 

Maimonides, 3, 451, 457. 
David ben Saul, excommuni- 
cates the Maimunists, 3, 529. 
excommunicated, 3, 530, 536-7. 
David ben Zaccai (940), Exil- 
arch, deposes Kohen-Zedek, 
3, 186. 
appoints two Geonim of Sora, 

3, 192-3. 
excommunicates the congrega- 
tion of Ears, 3, 194. 
injustice of, 3, 194-5. 
contest of, with Saadiah, 3, 

195-6, 200-1. 
cause of, espoused by Aaron 
Ibn-Sarjadu, 3, 200. 



David ben Zaccai' (continued), 
death of, 3, 201. 
great-grandson of, 3, 254. 
David Ibn-Abi Zimra (1470- 
l:")™:;), scholar, Spanish exile 
in Cairo, 4, 393. 
rabbi of Cairo, 4, 394. 
abolishes the Seleucidaean era, 

4, 394-5. 
reverses the liturgical changes 
made by Maimonides, 4, 395. 
Kabbalist, 4, 481. 
David Ibn-Albilla, philosopher, 

4, 91. 

David Ibn-Yachya, rabbi at 

Naples, 4, 410. 
David Ibn-Yachya Negro, fore- 
sees the expulsion of the 
Jews from Portugal, 4, 339. 
David Abudarham, a Jew of 

Castile, 3, 617. 
David Alrui (Alroy, Ibn-Alru- 
chi, Menahem ben Solo- 
mon), attainments of, 3, 
430. 
summons the Jews of the East 
to return to Jerusalem, 3, 
431. 
imprisoned, 3, 431-2. 
death of, 3, 433. 
David Bonet Buen-Giorna, Mar- 
rano, jjersuaded to remain a 
Christian, 4, 188. 
epistle to, 4, 188-90. 
David Gans (1541-1613), histo- 
rian and astronomer, works 
of, 4, 638-9. 
consulted by Basnage, 5, 196. 
refutes Eibeschlitz's defense, 

5, 270. 

David Kimchi (1160-1235), gram- 
marian and lexicographer, 
3, 393-4, 561. 

grammatical and exegetical 
work of, 3, 394. 

Maimunist, 3, 530-1, 540-1. 



250 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



David Kimchi {contimml), do- 
nounces Solomon of Mont- 
pellier, 3, 544. 

works of, used by Kaymund 
Martin, 3, 622. 

commentarj' of, in the Bom- 
berg Bible, 4, 476. 
David Maimuni (1223-1300), 
grandson of Maimonides, 
aided by Solomon ben Adret, 
3, 620. 

Nagid of Egypt, friend of the 
Exilarch Yishai', 3, 627. 

appealed to by Hillel of Ve- 
rona, 3, 631. 

in the Maimunist controversy, 
3, 632-3. 
David Negro Ibn-Yachya, coun- 
selor of Ferdinand I of Por- 
tugal, 4, 159-60. 

leaves Lisbon, 4, 160. 

chief rabbi of Castile, 4, 161, 

162. 

David Rafan, discovers the Zo- 

har to be a forgerj', 4, 20-1. 

David Reubeni, travels of, in 

the East, 4, 491. 

description of, 4, 491-2. 

at Rome, 4, 492, 493. 

honored by the Jews, 4, 493. 

received bj' Joao III of Portu- 
gal, 4, 493, 498. 

considered the forerunner of 
the Messiah, 4, 494, 407-8. 

repulses the Marranos and 
.Solomon Molcho, 4, 495-6. 

opposed by Miguel de Silva, 4, 
498-9. 

leaves Portugal, 4, 499. 

pri.soner in Spain, 4, 499. 

in Avignon, 4, 499. 

and Molcho, 4, 504. 

and the Venetian senate, 4, 
504. 

petitions Charles V, 4, 509-10. 

confined bj' the Spanish In- 
quisition, 4, 511. 



David's chapel, Franciscan 
church on Mount Zion, 4, 
274. 

Daya, character in " Nathan 
the Wise," 5, 324. 

Dayan, title of the judges in 
Jewish Babylonia, 3, 98. 
title of Moses ben Chanoch, 3, 
229. 

Dayane-di-Baba, judges of the 
gate, in Babylonia, 2, 547. 

Dayanim, assistants of the rab- 
bis, 5, 566, 569.. 

Dead Sea, the, description of, 1, 
43. 

Debir, the, the Holj'^ of Holies, 
1, 165. 

Debir (Kirjath-Sepher), taken 
by the tribe of Judah, 1, 
38. 

Deborah, judge, inspires resist- 
ance to Jabin, 1, 61. 

Debts owing to Jews, the inter- 
est on, repudiated bj'^ Euge- 
nius III, 3, 349, 351. 
the repudiation of, not per- 
mitted by Maria de Molina, 
4, 52. 
the repudiation of, urged bj' 
Louis the Rich, 4, 254. 

Decapolis, league of towns, freed 
from Judtean rule, 2, 67. 

Deckendorf (Deggendorf), the 
Jews of, massacred, 4, 98. 

" Declaration," by ISIanasseh 
ben Israel, concerning the 
admission of Jews into Eng- 
land, 5, 39-42. 

" Defense of the Rational Wor- 
shipers of God," by Raima- 
rus, 5, 320. 

" Definitions and Descriptions," 
])y Isaac Israeli, 3, Ibl. 

Dei Rossi. See Azarya ben Mo- 
ses de'i Rossi. 

Deity, the, Israelitish concep- 
tion of, 1, 24, 402. 



INDEX. 



251 



Delaborde, Count, on the Turk- 
ish Jews, 5, 649-50. 
" Delight of all Mankind," epi- 
thet of Titus, 2, 304. 
Delitzsch, Franz, admires neo- 

Hebraic poetry, 5, 628-9. 
Delia Ruvere, Marco, nuncio in 

Portugal, 4, 514. 
Delia Volta, Samuel Vita, phy- 
sician and scholar, 5, 622. 
/ Del Medigo. See Elias del Me- 
digo. 
Delm.edigo, Joseph Solomon 
(1591-1655), sceptic, 5, 56, 
75-6. 
ancestry and education of, 5, 

75. 
wanderings of, 5, 76-80. 
mathematical attainments of, 

5, 76. 
among Karaites, 5, 76-7. 
as physician, 5, 76, 80. 
defends the Kabbala, 5, 78. 
at 2\msterdam, 5, 79. 
preacher, 5, 79-80. 
end of, 5, SO. 
hypocrisy of, 5, 84. 
Delmedigo, Judah, son of Elias, 

rabbi of Canea, 4, 406. 
Dembowski, Nicolas, bishop 
of Kamieniec, persecutes the 
Frankists, 5, 278. 
Frankists make a partial con- 
fession of Christianity be- 
fore, 5, 279. 
favors the Frankists, 5, 279-80. 
consents to disputations be- 
tween Frankists and Tal- 
mudists, 5, 280, 281-2. 
confiscates and burns the Tal- 
mud, 5, 282, 
death of, 5, 282. 
Dembowski, Frankist family, 5, 

289. 
Demetrius I, of Syria, sent to 
Home as hostage, 1, 443. 



Demetrius I {continued), throne 
of, u.surped by Antiochus 
IV, 1, 443. 

plots to depose Antiochus V, 
1, 481. 

escapes from Rome, 1, 482, 

kills Antiochus V, 1, 482, 

appoints Alcimus high priest, 
1, 482. 

sends Bacchides to Jerusalem, 
1, 482, 486. 

sends Nicanor to Judaja, 1, 
484. 

leaves the religious freedom of 
the Judseans undisturbed, 1, 
488, 491-2, 

seeks the friendship of Jona- 
than Haphus, 1, 494, 495-6, 
Demetrius II Nicator, of Syria, 
contests the throne with Al- 
exander Balas, 1, 496. 

appealed to by the Hellenists, 
1, 497. 

exempts the Judaeans from 
taxation, 1, 497. 

besieged in his palace, 1, 497, 

seeks help with Jonathan 
Haphus, 1, 497, 

flees from Antioch, 1, 498. 

negotiates with Simon Tharsi. 
1, 521, 

acknowledges the indepen- 
dence of Judaea, 1, 521. 

expedition of, against Persia, 

I, 525. 

defeated by the Parthians, 2, 

5, 
deposed by Alexander Zabina, 

2, 6. 
death of, 2, 6. 
Demetrius, librarian of Ptolemy 

II, advises the translation of 
the Law, 1, 514. 

Demetrius, son of Antigonus, 

defeated, 1, 417. 
Demetrius, son-in-law of Agrip- 

pa I, 2, 235, 



252 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Demiurge, creator of the world, 
in the Cinostic system, 2, 375. 

Demons, exorcism of, in Galilee, 
2, 148. 
by the Essenes, 2, 151. 
by Jesus, 2, 156-7. 
by the disciples of Jesus. 2, 
170. 

Denia, home of Isaac Alberge- 
loni, 3, 284. 

Denm.ark, the Protestant Refor- 
mation in, 4, 4C9. 
Jews invited to settle in, 4, 

G75. 
rabbis of, willing to excommu- 
nicate Luzzatto, 5, 241. 
favors the emancipation of the 
Jews, 5, 519, 531. 

Derasha, See Agada. 

Derbend (Berdaa). Jews settle 
in, 3, 124. 
refuse of the Chazars, 3, 222. 

Derketades, royal Assyrian 
house, last member of, 1, 
258. 

Derush. See Agada. 

Descartes, philosophy- of, studied 
by Spinoza, 5, 89. 
characteristics of, 5, 90. 

Desfar, Juan, governor of Pal- 
ma, protects the Jews, 4, 
246, 247. 

Dessau, subscribers to Mendels- 
sohn's Pentateiich transla- 
tion in, 5, 329. 

Deuteronomy, the Book of, 
found in the Temple, 1, §89, 
292-3. See under Law, the. 

Deuterosis, code of Rabbi Akiba, 
2, 354. 

Deuterotes, the Tanaites, 2, 371. 

Deutz, Menahem, member of 
the Frencli consistory, 5, 
502. 

Deutz, the Jews of Cologne take 
refuge in, 4, 227. 

De Wette, exegete, 5, 623, 695. 



De Witt, John, friend of Spin- 
oza, 5, 107, 108. 

Deza, archbishop of Seville, 
second inquisitor general, 4, 
356, 484. 

Dlior el-Khedib, higliest peak 
of Lebanon, 1, 44. 

Dialoghi d'amore (" Dialogues 
of Love "), by Leon Abra- 
banel, 4, 480-1. 

Dias, Andre, Marrano, assassin 
of Henrique Nunes, 4, 490. 

Dibre Sopherim, the work of 
the Council of Seventy, 1, 
395. 
traditional Jewish lore, 2, 19, 

472. 
See Law. the oral. 

Dictionaries, Chaldean and Rab- 
binical, by Elias Levita, 4, 
474. 

Dictionary. See Aruch; Igga- 
ron; Lexicon; Machbereth. 

Diderot, praises Pereira's sign 
language, 5, 343. 

Diebitsch, von, defender of the 
Jews, 5, 470. 

Diego de Valencia, apostate, 
Spanish satirist, 4, 181. 

Dietary lavrs, the, observed by 
the Babj^lonian Judieans, 1, 
364. 
observed by the Judfean Chris- 
tians of Antioch, 2, 231. 
obeyed by the Jews of Gaul, 

3, 36. 
observed by the Jews of Ara- 
bia, 3, 58. 
made severer \>y Anan ben Da- 
vid, 3, 132. 
not observed by the " Friends 

of Reform," 5, 675. 
declaration against, with- 
di\'i\vn, 5, 676. 

Dieterich. See Theodoric of Bur- 
gundy. 



INDEX. 



253 



Diez, friend of Dohm, on the 
emancipation of tlie Jews, 
5, :!5S-9. 
Dime, Palestinian Amora. ban- 

isiied from Judaea, 2, 567. 
Dimuh, so-called synagogue of 

Moses at, 3, 445. 
Dina d'malchuta dina, sancti- 
ty of the law of the land, 2, 
519. 
Diniz (1279-1325), of Portugal, 

Jews under, 3, 618. 
Die Cassius, historian, on the 
revolt under Bar Cochba, 2, 
411. 
on the fall of Bethar, 2, 418- 
19. 
Dio Kart, birthplace of Huna, 2, 

545. 
Diocsesarea. See Sepphoris. 
Diocletian, emperor, tolerant, 
2, 533. 
accuses Judah III of disloy- 
alty, 2, 533-4. 
and Abbahu, 2, 538. 
persecutes Christianity, 2, 539. 
Diodorus, ambassador to Eome, 

2, 4-5. 
Diodotus Tryphon, general of 
Alexander Balas, puts the 
latter's son on the throne, 
1, 497-8. 
friendly to Jonathan Haphus, 

1, 498. 
seeks to make himself king, 1, 

498-9. 
takes Jonathan Haphus pris- 
oner, 1, 499. 
negotiates with Simon Tharsi 

for tribute, 1, 500-1. 
has Jonathan Haphus exe- 
cuted, 1, 501. 
Simon Tharsi hostile to, 1, 521. 
at odds with Antiochus Side- 
tes, 1, 525, 528, 529. 
Diogenes, Sadducee, favorite of 
Alexander Jannseus, 2, 42. 



Diogenes (continued), advises the 
crucifixion of Pharisees, 2, 
45. 
put to death by the Pharisees, 

2, 55. 

Diokna Kadisha, Kabbalistic 
term, 4, 538. 

Dionysus, worshiped in Alexan- 
dria, 1, 428. 
festival of, in Judaja, 1, 428, 
456-7. 

Dios-Carne. See Astruc Rai- 
much. 

Dioscorides, work of, translated, 

3, 218. 
Diospolis. See Lydda. 
Dioterich. See Theodoric. 
Disciples, meaning of, 2, 35T. 

See Law, the, the teachers of. 
Dispersion, the, of Judteans un- 
der Uzziah, 1, 227. 

after the capture of Jerusalem 
by Nebuchadnezzar, 1, 317- 
18. 

in the lands of the Seleucidae 
and the Ptolemies, 1, 420-1. 

value of, 2, 200-1. 
Disputation, between Judseans 
and Samaritans in Alexan- 
dria, 1, 516-17. 

between Donin and four rab- 
bis, 3, 576-8. 

between Pablo Christiani and 
Nachmani, 3, 598-604. 

at Burgos, 4, 140. 

at Avila, 4, 140-2. 

at Pampeluna, 4, 142. 

at Tortosa, 4, 207-15. 

at Kamieniec, 5, 280-1. 

at Lemberg, 5, 285-7. 
Disputations, between Jews 
and Christians, under Bas- 
ilius, 3, 175-6. 

in France in the twelfth cen- 
tury, 3, 343. 

See under Polemical works 
against Christianity. 



254 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



" Distinction," anti-Karaite 

work by Saadiah, 3, 192. 
" Diversions," satire by Joseph 

ben Sabara. 3, 559. 
Divine Service, the. See Litur- 

gy, the. 
Divorce, abolished bj^ Obaiah 
Abu-Isa ben Ishak, 3, 124. 
bills of, criticised after deliv- 
ery to the wife, 3, 378. 
discussed bj' the Assembly of 
Jewish Notables, 5, 489,491, 
discussed by the French Syn- 
hedrion, 5, 497. 
Divorce law, the, as formulated 
bj' the I'harisees, 2, 50. 
accordiuiT to the school of 

Shammai, 2, l.']2. 
as interpreted by Mei'r, 2, 439. 
alleviations of, proposed by 

Judah II, 2, 484. 
regulated by Abba Areka, 2, 

516-17. 
reformed by Huna'i and Mar- 

Raba, 3, 92. 
changed by Gershom, 3, 244. 
modified by the Tro3-es sj-nod, 

3, 378. 
changed by Menachem of Mcr- 
seburg, 4, 228. 
Divorces, frequent among Kab- 

balists, 4, 627, 5, 210. 
Djabar, the Jews of, pillaged, 5, 

64 1. 
Dnieper, tlie, colonies of serfs 

on, 5, 2. 
Doag, captain of the guard un- 
der Saul, 1, 91. 
Dob Beer, See Beer of Mizricz, 
Dohm, Christian William (1751- 
1820), friend of Mendels- 
sohn, 5, 351-2. 
plea bj', for the amelioration 
of the condition of the Jews, 
5, 352-62. 
inspired by Mendelssohn, 5, 
356, 361, 366, 



Dohm, Christian William (con- 
tinued), admits the depravity 
of the Jews, 5, 361. 

criticised by ^Mendelssohn, 5, 
361-2. 

enlists Mirabeau's sympathies 
for the Jews, 5, 366. 

fails to impress Frederick the 
Great, 5, 414. 

helps to frame the Westpha- 
lian constitution, 5, 500. 

entertains a distorted view of 
Jewish history, 5, 593. 
Dok, fortress, Simon Tharsi as- 
sassinated in, 1, 530. 

Ptolemy ben Habub shut up 
in, 1, 5.!1. 
Dolmah. See Donmiih. 
Domingo, founder of the Domin- 
ican order, 3, 519. 
Dominicans, the, originate in 
the Fourth Lateran Council, 
3, 509. 

persecutions by, in southern 
France, 3, 519. 

entrusted with the extirpation 
of the Albigenses, 3, 542. 

interfere in the Maimunist 
controversy, 3, 542-3, 

preach Jew hatred, 3, 565. 

judges of the Talmud, 3, 575, 
602-3, 

at Donin's disputation, 3, 576, 

charge the Jews of England 
with the blood accusation, 3, 
591, 

taught Hebrew and Arabic for 
conversion purposes, 3, 597, 
621, 

in the Barcelona synagogue, 
3, 601, 

appeal to Clement IV against 
Nachmani, 3, 605, 

enforce Jew badges, 3, 613, 

in ITungarj', 3, 614, 

and Robert de Redingge's con- 
version, 3, 641. 



INDEX. 



255 



Dominicans, Ihe (cnntinucd), de- 
liver sermons to the Jews of 
England, 3, G43-4. 

denounce the Jews of Eng- 
land, 3, 645. 

arouse hatred against the Hus- 
sites and the Jews, 4, 222, 
226. 

hate the Jews, 4, 308. 

try to convert the Jews of 
Spain, 4, 350. 

work for the expulsion of 
the Portuguese Marranos, 4, 
486-7. 

incite the mob against the 
^larranos, 4, 487. 

have the Jews of Genoa ban- 
ished, 4, 554. 

arouse Cremona against the 
Jews, 4, 582. 
Dominicans, the, of Cologne, 
and their crusade against 
Judaism, 4, 424-6. 

wish to confiscate the Talmud, 
4, 425, 426, 428. 

devise measures for the con- 
version of the Jews, 4, 426. 

urge Maximilian I to deliver 
the Jews to them, 4, 428-9. 

eager to associate Retichlin 
with themselves, 4, 432. 

suspect Eeuchlin of heresy, 4, 
435-6. 

obtain Maximilian's fourth 
mandate, 4, 440-1. 

decide upon the burning of 
the Talmud, 4, 444. 

declare the Hebrew Bible 
heretical, 4, 445. 

publish a refutation of Reiich- 
lin's defense, 4, 445-6. 

sanction the burning of the 
" Augenspiegel," 4, 452. 

try to overthrow the Speyer 
decision against Hoogstra- 
ten, 4, 455-6, 458. 



Dominicans, the, of Cologne 
{continual), hatred of, for 
the Jews, increases, 4, 457. 

threaten to withdraw alle- 
giance from the papacy, 4, 
459. 

abuse Maximilian I, 4, 459. 

rejoice over the University of 
Paris decision, 4, 460. 

have the " Augenspiegel " 
translated, 4, 460. 

plan the extermination of the 
Jews of Germany, 4, 462-3. 

complain of the treatment ac- 
corded them, 4, 465-6. 
Dominicus Haman Epiphanes, 
pseudonym of a Jewish 
champion, 5, 471. 
Domitia, empress, Josephus a 

favorite of, 2, 389. 
Domitian, emperor, celebration 
of the birthday of, 2, 312. 

celebrates his triumph over 
Judaea, 2, 314-15. 

Jews troubled under, 2, 345, 
384, 388-9. 

cousin of, convert to Judaism, 
2, 387. 

Josephus a favorite of, 2, 389. 

prosecutes Josephus, 2, 391. 
Domitilla, Flavia, convert to 

Judaism, 2, 387, 389. 
Domna, Julia, wife of Severus, 

2, 468. 
Donin (Nicholas), Talmiidist, 
excommunicated by the 
French rabbis, 3, 572-3. 

apostatizes, 3, 573. 

causes the persecution of the 
Jews of Poitou, 3, 573. 

brings charges against the 
Talmud, 3, 57.3-4. 

disputation of, with four rab- 
bis, 3, 576-8. 

and Pablo Christiani, 3, 598, 
599, 602. 

charges of, repeated, 4, 213. 



256 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Donin {continued), instigates the 
burning of tlie Talmud, 4, 
460. 

Donmah (Dolmiih), the, follow- 
ers of Berachj'a, 5, 211. 
descendants of, in Salonica, 5, 

211. 
joined by Chaj'im Malach, 5, 

214. 
address prajers to their lead- 
ers, 5, 274. 

Donnolo. See Sabbatai Donnolo. 

Dora, besieged by Antiochus 
Sidetes, 1, 528, 529. 
Greek j'ouths of, introduce 
statues into the synagogues, 
2, 193. 

Doria, Andrea, doge of Genoa, 
opposed to the expulsion of 
the Jews, 4, 554. 
employs a Jewish phj-sician, 
4, 555. 

Doria, Gianettino, and Joseph 
Cohen, 4, 555. 

Doris, first wife of Herod, 2, 
112. 

Dormido, David Abrabanel, pe- 
titions Parliament to per- 
mit Jews to settle in Eng- 
land, 5, .'55. 

Dorotheus, Juda;an envoy to 
Koine, 2, 197-8. 

Dortmund, Jews tolerated in, 
4, (i8(;. 

Dortus of Jerusalem, tries to in- 
cite a rebellion against Cu- 
manus, 2, 244. 

Dositheus, companion of Onias 
IV, espouses I'tolemy Vl's 
cause, 1, 506, 507. 

Dossa ben Nachman (Archinas), 
teacher of tlu' Law, 2, 330. 

Dossa ben Saadiah, author, 3, 
202. 
in correspondence with Chas- 
dai Ibn-Shaprut, 3, 217. 



" Doubts of the Religion of Je- 
sus," by Joseph Ibn-Shem 
Tob, 4, 235. 

Dowry, the law of, according to 
Meir, 2, 439. 

Drai, the Jews of, persecuted, 
3, 360. 

Drama, the, in Jewish literature, 
5, 112. 

Dresden, Jews permitted to live 
in, 5, 509. 

Dresden, the Jews of, assisted 
by Mendelssohn, 5, 344. 
present an address to the Syn- 
hedrion, 5, 496. 

Drome, rabbi of, at the first 
rabbinical sj'nod, 3, 377. 

Drouth, under Uzziah, 1, 229-30. 

Drusilla, youngest daughter of 
Agrippa I, affianced to Epi- 
phanes of Commagene, 2, 
195, 235. 
married to Aziz, 2, 235. 
married to Felix, 2, 235, 245. 
envious of Berenice, 2, 236. 

Drusus, son of Tiberius, edu- 
cated with Agrippa I, 2, 175. 

Drusus, a tower on the wall of 
Ca-sarea, 2, 106. 

Dsimma, ^lahometan tax, 3, 110. 

Duarte de Pinel. See Usque, 
Abraham. 

Dubno, Solomon, writes the 
commentary to Mendels- 
sohn's Pentateuch transla- 
tion, 5, 329, 332. 
alienated from Mendelssohn, 
5, 334. 

Duchan, Jacob Israel, Sabba- 
tian, 5, 156. 

Dudai ben Nachman (,761-764), 
principal of Pumbeditha, op- 
ponent of Anan ben David, 
3. 129. 

Duelling, permitted to Jews un- 
der Alfonso VI, 3, 293. 



INDEX. 



257 



Du Guesclin, Bertrand, aids 
Henry de Trastamare, 4, 
123, 124. 

cruelty of, to the Jews of 
Castile, 4, 12G. 

kills Pedro the Cruel, 4, 126. 
Dulcigno, Sabbatai Zevi ban- 
ished to, 5, 166. 
Dunash. ben Labrat (Adonim, 
920-970), poet, founder of 
Judteo-Spanish culture, 3, 
215. 

introduces meter into the He- 
brew language, 3, 223. 

supplements Menachem ben 
Saruk, 3, 225. 

circumstances of, 3, 226. 

criticises Saadiah's works, 3, 
226. 

controversy of, with the dis- 
ciples of Menachem ben Sa- 
ruk, 3, 226-7. 

disciples of, grammarians and 
poets, 3, 237. 

grammar by, known to Rashi, 
3, 289. 
Dunash ben Tamim (Abusahal, 
900-960), disciple of Isaac 
Israeli, 3, 181, 211-12. 

admiration of, for Saadiah, 3, 
192. 



Dunash ben Tamim (continued), 
physician to a caliph, 3, 211. 
works of, 3, 211. 
and Chasdai Ibn Shaprut, 3, 
217. 

Dunin. See Donin. 

Duns Scotus, scholastic philoso- 
pher, counsels compulsory 
baptism of Jews, 3, 644; 4, 
277. 

Duport, favors the emancipation 
of the Jews, 5, 441, 447-8. 

Duran. See Proflat; Simon ben 
Zemach; Simon (11); Solo- 
mon (I). 

Dury, John, writes against the 
admission of Jews into Eng- 
land, 5, 46. 

DtLsseldorf, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted, 5, 530. 

" Duties of the Heart, The," by 
Bachya Ibn-Pakuda, trans- 
lated, 3, 397. 

Du Vallie, Antoinette, mother 
of the next, 5, 175. 

Du Vallie, Paul, apostate, testi- 
fies falsely in a blood accu- 
sation case, 5, 175. 

Dyeing, trade of the Jews of 
Jerusalem, 3, 427, 606. 

Dzalski, Frankist family, 5, 289. 



E 



Earthquake, under Uzziah, 1, 
229, 236. 
under Hyrcanus II, 2, 61. 
under Herod, 2, 95. 
under Hadrian, 2, 408. 
at Lisbon, 4, 505. 
at Ferrara, 4, 615. 
East, the, conversions to Juda- 
ism in, 2, 383. 
East, the, the empire of. Sec 

Byzantine Empire, the. 
East, the, the Jews of, affected 
by Islam theology, 3, 148. 



East, the, the Jews of (con- 
tinued), persecuted, 3, 245-8. 
poor, 5, 205. 
admire the European Jews, 

5, 662-3. 
See also under Abbasside Ca- 
liphate, the; Byzantine Em- 
pire, the. 
East, the, the Roman governors 
of. See Amantius; Bonosus. 
East Inflia Company, the, Jews 
interested in, 4, 677. 



258 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Easter, the date of, fixed. 2, 

5f>3-4. 
to be celebrated before the 

Passover, 3, 13. 
tax to be paid at, by Jews, 3, 

510. 
Eastertide attacks upon Jews, 

in France, 3, 173-4. 
in Beziers, 3, 394. 
in Prague, 4, 164. 
in IMajorca, 4, 246. 
in Trent, 4, 298. 
Eastertide, Jews forbidden to 

appear in public during, by 

the Councils of Orleans, 3, 37. 
by the Council of Macon, 3, 

39, 171. 
by the Fourth Lateran Coun- 
cil, 3, 510. 
by the Council of Xarbonne, 3, 

518. 
by the Council of Beziers, 3, 

582. 
by the code of Alfonso X, 3, 

595. 
in Eatisbon, 3, 635. 
by Eugenius IV, 4, 250. 
by Henry IV of Castile, 4, 278. 
Ebal, mountain, described, 1, 45. 
" Eben Boclian," polemic by 

Shem-Tob ben Isaac Shap- 

rut, 4, 142. 
Eben ha-Ezer, scene of battles 

between Israelites and Phil- 
istines, 1, 70, 7S. 
Eberard, Magister Judasorum, 

under Louis the Pious, 3, 

161. 
and the bishop of Lyons, 3, 

164, 166. 
Eberhard von Cleve, Dominican 

provincial, <'f)mplains of the 

treatment of his order, 4, 

465-6. 
Ebionim (Dallim), disciples of 

Isaiah, 1, 254. 



Ebionites (Ebionim), the, fol- 
lowers of Jesus, 2, 168, 366. 
communists, 2, 220. 
disappearance of, 2, 373. 
use Akj^las' Scripture transla- 
tion, 2, 387. 
merged into the Catholic 

Church, 2, 500. 
See under Jewish Christians, 
the; Judsean Christians, the. 
Ecbatana, taken hy Cyrus, 1, 
342. 
the goddess of love worshiped 
in, 1, 40S. 
Ecclesiastes, the Book of, holi- 
ness of, discussed in the 
Synhedrion, 2, 343-4. 
exposition of, by Samuel Ibn- 

Tibbon, 3, 398. 
commentary on, by Nathaniel 
of Bagdad, 3, 442. 
Ecclesiasticus, the Book of, by 
Jesus Sirach, 1, 439-41. 
considered apocryphal, 2, 344. 
translated into Greek, 2, 359. 
Ecija, the Jews of, persecuted, 4, 

170. 
Eck, Dr. John, writes against 
the Jews, 4, 546-7. 
acciisations of, repeated bj'^ 
Luther, 4, 548, 549, 550. 
Eden, garden of, name applied 

to Paradise, 1, 404. 
Edessa, destroyed, 2, 398. 

the Christians of, persecuted, 

2, 524. 
the Jews of, massacred, 2, 599. 
taken by Nureddin, 3, 349. 
Edict, banishing the Jews from 

Spain, 4, 347-8. 
Edict of Grace, the, for ]\Iarra- 

nos, 4, :;i5. 
Edles, Samuel, Talmudist, 4, 

703. 
Edom. Sec Idumaeans, the. 



INDEX. 



259 



Education among- the Jews. Si-e 
under Academies; Colleges; 
Law, the; Schools; Talmud, 
the; Talmud Torah. 

Edward I, of England, Jews un- 
der, 3, 640-6. 
stops the denunciations of 

coin counterfeiters, 3, 643. 
and the charge of blasphentiy 

against the Jews, 3, 643. 
permits the Dominicans to 
preach to the Jews, 3, 643-4. 
erects a house for Jewish con- 
verts, 3, 644. 
banishes the Jews, 3, 645. 

Edward, Prince of Wales (the 
Black Prince), aids Pedro 
the Cruel, 4, 124, 125. 

Edzardus, Esdras, Hamburg 
preacher, and David de Lara, 
5, 115. 
and the Sabbatian movement, 
5, 151. 

Efodi. See Profiat Duran. 

Eger, Akiba, reverence paid to, 
5, 567. 

Eger, Samuel, protests against 
reforms, 5, 562. 

Egica, Visigothic king, forbids 
Jews to hold real estate, 3, 
107-8. 

Egidio de Viterbo, cardinal, 
sides with Reuchlin, 4, 457. 
patron of Elias Levita, 4, 472, 

564. 
interested in the Kabbala, 4, 

481, 583. 
opposes the Portuguese Inqui- 
sition, 4, 507. 

Egilbert, bishop of Treves, for- 
cibly baptizes Jews, 3, 300, 
306. 

Eglon, king of Moab, killed by 
Ehud, 1, 60. 

Eglon, king of, defeated by 
Joshua, 1, 34-5. 



Egypt, priests of, 1, 10. 

allied with Solomon, 1, 170. 
hostile to Ben-hadad III, 1, 

221. 
helps the Idumaeans against 

Uzziah, 1, 226. 
allied with Hoshea, 1, 263. 
allied with Ilezekiah, 1, 270. 
counsels resistance to Nebu- 
chadnezzar, 1, 304, 306, 309. 
Judasans take refuge in, 1, 317, 

318, 324. 
rebels against Persia, 1, 407-8. 
given to Ptolemy I, 1, 418. 
Judseans settle in, 1, 419. 
taken by Antiochus III and 

Philip V of Macedon, 1, 432. 
wars of, with Antiochus IV, 1, 

450-1, 452-3. 
number of Judseans in, 2, 201. 
Zealots flee to, 2, 317-18. 
study of the Law in, 2, 359. 
succumbs to the Arabs, 3, 86. 
Eabbanites in, in the ninth 

centiiry, 3, 180. 
Karaites spread to, 3, 182. 
schools founded in, by the 

emissaries from Sora, 3, 208, 

210. 
part of the Fatimide Caliph- 
ate, 3, 248. 
Jehuda Halevi in, 3, 339-41. 
Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, 3, 369. 
Maimonides in, 3, 445, 457. 
Louis IX taken prisoner in, 3, 

585. 
in the Zohar, 4, 23. 
Karaites of, inclined to Eab- 

banism, 4, 72. 
the Spanish exiles in, 4, 392-6. 
taken by the Turkish sultan, 

4, 393. 
Isaac Lurya in, 4, 618, 622. 
conquered bj^ Napoleon, 5, 

459. 
Cremieux's schools in, 5, 671. 



26o 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Egypt, the Jews of, celebrate 

two (lays of tlie new-moon, 

2, 363. 
rebel against Trajan, 2, 394, 

395-S. 
hail the Mahometans as liber- 
ators, 3, 88-9. 
in the twelfth centnry, 3, 443- 

5. 
governed b^^ a Nagid, 3, 443. 
lack of cnltiire of, 3, 444-5. 
pilgrimages of, 3, 445. 
under Saladin, 3, 461. 
liturgy of, changed by Mai- 

monides, 3, 465-6. 
exhorted to establish schools, 

5, 663. 
Egypt, the Judaeans of, practice 

idolatry, 1, 326-7. 
neglected under Amasis, 1, 

327. 
settlement of, encouraged, 1, 

503. 
equality of, with the Greeks, 

1, 503. 
alliance of, sought by Sj-rlans 

and Egyptians, 1, 503-4. 
faithful to the Ptolemies, 1, 

504. 
occupations of, 1, 504-5. 
Greek learning of, 1, 505. 
espouse the cause of Ptolemy 

VI, 1, 507. 
recognize Onias IV as eth- 

narch, 1, 507. 
sacrifice in the Temple of 

Onias, 1, 509. 
maintain connection with the 

Temple at Jerusalem, 1, 

509; 2, 52. 
pleased with the Septuagint, 

1, 511-12. 
originate the sermon, 1, 515. 
dispute with tlie Samaritans, 

1, 517. 
informed of the independence 

of .Tudnea. 1, 522-3. 



Egypt, the Judaeans of {cuii- 

tiniivd), urged to celebrate 

Chanukah, 2, 6-7. 
prosperous under Cleopatra 

and I'tolemy VIII, 2, 12. 
devoted to the cause of Octa- 

vius, 2, 102. 
control the Nile harbors, 2, 

102. 
make annual pilgrimages to 

Jerusalem, 2, 220. 
go to Jerusalem for the Pass- 
over of 66, 2, 251. 
Egyptians, the, culture of, 1, 8. 
pantheon of, 1, 9. 
enslave the Israelites, 1, 11. 
refuse to liberate the Israel- 
ites, 1, 16-17. 
at the Eed Sea, 1, 18-19. 
Ehud, judge, routs the Moabites, 

1, 60-1. 
Eibeschlitz, Jonathan (1690- 

1764), disciple of Nehemiah 

Chayon, 5, 218. 
supposed Sabbatian, 5, 229, 

248. 
early education of, 5, 246-7. 
as a Talmudist, 5, 247. 
mysticism of, 5, 248. 
weakness of the character of, 

5, 248-9. 
as teacher in Prague, 5, 249, 

250. 
excommunicates the Sabba- 

tians, 5, 249. 
clemency shown towards, 5, 

249-50. 
in intercourse with Jesuits, 5, 

250. 
obtains the right of printing 

the Talmud, 5, 250. 
and the rabbinate of Afetz, 5, 

251. 
accused of treason, 5, 252. 
intercedes for the .Tews of 

Moravia and Bohemia, 5, 

253. 



INDEX. 



261 



Eibescliutz,Jonathan(rOHYtH HctZ), 
declared a traitor, 5, 253. 

popular in Metz, 5, 253. 

rabbi of the " three communi- 
ties," 5, 254, 256. 

distributes amulets, 5, 257, 
260. 

called on by Emden to clear 
himself of the charge of 
Sabbatianism, 5, 258. 

supported by his disciples, 5, 
258, 259. 

cause of, espoused by the 
" three communities," 5, 
260-1. 

opponents of, excommuni- 
cated, 5, 261. 

publishes an encyclical, 5. 261- 
2. 

invited to exculpate himself, 
5, 262, 263. 

excommunicated, 5, 263-4. 

cause of, espoused by some 
rabbis, 5, 264. 

2ase of, submitted to the king 
of Denmark, 5, 265, 268, 269. 

letter to, from Ezekiel Lan- 
dau, 5, 265-6. 

associates himself with an 
apostate, 5, 267. 

protected by the princes of 
Brunswick, 5, 267-8. 

before a rabbinical court, 5, 
268-9. 

publishes a defense, 5, 270. 

supposed to be a secret Chris- 
tian, 5, 270. 

again acknowledged rabbi of 
the " three communities," 5, 
271. 

and the Frankists, 5, 289. 

distrust of, 5, 289. 
Eichhorn, exegete, 5, 623, 695. 
Eighteen Benedictions. See Be- 
rachoth. 



" Eighteen Things, The," de- 
creed by the school of 
Shammai, 2, 270. 
permitted by Judah II, 2, 
483-4. 
Eisenach, the Jews of, during 
i the Black Death persecu- 

! tions, 4, 109. 

Eisenmenger, John Andrew, 
Hebraist, revives the blood 
! accusation, 5, 187. 

title of the book by, against 

the Jews, 5, 188. 
charges raised against the 

Jews by, 5, 188-9. 
work of, suppressed, 5, 190. 
death of, 5, 190. 
See " Judaism Unmasked." 
" Eisenmenger the Second, an 
open letter to Fichte," by 
Saul Asher, 5, 463. 
Ekron, Philistine city, 1, 54. 
left in the possession of the 

Philistines, 1, 117. 
center of Baal-zebub worship, 

1, 207. 
given to Jonathan Haphus, 1, 

496. 
fortified by the Syrians, 1, 529. 
Elah, king of Israel, dissipation 

and death of, 1, 192. 
El-Arish, taken by Napoleon, 5, 

459. 
El-Arish, the river of Egypt, 
boundary under David, 1, 
129. 
Elath, port on the Ked Sea, 1, 

170, 171, 177, 230. 
Elchanan ben Isaac, descendant 
of Rashi, Tossafist, martyr, 
3, 404. 
Eldad, Karaite, adventurer, 3, 
182. 
spreads the news of the Jew- 
ish Chazar kingdom, 3, 220. 
Elder, title of the ordained, 2, 
361. 



262 



HISTORY" OF THE JEWS. 



Elders, Council of tlic, formed 

b}^ Moses, 1, 25-G. 
Eleanor, mother of Edward I, 

hostile to the Jews, 3, 641, 

645. 
Eleanor, wife of Edward I, fav- 
orably inclined to the Jews, 

3, r)44. 
Eleanora, wife of Louis VII of 

France, accompanies him on 

the second crusade, 3, 349. 
Eleasa, camp of Judas Macca- 

bffius at, 1, 486. 
the battle of, Judas Macca- 

bceus falls in, 1, 487. 
Eleazar, Galilsean Judsean, per- 
suades Izates of Adiabene 

to be circumcised, 2, 217. 
Eleazar, high priest, and the 

Septuagint, 1, 514. 
Eleazar, Jewish name of Bishop 

Bodo, 3, 169. 
Eleazar, one of David's warriors, 

1, IIG. 
Eleazar of Antioch, refuses to 

sacrifice to the Greek gods, 

1, 456. 
Eleazar of Modin, member of 

the Jamnia Synhedrion, 2, 

357. 
pra3's for Bethar, 2, 417. 
accused as a spy, 2, 417-18. 
Eleazar ben Ananias, leader of 

the Zealots, 2, 256. 
brings about the rupture with 

Eome, 2, 258-9. 
relations of, to the leader of 

the Sicarii, 2, 260-1. 
destroys the Boman garrison 

of Jerusalem, 2, 261. 
disinterestedness of, 2, 261. 
governor of Idumaea, 2, 270. 
Eleazar ben Arach, disciple of 

Jochanan ben Zakkai, 2, 324, 

326. 
tries to establish a school at 

Emmaus, 2, 334. 



Eleazar ben Azariah, president 
of the Synhedrion, 2, 342. 
vice-president of the Synhe- 
drion, 2, 345. 
and Flavins Clemens, 2, 387, 

389, 392. 
influence of, on Nerva, 2, 392. 

Eleazar ben Dinai, Zealot leader, 
2, 238. 
exterminates the Samaritans 
of Acrabatene, 2, 243. 

Eleazar ben Jacob, disciple of 
Akiba, 2, 433. 

Eleazar ben Jair, grandson of 
Judas of Galilee, leader of 
the Sicarii, 2, 239. 
flees from Jerusalem, 2, 261. 
commander of Masada, 2, 292, 
316. 

Eleazar ben Jehuda (Eokeach), 
Kabbalist, at the Mayence 
synod, 3, 517. 

Eleazar ben Joel Halevi (Abi- 
Ezri), Talmudist, at the 
Maj'ence sj^nod, 3, 517. 

Eleazar ben Joseph of Cliinon, 
mart^-r, 4, 49. 

Eleazar ben Joseph (ben Chal- 
afta), accompanies Simon 
ben Jochai to Rome, 2, 449. 

Eleazar ben Kalir, the greatest 
of the poetans, 3, 116-17, 245. 
poetry of, rugged, 3, 223. 

Eleazar ben Poira, Pharisee, re- 
proves John Hyrcanus, 2, 32. 

Eleazar ben Skamua, teacher of 
Judah I, 2, 451. 

Eleazar ben Simon, Zealot 
leader, treasurer of the 
Temple, 2, 270-1, 301. 
opposed to the Synhedrion, 2, 
293-4. 

Eleazar ben Simon (ben 
Jochai), reproaches the Sa- 
maritans with having al- 
tered the Law, 2, 457. 



INDEX. 



263 



Eleazar ben Simon (cniitiiiiicd), 
denounces Jewish freeboot- 
ers to the Itoinans, 2, 464-5. 

Eleazar Chasma, in the Jamnia 
S^nhedrion, 2, ^{57. 

Eleazar Hawran, son of Matta- 
thias the Hasnionsean, 1, 459, 
death of, 1, 479. 

Eleazar. See also under Eleazer 
and Eliezer. 

Eleazer, commander of ]\Iachae- 
riis, 2, 315. 

Eleazer ben Nathan of Mayence, 
at the first rabbinical synod, 

' 3, 377. 

Eleazer ben Simon of Cologne, 
at the first rabbinical synod, 
3, 377. 

Eleazer. See also under Eleazar 
and Eliezer. 

Elegabalus, emperor, vices of, 2, 
468. 
relations of, to the Jews, 2, 
469-70. 

Elesbaa (Atzbaha), king of Ethi- 
opia, at war with the Jew^- 
ish king of Yemen, 3, 66. 

Elhanan, of Bethlehem, Israel- 
ite champion nnder David, 
1, 117. 

Eli, judge, characterization of, 
1, 69. 
inveighs against idolatry, 1, 

70. 
sons of, 1, 70. 
death of, 1, 71. 
grandson of, 1, 79. 
descendants of, murdered by 

Saul, 1, 100. 
descendants of, inhabit Ma- 
mal, 2, 575. 

Elia. See Mar-Elia. 

Eliakim, in Speyer, Kashi's Tal- 
mud teacher, 3, 286. 

Eliakim, son of Hilkiah, made 
vSochen, 1, 272. 

Eliakim. See Jehoiakim. 



Eliam, father of Bathsheba, 1, 

133. 
Eliano, Victor, grandson of Elias 

Levita, apostate, 4, 564. 
defames the Talmud, 4, 583. 
editor of the Cremona Zohar, 

4, 584. 
Elias of London, chief rabbi of 

England, 3, 588. 
asks permission for the Jews 

to leave England, 3, 590-1. 
deposed, 3, 591. 
Elias del Medigo (Cretensis, 

1463-1498), philosopher, 4, 

289, 290-3, 
classical culture of, 4, 290. 
teacher of Pico di Mirandola, 

4, 290-1. 
umpire chosen by the Univer- 
sity of Padua, 4, 291, 
public lecturer on philosophy, 

4, 291. 
denounces the Kabbala, 4, 

292; 5, 78. 
views of, on the Talmud and 

religion, 4, 292-3. 
character of the influence of, 

4, 293. 
hostility to, 4, 293. 
and Judah Menz, 4, 295. 
disciple of, 4, 386. 
sons an,d relatives of, leaders 

in Canea, 4, 406, 
descendant of, 5, 75, 
Elias ben Elkanah Kapsali 

(1490-1555), rabbi at Canea, 

and Judah Delmedigo, 4, 

406. 
as an historian, 4, 406-7. 
style of, 4, 557. 
Elias Chendali, husband of Es- 
ther Kiera, 4, 629. 
Elias Cretensis, See Elias Del 

Medigo. 
Elias Halevi, Rabbanite teacher 

of Karaites, 4, 270. 



264 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Elias Levita (14GS-1549), gram- 
marian, teacher of Chris- 
tians, 4, 471, 507. 

pupils of, 4, 472. 

publishes a Hebrew grammar, 
4, 472. 
/ mediocrity of, 4, 472. 

on the accents and vowel 
signs, 4, 472-3. 

declines to go to France, 4, 
473-4. 

establishes a Hebrew press at 
Isny, 4, 474. 

grandchildren of, apostates, 4, 
5f.4. 
Elias Mizrachi (1455-1526), rab- 
bi of Constantinople, char- 
acter and attainments of, 4, 
402-3. 

feud of, with the Karaites, 4, 
403. 

protects the Karaites, 4, 403- 
4. 
Elias Montalto, physician, em- 
ployed by Christians, 4, 653. 

dissuades Paul de Pina from 
becoming a monk, 4, 670. 

buried at Ouderkerk, 4, 672-3. 

physician to ^faria de Medici, 
4, 673. 
EliasMb, high priest, counten- 
ances marriages between 
Judseans and Samaritan.s, 1, 
302. 

in friendly communication 
with the Samaritans, 1, 3S3. 

dismissed b3^ Nehemiah, 1, 
3sr). 
Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, disciple 
of Jocliauan ben Zakkai, 2, 
326. 

teacher of the Law at Ljdda, 
2, 335. 

opposes decisions by the Bath- 
Kol, 2, 338. 

brother-in-law of Gamaliel II. 
2, 339. 



Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (con^irtwetf;, 
excommunicated, 2, 339-40, 
347-S. 

devotion of, to tradition, 2, 
346-7, 356. 

called Sinai. 2, 347. 

opposed to Gamaliel II, 2, 347. 

end of, 2, 348. 

ban removed from, 2, 350. 

supposed teacher of Akiba, 2, 

and the Jewish Christians, 2, 

370. 
on the admission of proselytes, 

2, 384. 
and Akylas, 2, 385. 
mourns for Gamaliel II, 2, 

404. 
condemns the instruction of 

women in the Law, 2, 474. 
compared with Chanina bar 

Chama. 2, 491. 
Eliezer Kapsali, Rabbanite 

teacher of Karaites, 4, 270. 
Eliezer. Sec also nndcr Eleazar 

and Eleazer. 
Elijah, the Tishbite, prophet, 

character of, 1, 199. 
a Nazarite, 1, 200. 
disciples of, 1, 200. 
rebukes Ahab, 1, 202-3. 
announces a famine, 1, 203. 
assembles the priests of Baal, 

1, 203-4. 
flees from Jezebel, 1, 204. 
instructed to anoint Jehu, 1, 

204. 
chooses Elisha as his succes- 
sor, 1, 207. 
prophesies the death of Aha- 

ziah, 1, 207. 
disappears, 1, 207. 
result of the activity of, 1, 

208. 
precursor of the Messiah, 2, 

143. 
in the Zohar, 4, 12, 16. 



INDEX. 



265 



Elijah, disciples of, Nazarites, 

1, 200. 
persecuted by Jezebel, 1, 201. 
saved by Obadiah, 1, 201. 
on ]\Iount Carmel, 1, 203. 
Elijah Wilna (1720-1797), draws 

attention to the Scriptures, 

5, 329, 390. 
disinterestedness of, 5, 389. 
critical powers of, 5, 389-90. 
simple exegetical method of, 

5, 390. 
fondness of, for the Kabbala, 

5, 390-1. 
slandered by the Chassidim, 5, 

391. 
excommunicates the Chassi- 
dim, 5, 392, 393. 
persecutes the Chassidim, 5, 

394. 
Elijah Zevi, brother of Sabba- 

tai, 5, 145. 
Elionai, high priest, under 

Ag-rippa I, 2, 198. 
Elisha, Essene, punished for the 

use of Tephillin, 2, 424. 
Elisha, father of Ishmael, 2, 

427. 
Elisha, prophet, successor to 

Elijah, 1, 207. 
accompanies Elijah, 1, 20S. 
lives on Mount Carmel, 1, 20s. 
hates Jehoram, 1, 208-9. 
disciple of, appoints Jehu kin;^ 

of Israel, 1, 210. 
position of, compared with Eli- 
jah's, 1, 217-18. 
in Samaria, 1, 218. 
respected by Jehoash of Israel, 

1, 223-4. 
influence of, on Jehoash, 1, 

225. 
Elisha ben Abuya (Acher), 

teacher of the Law, apos- 
tate, 2, 358, 377. 
theosophist, 2, 381. 



Elisha ben Abuya (continued), 
assists Hadrian in persecut- 
ing the Law, 2, 42G. 
and Meir, 2, 437. 
daughters of, 2, 452. 
Elisha Gallaico, member of Ka- 
ro's rabbinical college, 4, 
616. 
Elishama, keeper of the lists, 
favors submission to Nebu- 
chadnezzar, 1, 305. 
Elizabeth, of Brunswick, has 
Templo's work translated, 
5, 114-15. 
Elizabeth, of England, and Ma- 
ria Nuiies, 4, 664. 
Elkanah Kapsali, of Candia, 
ransoms Spanish exiles, 4, 
364. 
Elon, judge, 1, 66. 
Elulai, king of Tyre, subdued 

by Shalmaneser, 1, 263. 
El-Uz. See Usha. 
Elvira. See Illiberis. 
Elymaeans, the, have a syna- 
gogue in Jerusalem, 2, 201. 
Elymais, falls to Nabopolassar, 

1, 303. 
Emancipation of Jews, the, ad- 
vocated by John Toland, 5, 
197-S. 
favored by Mirabeau, 5, 433-4. 
accomplished by the French, 

5, 459. 
urged by INIichael Berr, 5, 

460-1, 527. 
opposed b3^ Fichte, 5, 462. 
dependent on that of French 

Jews, 5, 480. 
favored by Dalberg, 5, 504. 
favored by Hardenberg, 5, 

507. 
favored by Denmark, 5, 519, 

531. 
advocated before the Congress 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, 5, 525-7. 



17 



266 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Emancipation of Jews, the {con- 

t inure]), favored by Alexan- 
der I, 5, 527. 
urged by Italian Jews, 5, 527. 
advocated by Zunz, 5, G21. 
hindrances to, in Judaism, 5, 

675. 
completed by the February 

revolutions, 5, G96-7. 
See aim Citizenship. 
Emancipation of the Austrian 

Jews, the, by Joseph II, 5, 

357-8. 
Emancipation of the Baden 

Jews,, the, 5, 502-3. 
Emancipation of the Bavarian 

Jews, the i^artial, 5, 508. 
Emancipation of the Dutch 

.Tews, the, celebrated by 

Friedrichsfeld, 5, 400. 
promoted bj' French victories, 

5, 452. 
opposed by Van Swieden, 5, 

453-4. 
opposed by representative 

Amsterdam Jews, 5, 454. 
Jewish advocates of, 5, 454-5. 
Christian objections to, 5, 

455-6. 
favored by Noel, 5, 450. 
passed by the National As- 
sembly, 5, 45G. 
does not delight the Jews, 5, 

450-7. 
Emancipation of tlie English 

Jews, the, 5, 330-8, 430, 698. 
discussed in Parliament, 5, 

001. 
advocated by O'Connell, 5, 053. 
Emancipation of the Frankfort 

Jews, the, 5, 505. 
discussed in the Senate, 5, 

508. 
Emancipation of the French 

Jews, the, promoted by 

Cerf Berr, 5, 430, 431. 



Emancipation of the French 
Jews, the {continued), dis- 
cussed by the National As- 
sembly, 5, 439-41. 

favored bj^ the heroes of the 
Revolution, 5, 441. 

opposition to, 5, 441-2. 

equivocal decision on, 5, 442. 

granted to the Portuguese 
section, 5, 442-3, 444-5. 

subject of a petition to the 
National Assembly, 5, 443. 

before the I'aris Commune, 5, 
443-5. 

Abbe Mulot on, 5, 443-4. 

opposed by the Due de Brog- 
lie, 5, 447. 

advocated by Duport, 5, 447-8. 

passed by the National As- 
sembly, 5, 448. 

celebrated by Berr Isaac Berr, 
5, 448-9. 

recognized by the Constitu- 
tion of the Directory, 5, 452. 

endangered, 5, 470. 

objected to by Bonald, 5, 
478-9. 

laid before Napoleon's coun- 
cil, 5, 479. 

determines that of Jews in 
other countries, 5, 480. 

advocated by Beugnot, 5, 480. 

opposed by Napoleon, 5, 480. 

urged by Regnault and Segur, 
5, 480-1. 

guaranteed by Napoleon, 5, 492. 

curtailed bj'' Napoleon, 5, 
408-9. 

under Louis XVITI, 5, 524-5. 

curtailed under the Bourbons, 
5, .590. 

considered by Louis Philippe, 
5, 597. 

advocated bj^ Merilhou, 5, 
597. 

completed in the Chamber of 
Peers, 5, 597. 



INDEX. 



267 



Emancipation of the German 
Jews, the, promoted by 
Dohm's plea, 5, 350-7. 

promoted by the French, 5, 
459. 

urged by the Peace Congress 
of Rastadt, 5, 463. 

writers against, 5, 468-70, 472. 

retarded by the reaction after 
Napoleon's fall, 5, 512. 

urged before the Congress of 
Vienna, 5, 513-14. 

favored by Hardenberg and 
Metternich, 5, 514. 

promised in the constitution 
drawn up by Humboldt, 5, 
514. 

retarded by Teutomania, 5, 
516. 

opposed by Hiihs, 5, 517. 

promised by the Act of Fed- 
eration, 5, 518. 

opposed by the Hanse Towns, 
5, 519. 

favored by Holstein, 5, 519. 

defeated at the Congress of 
Vienna, 5, 519-20. 

pamphlet literature against, 5, 
521. 

favored by Kramer, 5, 521-2. 

leads to estrangement from 
Judaism, 5, 560. 

Eiesser interested in, 5, 599- 
600. 

on the programme of the lib- 
eral party, 5, 602. 
Emancipation of the Hessian 

Jews, the, legalized, 5, 601. 
Emancipation of the Italian 
Jews, the, undone by Pius 
VII, 5, 518. 
Emancipation of the Jews in 
the Hanse Towns, the, 5, 
506-7. 
Emancipation of the Mecklen- 
burg Jews, the, 5, 507. 



Emancipation of the Prussian 

Jews, the, struggle for, be- 
gun, 5, 414-16. 
partial, 5, 507. 
granted by Frederick William 

III, 5, 508, 630. 
a dead letter, 5, 524. 
Emancipation of the Turkish 

Jews, the, by Abdul Meg'id, 

5, 641. 
Emancipation of the Westpha- 

lian Jews, the, 5, 500-1. 
medal commemorative of, 5, 

50"1. 
Emanuel, Bj^zantine emperor, 

and his Jewish physician, 3, 

425. 
Embicho, bishop of Wiirzburg, 

protects the Jews. 3, 354. 
Emden, Jacob (Ashkenazi, Ja- 

bez, 1098-177(1), grandson of 

Jacob Ashkenazi, anti-Sab- 

batian, 5, 221. 
son of Chacham Zevi, studies 

of, 5, 254-5. 
character of, 5, 255. 
as rabbi, 5, 255. 
candidate for the rabbinate of 

the " three communities," 5, 

255-6. 
antipathy of, to heretics, 5, 

256. 
induced not to expose Eibe- 

schiitz, 5, 257-8. 
calls on Eibeschiitz to clear 

himself, 5, 258. 
punished by the Council, 5, 

258-9. 
persecuted in Altona, 5, 260. 
excommunicated and flees to 

Amsterdam, 5, 201. 
returns to Altona, 5, 265, 266. 
historian of the Sabbatian 

movement, 5, 200. 
maligned by Charles Anton, 

5, 267. 



268 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Emden, Jacob (rontinuii}), re- 
futes Eibeschiitz's defense, 
5, 270. 
appealed to by the Polish rab- 
bis, 5, 277-S. 
exposes the Zohar as a for- 
gery, 5, 278. 
sanctions Frankist persecu- 
tions, 5, 278. 
triumphant, 5, 289. 
refers the Schwerin Jews to 

Mendelssohn, 5, 318. 
opposes Mendelssohn on the 
subject of hasty burial, 5, 
318-19. 
Emden, Portuguese Marranos 
arrive at, 4, G65. 
Jews tolerated in, 4, 68G. 
Emek ha-Bacha, by Joseph ben 

Joshua Cohen, 4, 590, 608. 
Emesa, native town of Julia 

Domna, 2, 468. 
Emicho. See Emmerich. 
Emim, descendants of the Ana- 

kim and Rephaim, 1, 2. 
Emmaus (Gimso), Synhedriou 
established at, 2, 71. 
burnt, 2, 126. 

effort to establish an acade- 
my at, 2, 334. 
destroj^ed by an earthquake, 
2, 408-9. 
Emmerich (Emicho), of Leiniu- 
gen, leader of the first cru- 
sade, massacres the Jews, 3, 
303. 
disgraceful end of the cru- 
saders under, 3, 306. 
accused before Henrj'^ IV, 3, 
307. 
" Emunoth," Kabbalistic work 
l)y Sliem Tob ben Joseph, 4, 
197. 
Emunoth we-Deoth, ])liilosophi- 
cal work by Saudiali, 3, 
197-8. 



Endor, camp of Gideon, 1, 62. 
Saul's camp, 1, 103. 
the witch of, 1, 103. 
" Enemy of the Jews, The," 
Pfefferkorn's second pam- 
phlet, 4, 427-8. 
Engadi, Essene center, 2, 25. 
Engel, friend of Mendelssohn, 

K ■>~0 

England, rabbis of, emigrate to 
Jerusalem, 3, 505-G. 

]\Iarranos unkindly received 
in, 4, 509. 

struggles for religious free- 
dom in, 5, 25-8. 

Jews gradually establish 
themselves in, 5, 49-50. 

anomalous position of Jews 
in, 5, 50. 

ambassador of, intercedes for 
the Moravian and Bohe- 
mian Jews, 5, 253. 

the first country to emanci- 
pate the Jews, 5, 430. 

in the Quadruple Alliance, 5, 
658. 
England, the Jews of, protected 
during the second crusade, 
3, 356. 

prosperous under Henry II, 3, 
409. 

under Richard T, 3, 409-16. 

abused at Richard's corona- 
tion, 3, 410-11. 

massacre of, 3, 412-16. 

under John, 3, 416, 504-5. 

imprisoned, 3, 505. 

wear the Jew badge, 3, 515, 
516. 

hated on accoiint of their usu- 
rious rates, 3, 571. 

under Henry III, 3, 587-92. 

Christians not permitted to 
sell food to, 3, 588. 

tax imposed on, 3, 589. 

charges against, 3, 589. 



INDEX. 



269 



England, the Jews of {con- 

tinucd), iiledged to the king's 

brother, 3, 590. 
restrictions put on, by the 

Church, 3, 590. 
not permitted to leave Eng- 
land, 3, 591. 
the blood accusation prefei'red 

against, 3, 591. 
under Edward I, 3, G40-0. 
the statute of Judaism passed 

against, 3, 642. 
charged with counterfeiting 

and clipping coin, 3, 642. 
imprisoned, 3, 642-3, 645. 
forced to listen to Dominican 

sermons, 3, 643. 
denounced to Honorius IV, 3, 

645. 
banished and ill-treated, 3, 

645-6. 
take refuge in France, Ger- 
many, Spain, 3, 646. 
emancipation of, advocated, 5, 

197-8. 
pay the alien duty, 5, 337. 
urge their emancipation, 5, 

337. 
naturalization of, 5, 337-8. 
under Polish influence, 5, 558. 
emancipation of, 5, 601, 653, 

698. 
act in the Damascus affair, 5, 

644-5, 651-2. 
public-spiritedness of, 5, 703. 
number of, 5, 703. 
England, the re-settlement of 

Jews in, prospects of, 5, 18- 

19. 
suggested by Messianic hopes, 

5, 28. 
negotiations for, interrupted, 

5, 34. 
before the Short Parliament, 

5, 34. 
the subject of three petitions, 

5, 35, 



England, the re-settlement of 
the Jews in {continued), rea- 
sons for, stated by Manas- 
seh ben Israel, 5, 39-42. 
favored by Cromwell, 5, 42-3. 
in the hands of a commission, 

5, 43-5. 
objections to, 5, 44-5. 
literature on, 5, 45-6. 

Enns, the Jews of, charged with 
host desecration, 4, 223. 

Enoch, the Book of, Kabbalistic 
source, 4, 17. 

Enoch Saporta, Rabbanite teach- 
er of Karaites, 4, 270. 

Enriquez, Antonio de Gomez. 
See Paz, Enrique Enriquez 
de. 

En-Rogel, spring south of Jeru- 
salem, 1, 114. 

Ensheim, Moses, one of the 
Measfim, mathematician, and 
the emancipation of the 
French Jews, 5, 401, 450. 

Ensisheim, tower of, Meir of 
Rothenburg imprisoned in, 
3, 639. 

En-Sof, title of God in the Kab- 
bala, 3, 550. 
emanations of, 3, 550-1. 
in the Zohar, 4, 14. 
the son of heaven, 5, 124. 

En-Vidal Ephraim Gerundi, 
rabbi of Majorca, 4, 162. 
martyr, 4, 171. 

En-Zag Vidal de Tolosa, rabbi, 
calumniated, 4, 155. 

Epaone, the council of, forbids 
Christians to take part in 
Jewish banquets, 3, 37. 

Epee, de 1', Abbe, anticipated 
by Pereira, 5, 343. 

Ephes-Damim, scene of David's 
victory over Goliath, 1, 97. 

Ephesus, a Greek-Christian com- 
munity in, 2, 227. 



270 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Ephesus (continued), cliief seat 
of the Pagan Christians, 2, 
3G7. 

Ephoros, Jewish overseer in 
Greece, Macedonia, Illyria, 
3, 27. 

Ephraim, the tribe of, in con- 
tact with the Egyptians, 1, 

tal<es Bethel, 1, 34. 

claims the central lands of 

Canaan, 1, 35-6. 
and the Danites, 1, 39. 
holds assemblies at Shiloh, 1, 

41. 
opposes intermarriages with 

the heatlien, 1, 56. 
keeps worshipers from Sliiloli, 

1, 57. 
assists Ehud ag'ainst the Moab- 

ites 1, 60. 
in conflict with Manasseh, 1, 

63. 
attacked by the Ammonites, 

1, 64. 
quarrels witli Jephthah, 1, G,"j. 
oppressed by the Philistines, 

1, 71. 
not well disposed towards Da- 
vid, 1, 114. 
sides with Absalom, 1, 140. 
persuaded to separate from 

Solomon, 1, 176. 
chooses Jeroboam as king, 1, 

182-3. 
end of, 1, 265-6. 
Ephraim of Tyre, head of the 

Jews of Tyre, 3, 426. 
Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn 

(li:i2-1200), Talmudist and 

liturg-ical poet, 3, 419. 
Ephraim, mountain, descriptioii 

of, 1, 45. 
Epicrates, general of Ptolemy 

VIII, fig-hts against the Ju- 

daeans. 2, 11. 



Epicurus, teachings of, accepted 
in Judaea, 1, 429. 

Epiphanes, son of Antiochus of 
Commagene, affianced to 
Drusilla, 2, 195, 235. 

Epistles to the Hebrews, the, 
urge the separation of Jew- 
ish Christians from Jews, 2, 
371. 

Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum, 
by Crotus Rubianus, a 
Reuchlinist work, 4, 461-2. 
See " Letters of Obscurant- 
ists." 

Eras used by the Jews, 1, 417; 

2, 134; 3, 433; 4, 394-5. 
Erasmus, as humanist, 4, 432, 

supposed author of the "Let- 
ters of Obscurantists," 4, 
462. 

on hatred of the Jews, 4, 462- 

in the pantomime on the llef- 

ormation, 4, 468. 
Eravi. See Airvi. 
Erfurt, refuge of Archbishop 

Ruthard of Maycnce, 3, 307. 
Erfurt, the Jew^s of, persecuted, 

3, 611. 

during tlio Black Death perse- 
cutions, 4, 109. 

Erfurt, the university of, con- 
sulted regarding the confis- 
cation of Hebrew books, 4, 
437, 441. 
theologians of, sanction the 
l)uruiiig of the " Augen- 
spiegel," 4, 452. 

Ergas, Joseph, Kabbalist, de- 
nounces Chaj^on, 5, 227. 

Ermengarde, princess of Xar- 
bonne, Jews under, 3, 392. 

" Errors of the Doctrine of the 
Trinity," by Michael Serve- 
tus, 4, 541. 



INDEX, 



271 



Erter, Isaac (1792-1851), Gali- 

cian scholar, re-animates tliQ 

Hebrew language, 5, 612-1.'5, 

617. 

education and marriages of, 

5, 613. 
self-culture of, 5, 613-14. 
influence of Rapoport and 

Krochmal on, 5, 614. 
excommunicated, 5, 614-15. 
satirizes Orenstein, 5, 615. 
style of, 5, 615-16. 
poverty of, 5, 616. 
poetry of, compared with S. D. 

Luzzatto's, 5, 623. 
writes an account of the Da- 
mascus affair, 5, 671. 
Erwig, Visigothic king, usurper, 
enacts anti-Jewish laws, 3, 
106-7. 
Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, 
reduces Babylonia, 1, 284. 
takes Manasseh prisoner, 1, 
2S5. 
Esau, honored by a Gnostic sect, 

2, 375, 
Eschenloer, town clerk of Bres- 
lau, protests against cruelty 
towards Jews, 4, 262. 
Escrivao, Jewish-Portiiguese of- 
ficial, 4, 159. 
" Eshkol ha-Kofer," Karaite 
work by Jehuda ben Elia 
Hadassi, 3, 362. 
Eskapha, Joseph, Talmudist, 
teacher of Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 
118. 
excommunicates him, 5, 122. 
Eskeles, Issachar Berush, inter- 
cedes for the Moravian 
Jews, 5, 252, 253. 
Eski-Crimea. See Sulchat. 
Esperaindo, Juan de, assassin 

of Arbues, 4, 330. 
Essenes, the, offshoot from the 
Assidaean party, 2, 16-17, 24. 



Essenes, the {continued), give 
rise to the Pharisees, 2, 17. 

wherein opposed to the I'hari- 
sees, 2, 18. 

allied with the Pharisees, 2, 
24. 

rigid celebration of the Sab- 
bath by, 2, 24. 

Nazarite practices of, 2, 24-5. 

celibates, 2, 25. 

settle in Engadi, 2, 25. 

communism of, 2, 26. 

habits of, 2, 26-7. 

mysticism of, 2, 27-8. 

popiilar, 2, 29. 

fatalists, 2, 30. 

avoid the Temple, 2, 30. 

initiation into the brother- 
hood of, 2, 30-1. 

prophetic power ascribed to, 
2, 100. 

exempt from swearing alle- 
giance to Herod, 2, 108. 

conception of the Messianic 
age by, 2, 145. 

the first to proclaim the ad- 
vent of the Messiah, 2, 145. 

Jesus attracted to, 2, 150-1. 

displeased with Jesus, 2, 162. 

followers of Jesus, 2, 219-20. 
Essenism, the kernel of Chris- 
tianity, 2, 142. 
Essex, Earl of, takes Cadiz, 4, 

665. 
Essinger, Samuel, testifies in 

favor of Eibeschiitz, 5, 262. 
Estella, the Jews of, massacred, 

4, 77-8, 144. 

Esther (Esterka), mistress of 

Casimir III, 4, 112. 
^' Esther," epic b^^ Ansaldo Ceba, 

5, 69, 70. 

Esther, the Book of, additions 
to, 2, 359. 
read in Spanish translation, 4, 
148, 



2/2 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Estoi'i Parchi, on the suffering 
of the French Jews, 4, 48-9. 
emigrates to I'alestine, 4, 49. 
on the Karaites, 4, 72. 
Etam, spring's of, supply the 

second Temple, 1, 421. 
Etampes, d', Count, protects the 

French Jews, 4, 130, 132. 
Eternal Punishment, dogma of, 

in the Kabbala, 4, 292. 
Ethbaal I, of Tyre, allied with 

Omri of Israel, 1, 194. 
Ethbaal II, of Tj-re, vassal of 
Nebuchadnezzar, 1, 304. 
rebels against Nebuchadnez- 
zar, 1, 300. 
urges war against Nebuchad- 
nezzar, 1, 309. 
Ethics, The, by Aristotle, trans- 
lated, 4, 193. 
by Spinoza, 4, 1G7. 
Ethnarch, the prince of the Ju- 
dseans in Egypt. See Alab- 
arch, the. 
Ethnarch, office of, created for 
the Juda;ans of the Naba- 
tha?an kingdom, 2, 202. 
Ethnarch, title of, conferred on 
Ilyrcanus II, 2, G6, 7G. 
on Archelaus, 2, 127. 
on the President of the Syn- 
hedrion, 2, 360. 
Eucserus, king of Syria, invades 
Jii(l;ra, 2, 44. 
forced to retreat, 2, 4"). 
Euchel, Isaac Abraham, He- 
brew style of, 5, 398. 
establishes the Chebrath Dor- 
she Leshon Eber, 5, 398. 
founds a journal, 5, 399. 
raediocrit\- of, 5, 417. 
founder of the " Society of 
Friends," 5, 418. 
Eugenius III, pope, absolves the 
debtors of Jews from pay- 
ment, 3, 349-51. 



Eugenius IV, pope, exhorts 
Juan II of Castile to humili- 
ate the Jews, 4, 229. 
hostile to the Jews, 4, 249, 275. 
confirms the privileges of 

Jews, 4, 249. 
influenced by Alfonso de Car- 
tagena, 4, 249-50. 
revives anti-Jewish restric- 
tions, 4, 250-1. 
issues a bull against the Ital- 
ian Jews, 4, 251. 
and John of Capistrano, 4, 
257. 
Eulseus, guardian of Ptolemy 
Vs sons, rules Egypt, 1, 450, 
Eumenes, king of Pergamus, 
proclaims Antiochus IV 
king of Syria, 1, 443. 
Euonymus of Gadara, philoso- 
pher, and Me'ir, 2, 437-8. 
Euphrates, the, depredations in 
the district of, 2, 527. 
fortresses on, captured by 
Hulagu, 3, 60f). 
Euphrates, the, district of, the 
Jews of, rebel against Tra- 
jan. 2, 397. 
opposed by Lucius Quietus, 2, 

398-9. 
in the twelfth centur3% 3, 428- 

33. 
Sec also under Babylonia. 
Eupolemos, Judfean envoy to 

Uome, 1, 485. 
Eupraxios, P)_\zantine viceroy, 
Sabbatai Donnolo, phj'sician 
to, 3, 213. 
Europe, the seat of Judaism in 

the twelfth century, 3, 383. 
Europe, the Jews of, in the 
sixth and seventh centuries, 
3, 24-5. 
in the latter half of the eighth 

century, 3, 141. 
in the tenth century, 3, 212. 



INDEX. 



273 



Europe, the Jews of (continued), 
admired by the Jews of the 
East, 5, 61)2-3. 

Europe, western, early Jewish 
settlements in, 3, 35. 
position of tlie Jews of, 5, 704. 

Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, 
historian, asperses Judaism, 
2, 562. 
patron of Josepli the apostate, 
2, 565. 

Eusebius, chamberlain of Con- 
stantius, burdens the Jews 
with taxes, 2, 572. 

Eutropius, chamberlain of Arca- 
dius, favorably inclined to 
the Jews, 2, 615-16. 
fall of, 2, 616. 

Evangelists, the, and the revolt 
of Bar-Cochba, 2, 412-13. 
describe Hadrian's persecu- 
tions, 2, 431. 

Evangels, the, colored by Jew- 
ish and Pagan Christian 
views, 2, 368-9. 
influence of, on Judaism, dep- 
recated by the Tanaites, 2, 
378. 

Evil-Merodach, king of Babylon, 
releases Jehoiachin, 1, 331. 
murdered, 1, 331. 

Evora, Jewish center in Portu- 
gal, 4, 159. 
the Marranos of, spied upon, 

4, 490. 
tribunal of the Inquisition at, 
4, 508. 

Ewald, Heinrich, historian of 
Israel, 5, 696. 

Ewald, Johann Ludwig, de- 
fends the Jews, 5, 522. 

" Examination of the Pharisaic 
Traditions, An," by Uriel da 
Costa, 5, 60. 

" Example of Human Life, An," 
autobiography of Uriel da 
Costa, 5, 64-5, 



Exchequer of the Jews, in Eng- 
land, 3, 588. 
Excommunication, as used by 
Uanuiliel II, 2, 339, 347, 

regulated by the Usha Synhe- 
drion, 2, 405. 

practiced by Simon II, 2, 446. 

introduced into Babylonia, 2, 
517. 

used by Judah ben Ezekiel, 2, 
551-2. 

the right of, granted to the 
Patriarchs, 2, 612-13. 

as dispensed in Jewish Baby- 
lonia, 2, 99-100. 

introduced among the Kara- 
ites, 3, 151. 

freely used by Paltoi ben 
Abayi, 3, 177. 

threatened for violating the 
secrecy of a letter, 3, 245. 

threatened for reproaching a 
repentant apostate, 3, 246. 

threatened for accepting an 
office from Christian author- 
ities, 3, 518. 

pronounced in Poland only 
with the concurrence of the 
whole community, 4, 265. 

employed by the rabbis of 
Turkey, 4, 599. 

objected to by Mendelssohn, 
5, 362-3. 

forbidden by the Austrian 
government, 5, 614. 
Excommunication of, the com- 
munity of Ears, 3, 194. 

Joseph ben Isaac Ibn-Abitur, 
3, 238. 

informers and traitors revived, 
3, 378. 

fault-finders with a bill of di- 
vorce after its delivery, 3, 
373. 

the Maimunists, 3, 528-9, 535. 

the Anti-Maimunists, 3, 530, 
536, 



274 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Excommunication of (continued), 
Donin, 3, 572-3, 

students of science, 4, 39—10. 

Uriel da Costa, 4, 5S-G3. 

Spinoza, 5, 93, 94. 

Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 122. 

Chayim Malach, 5, 214. 

Nehemiah Chayon, 5, 21G, 224. 

Chacham Zevi, 5, 22G. 

Podolian Sabbatians, 5, 22S. 

Sabbatians at Frankfort, 5, 
230. 

Moses Chayim Luzzatto, 5, 
240, 242. 

Eibeschiitz's opponents, 5, 259, 
261. 

Eibeschiitz, 5, 263-4. 

the Frankists, 5, 276-7. 

Wessely, 5, 370. 

the Chassidim, 5, 392, 393. 

young Galiciim scholars, 5, 
614. 
Exegesis of the Bible, taught 
Origen by the Jews, 2, 488. 

Simlai's sober method of, 2, 
499, 501-2. 

incorrect, favored by the Tal- 
mud, 2, 633. 

by Anan ben David, 3, 133. 

freedom in, the principal dog- 
ma of Karaism, 3, 157. 

special study of the Karaites, 
3, 180. 

cultivated by the Spanish 
Jews in the tenth and elev- 
enth centuries, 3, 235. 

by Ibn-Janach, 3, 262, 263. 

by Yizchaki, 3, 273. 

by Rashi, 3, 288. 

by l^loses ben Samuel Ibn- 
G'ikatilia, 3, 290. 

supplanted by the study of 
the Talmud in Spain, 3, 317. 

by the Tossafists, 3, 345-6. 

by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, 3, 368, 
.370-], 371-3. 

by Urivid Kiiiiclii, 3, 394. 



Exegesis of the Bible (con- 
tinued), decay of, in the post- 
Maimunic time, 3, 561. 

neglected in Spain in the four- 
teenth century, 4, 91. 

Jewisli, praised by Reuchlin, 
4, 441-2. 

scientific, founded by llichard 
Simon, 5, 178. 

by S. D. Luzzatto, 5, 623-4. 

by Sachs, 5, 692-3. 

by the rationalistic school, 5, 
695-6. 

/See also Scriptures, the, com- 
mentary on. 
Exeter, the Council of, anti- 
Jewish decrees of, 3, 645. 
" Exilarch, the. Feast of," court 

at the Exilarch's, 3, 95. 
Exilarchate, the, on an equality 
with the Patriarchate, 2, 
454. 

extinction of, a condition of 
the advent of the Messiah, 

2, 457. 

ill abeyance after Kobad's 

persecutions, 3, 4. 
from 589 to 640, 3, 10. 
restored to jiower by Bostanai, 

3, 10. 

hereditary in the house of 
Bostanai, 3, 94, 137. 

as viewed by the Jews of dis- 
tant lands, 3, 100. 

co-extensive with the Ommij^- 
yade Caliphate, 3, 100. 

dependent on the Gaonate, 3, 
1j7. 

contests for, 3, 155, 439. 

decay of, 3, 183, 188. 

attachment to, 3, 1S5-6. 

during Saadiah's Gaonate, 3, 
193-4. 

end of, 3, 201-2. 

revived in the twelfth century, 
3, 369, 428. 

extent of, 3, 428-9. 



INDEX. 



275 



Exilarchate, the {continued), re- 
vived in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, 3, 627. 
Exilarchs, the (Pmices of the 
Captivity, Kesh-Galutha), 
leaders of the Jews in the 
East, 2, 393. 

political chiefs of the Baby- 
lonian Jews, 2, 508. 

vassals of Persia, 2, 508. 

royal position of, 2, 508-9. 

descendants of David, 2, 509. 

supreme judges of the Jewish 
community, 2, 509; 3, 93. 

revenues of, 2, 509-10; 3, 96. 

homag-e paid to, 2, 510, 515, 
606-7. 

religious ignorance of, 2, 510. 

political and spiritual author- 
ity of, 2, 511. 

devoted to the study of the 
Law, 2, 544. 

appoint judges, 2, 547; 3, 98, 
428. 

barbarity of. in the time of 
the Amor.um, 2, 554. 

exercise civil and judicial 
functions. 3, 89. 

depose the principals of the 
Babylonian academies, 3, 91. 

history of. dark, 3, 92. 

office of. political, 3, 93. 

installation of. 3, 94-5. 

annual court at the house of, 
3, 95. 

authority of, lessened by the 
Karaite schism, 3, 137. 

power of, reduced, 3, 177, 183. 

hold public assemblies at 
Pumbeditha, 3, 177. 
Exilarchs, the, list of: 

Achiya, Daniel, son of 

Tiostanai", Solomon (Chas- 

Chananya (Achu- dai ?), 

naf\ David of Mosul, 

Chaninat, David ben Daniel, 

Chasdai, David ben Judah, 

Chiskiya, David ben Zaccai, 



Exilarchs, the, list of (continued): 

Huna, MurZutraJI, 

Huna Mali, .\athan, 

Josiah Hassan, Xehemia, 

.Tudah ben l)a\i<l, Solomon, 

Judali l)en Da\i(l, iSolomon (Chas- 

son of da'i ?), 

Kafna'i, Yislia! ben ('his 
Mar-Kahana, kiya, 

Mar-Ukban, Zacca'i ben Achu- 
Mar-Zutra I, nai. 

Exile, the Babj'lonian, described, 
5, 720-1. See Babylonia, 
the Judaeans of. 
Exorcism. See Demons, exor- 
cism of. 
Ezekias, leads the revolt in 
Galilee against Rome, 2, 77. 
executed, 2, 77-8. 
son of, 2, 125. 
Ezekiel, prophet, encourages 
and rebukes the Babj'lonian 
exiles, 1, 332-4. 
prophecy of, leads to theoso- 

phic speculations, 2, 380-1. 
pilgrimages to the grave of, 3, 

440-1. 

inlmmanuel Romi's work, 4, 07. 

Ezer ha-Emuna, work by Moses 

Cohen de Tordesillas, 4, 141. 

Eziongeber, port on the Red 

Sea, 1, 170. 
Ezobi (Esobi). Sec Joseph Ezo- 

bi ben Chanan. 
Ezra, descent of, 1, 365. 
studies the Law, 1, 305 
leads a company of Judaeans 

to Palestine, 1, 366. 
opinion of, on intermarriages, 

2, 367-8. 
induces the Judseans to repu- 
diate their heathen wives, 1, 
368-9 
opposition to the severity of, 

1, 370. 
reads the Law in Jerusalem, 
1, 378-80. 



276 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Ezra (continued), subordinates 
the priesthood to the Scrip- 
tures, 1, 379. 

exacts an oath from the Ju- 
dseans to observe the Law, 
1, 380-1, 387-8. 

at the consecration of the 
walls of Jerusalem, 1, 381. 

guardian of the Temple, 1, 
382. 

regulations ascribed to, 1, 395. 



Ezra (continued), the chief of the 
Scribes, 2, 19. 
Mahomet on, 3, 76. 
pilgrimages to the supposed 
grave of, 3, 441. 

Ezra, Kabbalist, reduces the 
Kabbala to a sj^stem, 3, 548. 

Ezra Gatino, commentator on 
Ibn-Ezra's Pentateuch com- 
mentary, 4, 144. 



Fables, written by Meir, 2, 430. 
" Fables of Ancient Times," by 

Ibn-Sahula, 3, 5G0. 
Fabulists, list of: 

Bcrachya ben Natronal Nakdan, 

Ibu-Sahula, 

Meir. 

Fadak, submits to Mahomet, 3, 

S3. 
Fadus, Cuspius, procurator, 

strengthens Kome in .Tudira, 

2, 197. 

rising of Theudas under, 2, 

198. 
deposed. 2, 19S. 
Fagius, Paulus, disciple of 
Reuchlin, and Ellas Levita, 
4, 474. 
" Faith and Creed," by Saadiah, 

3, 197-8. 

Falaquera. See Shem-Tob Fala- 

quera. 
Falcos, the Jews of, attacked, 4, 

78. 
Falero, Abraham Aboab, builds 

the second synagogue at 

Hamburg, 4, 691. 
Faliachi, Jacob, Sabbat ian, 5, 

156. 
Falk, Jacob Joshua, rabbi of 

Metz and Frankfort, 5, 251. 
against Eibeschiitz, 5, 262, 263, 

268. 269. 



Falk, Jacob Joshua (continued), 
disciple of, 5, 2G3. 

Fall, the. See Original Sin. 

Fall, the, of the Angels, dogma 
of, in the Kabbala, 4, 292. 

Famagusta, besieged by the 
Turks, 4, 600. 
taken, 4, 601. 

" Familianten,"ijrivileged Jews, 
5, 253. 

Famine, in Israel under Ahab, 
1, 203. 
in Judah under Uzziah, 1, 229- 

30. 
in Jerusalem during the siege 

of Titus, 2, 304, 305-6. 
under Marcus Aurelius, 2, 451. 

Farchi, Chayim Maalem, Jew- 
ish minister at Accho, 5, 
460. 

Farchi, Raphael Murad, ac- 
cused of ritual murder, 5, 
639. 
restored to his position, 5, 661. 

Farchi family, the, accused of 
ritual murder. 5, 638. 

Farissol, Abraham. »9re Abra- 
ham l^arissol. 

Farnese, Alexander. See Paul 
III, pope. 

Farnese, Alexander, cardinal, 
intercedes for the Jews, 4, 
567, 



INDEX. 



277 



Faro, Count of, friend of Isaac 

Abrabanel, 4, 338. 
Faro, Jewish center in Portugal, 

4, 159. 
Farraj Ibn-Solomon (Farragut), 
physician to Cliarles of Aii- 
jou, 3, 628. 
Fars. Sec Hamadan. 
Farsistan, the Exilarch's income 

from, 3, 9G. 
Fast, proclaimed under Jehoia- 
kim, 1, 304. 
in memory of Gedaliah, 1, 

325. 
in memory of the Blois mar- 
tyrs, 3, 380-1. 
during the disputation witli 

Donin, 3, 577. 
on the anniversary of the 
burning of the Talmud, 3, 
579. 
against Gonzalo Martinez, 4, 

85. 
to avert the Black Death per- 
secutions, 4, 100. 
during the Hussite war, 4, 

225-6. 
commemorating the Nemirov 
massacre, b, 13 
Fast days, observed by the Bab- 
ylonian exiles, 1, 337. 
Fast of Tammuz abolished, by 
Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 151-2. 
by the Sabbatians, 5, 159. 
Fast of Tebeth, abolished by 

Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 143. 
" Father of the Judseans." See 

Ragesh. 
Fatimide Caliphate, the, Tal- 
mud schools established iii, 
3, 210. 
Jewish science in, 3, 211. 
fanaticism of, 3, 212. 
Joseph ben Isaac Ibn-Abitur 

in, 3, 238. 
the Jews of, persecuted, 3, 
247-8. 



Fatimide Caliphate, the {con- 
tinued), extent of, 3, 248. 
consequences of the fall of, '6, 
4C1. 

Fauma Kadin, Sarah Zevi's Ma- 
houietau name, 5, 154. 

Fayum, Saadiah's birthplace, 3, 
188. 
the Jews of, in the twelfth 
centurj', 3, 444. 

Feast of Ingathering, cele- 
brated in the eighth month, 
1, 18G. See Tabernacles, the 
feast of. 

Feast of Lights. See Chanukah. 

February revolution, the, com- 
pletes the emancipation of 
the Jews, 5, G96-7. 

Federation of the German 
states. Act of, assures citi- 
zenship to the Jews, 5, 518. 

Felgenhauer, Paul, mystic, i\Ies- 
sianic speculations of, 5, 35- 
6. 

Felix, governor of Galilee, hus- 
band of Drusilla, 2, 235, 242, 
245. 
rouses the Zealots against the 

Samaritans, 2, 243. 
sides with the Galilfeans, 2, 

244. 
procurator Of Judsea, rapacity 

ot, 2, 245. 
allied with the Sicarii, 2, 246. 
sides with the Greeks against 
the Judseans, 2, 247. 

Felix Libertate, Dutch club, 
joined by Jews, 5, 453. 

" Fence," the, about the Law, 1, 
397. 

Ferber, von, and the Jews of 
Dresden, 5, 344. 

Ferdinand I, emperor, permits 
the expulsion of the Bohe- 
mian Jews, 4, 544. 
expels the Jews from Lower 
Austria, 4, 585. 



278 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Ferdinand 1 {continued), expels 
the Jews of Prague, 4, 585-6. 

embassy of, negotiates with 
Joseph Nassi, 4, 597, 

appeals to Joseph Nassi, 4, 
601. 
Ferdinand II, emperor, reproves 
Hamburg for permitting a 
synagogue, 4, 689-90. 

protects the Jews, 4, 701-2. 

imprisons Lipmann Heller, 4, 
705. 

fines him, 4, 706. 

introduces conversion sermons 
in Vienna, 4, 706. 
Ferdinand III, emperor, ex- 
tends the rights of the Bo- 
hemian Jews, 4, 707. 
idrdinand I, of Aragon, regent 
of Castile, 4, 194. 

issues an anti-Jewish edict, 4, 
203-4. 

becomes king of Aragon, 4, 
205. 

defers to Vincent Ferrer, 4, 
206. 

arranges for the disputation 
at Tortosa, 4, 207. 

advises Benedict XIII to ab- 
dicate, 4, 216. 

threatens to besiege Benedict 
XIII, 4, 217. 

death of, 4, 217. 
Ferdinand II, of Aragon. Sen 
Ferdinand V, of Castile, the 
Catholic. 
Ferdinand III, of Castile, the 
IIol3% hostile to the Jews, 3, 
519. 

employs a Jewish physician, 
3, 537. 

Jews under, 3, "92. 
Ferdinand IV, of Castile, em- 
ploys a Jewish treasurer, 4, 
51-2. 

death of, 4, 52. 



Ferdinand V, of Castile (II, of 
Aragon), the Catholic, mar- 
riage of, 4, 280. 

ascends the throne of Castile, 
4, 284. 

avarice of, 4, 310, 318. 

sanctions the Inquisition for 
Marranos, 4, 310-11. 

obtains sanction for the Inqui- 
sition in Aragon, 4, 319. 

introduces the Inquisition into 
Iiis hereditary lands, 4, 325- 
6. 

inclined to revoke the Jewish 
edict of banishment, 4, 348. 

confiscates the possessions of 
the Jews of his hereditary 
lands, 4, 350. 

threatens Navarre for protect- 
ing Marranos, 4, 357. 

urges the expulsion of the 
Jews from Navarre, 4, 358. 

and Judah Leon Abrabanel, 4, 
384, 385. 

establishes the Inquisition at 
Benevento, 4, 385. 

Sec also Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella. 
Ferdinand (V) and Isabella (I), 
of Castile, establish the In- 
quisition in Spain, 4, 309. 

appoint the commission to 
frame tlie statute for the 
Inquisition, 4, 312. 

papal letter to, concerning the 
Inquisition, 4, 318. 

refuse to modify the rigors of 
the Inquisition, 4, 322. 

ask for an inquisitor-general, 
4, 324. 

establish the Inquisition at 
Seville, 4, 335. 

urged to expel the Jews from 
Seville, 4, 336. 

protect the Jews from chi' 
canery, 4, 336. 



INDEX. 



279 



Ferdinand (V) and Isabella (I) 
(t'oM^i/ttU'cZ), appoint Isaac Ab- 
rabanel minister of finance, 
4, 343. 

secret treaty of, with Boabdil, 
4, 345. 

enter Granada, 4, 345. 

decide on the expulsion of the 
Jews, 4, 346-7. 

proclamation of, expelling the 
Jews, 4, 347-8. 

confiscate the treasures of the 
exiles, 4, 354-5. 

censured for the expulsion of 
the Jews, 4, 35G. 

marry their daughter to 
Manoel of Tortugal, 4, 372-3. 

oppose the I'ortuguese Alar- 
ranos at Rome, 4, 379. 
Ferdinand I, of Naples, employs 
a Jewish physician, 4, 287. 

receives Spanish exiles kindly, 
4, 358-9. 

patron of Isaac Abrabanel, 4, 
359, 383. 

refuses to expel the Jews, 4, 
359-60. 

death of, 4, 360. 
Ferdinand I, of Portugal, pros- 
perity of the Jews under, 4, 
158-9. 

Jewish favorites of, 4, 159-60. 

death of, 4, 160. 
Ferdinand, duke of Braganza, 
friend of Isaac Abrabanel, 
4, 338, 340-1. 
Ferdinand de Medici, dvike of 
Tuscany, receives Jewish ex- 
iles from the Papal States, 
4, 659. 

permits the use of the expur- 
gated Talmud, 4, 659. 
Fermo, residence of Tmmanuel 

Romi, 4, 68. 
Fernando, Manuel, de Villa- 
Real, Marrano, martyr, 5, 
91. 



Ferrajo, Lucio, tries to prove 

the blood accusation out of 

the Talmud, 5, 039. 
Ferrara, liillel of Verona in, 3, 

629. 
Jewish printing house in, 4, 

289. 
Jewish exiles in, 4, 412-13. 
]\Iarranos well treated at, 4, 

526. 
refuge of the Neapolitan Jews, 

4, 544. 
Samuel Jsque at, 4, 558. 
the Talmud burnt in, 4, 565. 
a refuge for Marranos, 4, 568, 

569. 
refuge of Gracia Mendesia, 4, 

575. 
Marranos of, in distress, 4, 

581. 
refuge of the Jewish exiles 

from the Papal States, 4, 592. 
becomes part of the Papal 

States, 4, 660. 
no longer a refuge for Mar- 
ranos, 4, 661. 
earthquake in, 4, 615. 
Ferrara, the Jews of, liberties 

of, 3, G2S. 
appeal for permission to own 

the Talmud, 4, 658. 
attached to the house of Este, 

4, 660. 
Ferrer. See Vidal ben Benve- 

niste Ibn-Labi. 
Ferrer, Vincent, humility of, 4, 

200-1. 
revives flagellation, 4, 201. 
as an orator, 4, 201. 
fanaticism of, 4, 201-2. 
crusade of, against the Jews, 

4, 202. 
extorts Christian confession 

from the IMarranos, 4, 202-3. 
influences Jews to accept 

Christianity, 4, 204-5, 206. 

214. 



28o 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Ferrer, Vincent [coittiintcd), pro- 
cures the crown of Aragon 
for Ferdinand of Castile, 4, 
205, 20G. 

denounces Benedict XIII, 4, 
216. 

death of, 4, 217. 

refused aid by Joao I of Por- 
tugal, 4, 218. 

in Savoy, 4, 218. 

terror of, spreads to Germany 
and Italy, 4, 218. 

policy of, adopted by the 
Council of Basle, 4, 246. 

compared with John of Capis- 
trano, 4, 257. 

compared w^ith Bernardinus 
of Feltre, 4, 296. 
Ferrus, Pero, apostate, satirist, 

4, ISl. 
Festus, procurator of Judaea, ad- 
ministration of, 2, 247-8. 
Fettmilch, Vincent, leader of 
the Frankfort guilds against 
the Jews, 4, 69G-7. 

attacks the Jew quarter, 4,69 7. 

hanged, 4, 699-700. 
Fez, Uunash ben Labrat in, 3, 
226. 

Maimun's family in, 3, 451-6. 

forced converts emigrate to, 
4, 179. 

suffering of Spanish exiles in, 
4, 361-2. 

the Spanish exiles in, 4, 390. 
Fez, the Jews of, consult Hai 
Gaon, 3, 252. 

persecuted, 3, 360. 

fortunes of, 5, 168. 
Fezara, the, Arab tribe, promise 
assistance to the Jews of 
Chaibar, 3, 82. 
Fichte, classes Jews with the 
nobility and clergy, 5, 461. 

opposes the emancipation of 
the Jews, 5, 462, 468. 

Saul Asher refutes, 5, 463. 



Fields, the blessing of, by Jews, 

forbidden, 2, 620; 3, 44. 
Fifth Monarchy, the, believers 
in, regard the Jews favora- 
bly, 5, 23, 27. 
view of, held by Christians, 5, 

37. 
as interpreted by Manasseh 

ben Israel, 5, 38. 

believers in, fix the Messianic 

year, 5, 120. 

Firme-Fe. ^ee Nunes, Henrique. 

First-born, the, Mosaic law of, 

as interpreted under Ahaz, 

1, 261. 

Firuz (Pheroces, 457-484), Sas- 
sanian king, persecutes the 
Jews, 2, 628-30; 3, 1. 

persecutes the Jews of Ispa- 
han, 2, 629. 

closes the Jewish schools, 2, 
629. 

forces Magianism upon Jews, 

2, 629. 
death of, 2, 630. 

Firuz-Shabur (Anbar), import- 
ant Babylonian town, 2, 505. 
the Jews of, in the war be- 
tween Julian the Apostate 
and Shabur II, 2, 601. 
academjr opened at, 3, 8, 9. 
taken by Ali, 3, 90. 
Fiscus Judaicus, tax instituted 
by Vespasian, 2, 316. 
extorted from the Jews, 2, 

332. 
Sec Tax. 
" Five Evidences of the Faith," 

Sab1)atian work, 5, 162. 
Flaccus, praetor in Asia Minor, 
seizes upon the votive offer- 
ings in the Temple, 2, 68. 
defended by Cicero, 2, 68-70. 
Flaccus, Pomponius, governor 
of Syria, Agrippa I courtier 
of, 2, 175. 



INDEX. 



281 



Flaccus, Pomponius {continued), 
tool of the Alexandrians, 2, 
181. 
deprives Judaeans of Alexan- 
drian citizenship, 1, 1S2. 
deposed, 2, 1S3. 
Flagellants, the, in Hanover, 4, 
111. 
under Vincent Ferrer, 4, 201. 
condemned by the Council of 
Constance, 4, 217. 
Flanders, Spanish spoken in, by 
the exiles, 4, 387. 
Portuguese Marranos impris- 
oned in, 4, 509. 
Flavian house, the, and the 

Jews, 2, 388. 
Flavio Jacopo de Evora, on 

Amatus Lusitanus, 4, 610. 
Flavius Josephus. See Joseph 

ben Matthias. 
Florence, commerce of, in the 
fifteenth century, 4, 285. 
Elias del Medigo lectures on 

philosophy at, 4, 291. 
the Jevv's of, protected against 
Bernardinus of Feltre, 4, 
297. 
the Marranos of, not molested, 

4, 500. 

the Portuguese Jews of, 
wealthy, 5, 205. 
Florentin, Solomon, Talmudist, 
supporter of Jacob Querido. 

5, 210. 

Florus, G-essius (64-66), last pro- 
curator of Judtea, rapacity 
and profligacy of, 2, 249-50. 

favors the Sicarii, 2, 250. 

bribed by the Judseans of 
Caesarea, 2, 252-3. 

imprisons Judsean deputies, 2, 
253. 

demands a part of the Tem- 
ple treasures, 2, 253. 

in Jerusalem, 2, 253-4. 



Florus, Gessius {continued), 
plunders the upper town, 
2, 254. 
appealed to by Berenice, 2, 

254. 
demands a friendly' reception 

for his troops, 2, 254. 
troops of, attack the Temple, 

2, 255. 
leaves Jerusalem, 2, 255. 
Jerusalem rebellious towards, 

2, 258. 
refuses to aid the Peace party, 

2, 259. 
refrains from interference be- 
tween the Zealots and the 
Roman garrison in Jerusa- 
lem, 2, 261-2. 
enslaves the Judaeans in Caes- 
area, 2, 262. 
accused before Nero, 2, 268. 
Fens Vitse, philosophical work 
by Solomon Ibn-Gebirol, 3, 
270-1. See " Fountain of 
Life, The." 
Fonseca Pinto y Pimentel, Sa- 
rah de, Jewish poetess, 5, 
203. 
Fontaine, de, Countess, owns the 

Jews of Metz, 5, 348, 446. 
Fontanes, reactionary influence 

of, 5, 477, 479. 
" Fool's Voice, The," by Leo 

Modena, 5, 73. 
Forli, Hillel of Verona in, 3, 629. 

synod at, 4, 218. 
" Fortalitium Fidei," anti-Jew- 
ish work by Alfonso de Spi- 
na, 4, 277, 415. 
" Fortress, The," polemic, 4, 234. 
Fortunatus, Venantius, poet, 
celebrates the achievements 
of Avitus, 3, 39. 
Forum Judicum, Visigothic code, 
translated into Castilian, 3, 
594-5. 



282 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Fossano, French exiles settle in, 

4, 177. 
Fostat. See Cairo. 

Fould, Achilla, questions Thiers 
on the Damascus affair, 5, 
649. 
" Fountain of Life, The," (Me- 
kor Cha^-im, Fons Vitse), 
philosophical work by Solo- 
mon Ibn-Gebirol, 3, 270. 

translated into Latin, 3, 270. 

used by the schoolmen, 3, 271. 
Four Countries, the, Synod of 
(Vaad Arba Arazoth), func- 
tions of, 4, 643-4; 5, 3-4. 

authority of, 4, 644. 

supposed originator of, 4, 645. 

president of, 4, 64"). 

and the Kamieniec disputa- 
tion, 5, 281. 

forbidden to assemble, 5, 387. 

dissolution of, favorable to 
Chassidism, 5, 387. 
Fourth of August, the, glory of, 

5, 437. 

Fox Fables, the, b3^ Berach3a 

ben Natronai, 3, 560. 
Fraga, the Jews of, converted, 

4, 214. 
''■ Fragments of an Unknown." 
published by Lessing, 5, 
320-1. 

effect of, 5, 321-2. 

attributed to Mendelssohn, 5, 
322. 
France, Talmud schools estab- 
lished in, 3, 208. 

Talmudists of, imported into 
Egypt, 3, 444. 

rabbis of, emigrate to Jerusa- 
lem, 3, 505-6. 

rabbis of, in sympathy'' with 
Solomon Petit, 3, 627. 

refuge of the Jews bani.shed 
from England, 3, 046. 

quarrel about the chief rabbi- 
nate of, 4, 152-3, 162. 



France {ronlinued), the Protest- 
ant Keformation in, 4, 469. 

professorships for Hebrew in- 
stituted in, 4, 471, 473, 474. 

Portuguese Marranos arrested 
in, 4, 509. 

ambassador of, and Joseph 
Nassi, 4, 595, 598-9. 

Joseph Nassi seizes the mer- 
chant vessels of, 4, 597. 

the Measfim in, 5, 401. 

the first country to emanci- 
pate the Jews, 5, 430. 

congregations of, present ad- 
dresses to the S^'nhedrion, 
5, 496. 

Central Consistory of, keeps 
aloof from the Reform move- 
ment, 5, 572. 
France, the Jews of, participate 
in the memorial services at 
the Babylonian academies, 
3, 101. 

advanced under Charlemagne, 
3, 141. 

devote themselves to the 
Agada, 3, 100. 

under Charles the Bald, 3, 
170-4. 

decrees against, revived, 3, 
171. 

tax levied on, 3, 172. 

antagonized by Bishop Amolo, 
3, 172-3. 

exposed to Easter attacks, 3, 
173-4. 

under Charles the Simjile, 3, 
175. 

treated as the wards of the 
king, 3, 175. 

jield precedence to the Jews 
of Spain, 3, 236. 

oppressed under the last Car- 
lovingians and the first Ca- 
pets, 3, 241-2. 

the clergy arouse hatred 
against, 3, 241. 



INDEX. 



283 



France, the Jews of {continued), 

accused of using spells 

against Christians, 3, 242. 
not creative in the eleventh 

century, 3, 281. 
occupations of, 3, 281. 
comx^ared with the Christians, 

3, 281. 
devoted to the studj- of the 

Talmud, 3, 281, .343-5. 
protected during the first cru- 
sade, 3, 299. 
beginnings of culture among, 

3, 343. 
debts owing to, repudiated, 3, 

349-51. 
Louis VII roused against, 3, 

349-50. 
a persecution of, prevented, 3, 

351. 
martyrdom of, during the 

second crusade, 3, 354-6. 
Jewish culture of, 3, 357. 
and the secular courts, 3, 377. 
observe a fast for the Jews of 

Blois, 3, 380. 
banished by Philip Augustus, 

3, 402-3. 
charges against, by Innocent 

III, 3, 499. 
forbidden to employ Christian 

nurses, 3, 508. 
suffer during Gregory IX's 

crusade, 3, 570. 
forced into Christianity, 3, 

570. 
appeal to Gregory IX, 3, 570. 
under Louis IX, 3, 570-1. 
charged with us"ry, 3, 571. 
fast during the disputation 

with Donin, 3', 577. 
charged with the blood accu- 
sation, 3, 583-5. 
banished by Louis IX, 3, 585- 

6. 
return of, 3, 586. 
forced to wear a badge, 3, 612. 



France, the Jews of (continued) , 

address Solomon ben Adret 

for religious decisions, 3, 

620. 
banished by Philip IV, 3, 646; 

4, 46. 
reasons for the exile of, 4, 47. 
suffering of, 4, 47-9. 
emigrate, 4, 49. 
recalled by Louis X, 4, 53. 
conditions for the re-admls 

sion of, 4, 53-4. 
privileges of, extended by 

Philip V. 4, 54. 
massacred by the Pastoureaux. 

4, 55-7. 
accused of poisoning wells, 4, 

57. 
permitted to return by John 

the Good, 4, 129. 
privileges granted to, 4, 129- 

31, 150. 
hostility to, 4, 131, 132. 
attacked by mobs, 4, 151-2. 
refuse to submit to the Ger- 
man chief rabbi, 4, 152-3. 
conditions of the residence of. 

in France, 4, 174. 
forced into usury, 4, 174. 
banished by Charles VI, 4, 

175-6. 
remain in certain towns and 

provinces, 4, 176-7. 
settle in Germany and Italy, 

4, 177. 
number of, 5, 435. 
not united for concerted ac- 
tion, 5, 436. 
petition for admission into the 

fraternity of the French 

people, 5, 438. 
Saint Etienne speaks in behalf 

of, 5, 439. 
improvement of, planned by 

Berr Isaac Berr, 5, 449. 
interested in the government, 

5 449-50. 



284 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



France, the Jews of {continual), 
and the religion ol' lleason, 
5, 451-2. 

recognized as equals by the 
Constitution of the Direc- 
tory, 5, 452. 

object to the poll-tax in Ger- 
many, 5, 464-5. 

in danger of losing their privi- 
leges, 5, 474. 

opposed by the reactionary 
party, 5, 477-8. 

deprived temporarilj- of civil 
equality, 5, 482. 

restrictive laws for, 5, 498-9 

rights of, not curtailed after 
Napoleon's fall, 5, 512-i:>. 

restrictions against not re- 
newed, 5, 524-5. 

rapid advance of, 5, 557. 

under Polish influence, 5, 558. 

influenced by the Eeforra 
movement, 5, 582-3. 

and the Damascus affair, 5, 
644, G51. 

asked to support Cremieux's 
Eastern .schools, 5, 671. 
France, the Jews of, emancipa- 
tion of. See Emancipation 
of the French Jews, the. 
France, northern, home of Tal- 
mud ic .studies after Rashi, 
3, 2S9. 

rabbis of, at Donin's disputa- 
tion, 3, 576. 
France, northern, the Jews of, 
devoted to Talmud study, 
3, 289, 290, 345, 407-8. 

expect the Messiah, 3, 298. 

prosjierous in the twelfth cen- 
tury, 3, 343. 

banished during the third cru- 
sade, 3, 405. 

received bj' Philip Augustus, 
3, 405-6. 

not permitted to move from 
province to province, 3, 406. 



France, northern, the Jews of 
(continued), forbidden to buy 
property confiscated from 
Jews, 3, 406-7. 
treated as bondmen, 3, 407. 
naive faith of, 3, 549. 
wear Jew badges, 3, 612. 
France, southern, Judaeans in, 

2, 203. 

culture aiul rulers of, 3, 390. 

tolerance in, 3, 390. 

Spanish culture introduced 

into, 3, 392. 
Jews from, in Palestine, 3, 

427-8. 
rabbis of, renounce Solomon 

of Montpellier, 3, 539, 541. 
See also Languedoc; Xarbonne; 

Provence. 
France, southern, the Jews of, 

dependent on vassal princes, 

3, 242. 

in the twelfth century, 3, 389- 

91. 
idolize Maimonides, 3, 488-9. 
Maimonides on, 3, 492. 
relation of, to the Albigenses, 

3, 501, 513-14. 
suffer during the Albigensian 

crusade, 3, 501-3. 
not employed as state officials, 

3, 503-4. 
send delegates to the Fourth 

Lateran Council, 3, 509. 
struggle against badges, 3, 

513. 
Innocent Ill's decrees en- 
forced against, 3, 518. 
Maimunists, 3, 526-7. 
excommunicate Solomon of 

]\Iontpellier, 3, 530. 
philosophical leanings of, 3, 

549 
ordered to enter into disputn. 

tions with Pablo Christiani. 

3, 602. 



INDEX. 



285 



France, southern, the Jews of 
{continued), obtain the abro- 
gation of the law on badges, 
3, 612. 

persecuted iu tlie fourteentli 
century, 4, 53. 

during the Pastoureaux ris- 
ing, 4, 5G-7. 

massacred on the charge of 
having caused the Black 
Death, 4, 102. 

hostility towards, 4, 132. 
Francesco Maria I, duke of Ur- 
bino, brings Molcho lo Pe- 
saro, 4, 501. 
Francesco Maria II, duke of Ur- 
bino, David de Pomis dedi- 
cates a book to, 4, 657. 
Francis I, of Austria, emperor, 
imposes restrictions on the 
Jews, 5, 508. 

the Jews under, 5, 523. 

intolerance of, 5, 579. 
Francis I, of France, patron of 

Hebrew learning, 4, 473. 
Franciscans (Minorites), the, 
order of, originates in the 
Fourth Lateran Council, 3, 
509. 

persecutions by, in southern 
France, 3, 519. 

in the Maimunist controversy, 
3, 542-3. 

judges of the Talmud, 3, 575. 

free English Jews imprisoned 
on the blood accusation, 3, 
591. 

censors of the Talmud, 3, 603. 

in Hungary, 3, 614. 

mock at the Dominicans, 3,641. 

object to a synagogvie on 
Mount Zicn, 4, 274. 

espouse Eeuchlin's cause, 4, 
457. 
Franciscus of Sardinia, perse- 
cutes the Damascus Jews, 5, 
639-40. 



Franco, (Christoval) Mord-^cai 
Mendes, Marrano in Hol- 
land, 4, 667 
Franco, Nicolo, jmpal nuncio, 
urges the Inquisition for 
IMarranos, 4, 310. 
Franco, Samuel, Kabbalist, 4, 

405. 
Franconia, the Jews of, suffer 
during the Rindfleisch per- 
secution, 4, 35. 
privileges granted to, 4, 259. 
banished, 4, 259-60. 
attacked by Lutheran peas- 
ants, 4, 542. 
persecuted, 5, 529. 
Frank, Eva, daughter of Jacob 

Frank, 5, 2S9. 
Frank, Jacob, roguery of, 5, 
272. 
joins the Sabbatians, 5, 272. 
accepts Islam, 5, 272. 
Kabbalistic views of, 5, 273. 
considered an incarnation of 

the Messiah, 5, 273, 274. 
leader of the Polish Sabba- 
tians, 5, 273-4. 
praj^ers addressed to, 5, 274. 
emigrates to Turkey, 5, 276. 
advises his followers to accept 

Christianity, 5, 278-9, 284. 
invited to return to Podolia, 5, 

283. 
baptized, 5, 287-8. 
betrayed, 5, 288. 
end of the career of, 5, 289. 
Frankel, David, rabbi of Berlin, 
iSIendelssohn's teacher, 5, 
293-4. 
Frankel, Jonas, founder of the 

Breslau Seminary, 5, 700. 
Frankel, Sseckel, compiles He- 
brew prayers. 5, 564. 
Frankel, Zachariah (1801-1875). 
orthodox leader, compared 
with Holdheim, 5, 684. 



286 



HISTORY UF THE JEWS. 



Frankel, Zachariah {cuntiiiued), 
character and scientific ac- 
tivity oi', 5, 084, 6'J4-5. 

attitude oi", towards reforms, 
5, 684-5. 

at the Frankfort rabbinical 
conference, 5, 685. 

founder of the Breslau semi- 
nar}', 5, 700. 
Frankenberg, Abraham von, 
mystic, on the restoration 
of Israel, 5, 24. 
Frankfort, duchj- of, created, 5, 

505. 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, diet at, 
to consider the Jewish ques- 
tion, 4, 463, 464. 

Jews tolerated in, 4, 086. 

refuses to receive Portuguese 
Jews, 4, 695. 

Polish-Jewish fugitives in, 5, 
16. 

rabbis of, Poles, 5, 17, 20G. 

Joseph Delmedigo at, 5, 80. 

" Judaism Unmasked " printed 
at, 5, 189. 

Judah Chassid at, 5, 21.',. 

Moses ^leir Kamenker at, 5. 
229-30. 

Borne's life in. 5, 539. 

without a rabbi, 5, 500. 

Talmud school of, closed, 5, 
567. 

honor shown to Crcmieux at, 
5, 668. 

the Reform movement in. 5, 
674. 

rabbinical conference at, 5, 
683-4, 685-6. 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, the 

Jews of, burn themselves 
to escape persecution. 4, 
109. 

charged with child murder, 
4. 299-300. 

threatened with expulsion, 4, 
417, 696 



Frankfort-on-the-Main, the 

Jews of {contiiiiwil), confis- 
cation of the books of, by 
Pfefferkorn, 4, 429-30, 438. 

appeal to Uriel von Gemmin- 
gen, 4, 430. 

send a representative to Maxi- 
milian I, 4, 430-1, 436-7. 

extermination of, suggested 
by Pfefferkorn, 4, 403. 

submit disputes to the Polish 
Talmudists, 4, 639. 

number of, 4, 694. 

antipathy to, 4, 694-5. 

restrictions imposed on, 4, 
695-6, 700. 

houses of labeled, 4, 696.- 

attacked by Fettmilch, 4, 697. 

flee, 4, 697-8. 

re-admitted, 4, 699. 

celebrate Purim-Vincent, 4, 
700. 

protected by Ferdinand IT, 4, 
701. 

oppose Eibeschiitz's Talmiid 
edition, 5, 251. 

petition for emancipation, 5, 
465-6. 

miserable condition of, 5, 466. 

relieved of the poll-tax, 5, 468. 

oppressed, 5, 503. 

freed from the Ghetto, 5, 504. 

new laws for, 5, 50J-5. 

emancipation of, 5, 505. 

under restrictions after Na- 
poleon's fall, 5, 512. 520. 

send deputies to the Congress 
of Vienna, 5, 513. 

relj' on Prussia and Austria, 
5, 520-1. 

persecuted. 5, 529. 

purchase political rights, 5, 
541. 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, the sen- 
ate of, orders the siirrender 
of Hebrew books, 4, 429. 



INDEX. 



287 



Frankf ort-on-tlie-Main, the sen- 
ate of {coil tin lied), withdraws 
aid from rfelTerkorn, 4, 4o0. 

forbids the sale of Hebrew 
books, 4, 431. 

protects Hebrew books on sale 
at the Fair, 4, 438. 

directed to return the Hebrew 
books, 4, 439. 

discusses the emancipation of 
tlie Jews, 5, 598. 

and circumcision, 5, 676-7. 
Frankfort-on-the-Oder, tlie the- 
ological faculty of, permits 
Jews to live in Hamburg, 4, 
687. 

Jews settle in, 5, 174. 

regulations for the Fair at, 5, 
415. 
Frankfurter, Naphtali, devotee 
of the Kabbala, 5, 55. 

complains of the scorn for the 
Talmud, 5, 56. 
Frankists, the, Sabbatian sect, 
origin of, 5, 274. 

opposed to Rabbinical Juda- 
ism, 5, 274. 

charged with dissoluteness, 5, 
275-6. 

excommunicated, 5, 276-7. 

the persecution of, sanctioned 
bj^ Emden, 5, 278. 

handed over to the Inquisi- 
tion, 5, 278. 

inclined towards Christianity, 
5, 27S-9. 

attacked b}^ the Talmud Jews, 
5, 279. 

charge the Talmud Jews with 
the blood accusation, 5, 279. 

favored by Bishop Dembowski, 
5, 279-80. 

disputations of, with the Tal- 
mudists, 5, 280, 281, 286-7. 

confession of faith by, 5, 280, 
285. 

persecuted, 5, 283. 



Frankists, the (contUmcd) , ap- 
ply for baptism, 5, 284. 
baptized, 5, 287. 
customs of, 5, 289. 
families descended from, 5, 

289. 
regard Eibeschiitz as the 
great Gaon, 5, 289. 
Frankists, list of: 

Chaj'u, daughter of Elisha Schor, 
Krysa, Jehu da Lob 
Nachman bon Samuel T.evi, 
Schor, Elisha 
Solomon of Rohatyn. 

Franks, the, the empire of, in- 
dependent of the Church, 3, 
37. 

Jew hatred introduced into, 3, 
38-9. 

extent of, under Charlemagne, 
3, 142. 

Jews spread in, 3, 144. 
Franks, the, the empire of, the 
Jews of, permitted to carry 
on tlie slave trade, 3, 34. 

not considered a separate race, 
3, 35. 

occupations of, 3, 35-6. 

protected by Charlemagne, 3, 
142. 

education of, cared for by 
Charlemagne, 3, 143. 

oath imposed on, 3, 144. 

under Louis the Pious, 3, 161-' 
70. 

have free access to court, 3, 
162. 

sj'nagogues of, visited by 
Christians, 3, 163. 

and Agobard of Lyons, 3, 164- 
8. 
Frederick I Barbarossa, em- 
peror, considers the Jews 
" servi camerae," 3, 416-17. 

includes Jews in his general 
peace, 3, 418. 



288 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Frederick II, emperor, Jews un- 
der, 3, 516. 

introduces the Jew badge into 
Naples and Sicily, 3, 518. 

Gregory IX the enemy of, 3, 
519. 

patron of learning, 3, 565. 

corresponds with a Jewish 
scholar, 3, 565-6. 

brings Jacob Anatoli to Na- 
ples, 3, 566-7. 

reproached with heterodoxy, 

3, 567, 580. 

excludes Jews from public 
offices, 3, 567. 

censures Frederick the Val- 
iant, 3, 569. 

executes the decrees of the 
Fourth Lateran Council, 3, 
569. 

lays imposts upon Jewish im- 
migrants, 3, 569. 

forces Innocent IV to retire to 
Lyons, 3, 584. 

the Jews persecuted after the 
death of, 3, 611. 
Frederick III, emperor, has a 
Jewish favorite, 4, 224. 

accession of, 4, 249. 

Jews under, 4, 293-4. 

claims the Jews of Ratisbon, 

4, 300, 416. 

orders Israel Bruna's release, 
4, 303. 

defers Israel Bruna's execu- 
tion, 4, 304. 

protects the Jews of Ratisbon, 

4, 305-6. 

recommends the Jews to his 
son, 4, n:;. 

daughter of, 4, 428. 

Reuchlin at the court of, 4, 

433. 
ennobles Reuchlin, 4, 435. 
Frederick V, of Denmark, and 

the Eibeschiitz controversy', 

5, 265, 269, 271. 



Frederick V (continued), wife of, 

5, 267. 
reinstates Eibeschiitz, 5, 268. 
Frederick I, of Prussia, Jews 

under, 5, 190-1. 
and the Alenu prayer, 5, 191- 

2. 
exerts himself in behalf of 

" Judaism Unmasked, 5, 

192-3. 
lajs the Midrash Rabba under 

the ban, 5, 194-5. 
court-Jewess of, 5, 219. 
Frederick II, the Great, of Prus- 
sia, at war with Austria, 5, 

251. 
reputed patron of the Jews, 5, 

251. 
the Jews of Berlin under, 5, 

294. 
illiberality of, 5, 296. 
poetry of, criticised by INfen- 

delssohn, 5, 302. 
summons Mendelssohn to 

Sans-Souci, 5, 302-3. 
makes Mendelssohn a "Schutz- 

jude," 5, 304. 
antipathy of, to Jews, 5, 304. 
objects to Mendelssohn as a 

luember of the Berlin Acad- 
emy, 5, 308. 
enraged against Voltaire, 5, 

339. 
appoints Dohm superinten- 
dent of the archives, 5, 351. 
in need of money, 5, 396. 
culture imder, 5, 410-11. 
popularizes French literature, 

5, 411. 
treatment of the Jews by, 5, 

414, 415. 
Frederick the Valiant, archduke 

of Austria, Jewish statute 

of, 3, 567-9. 
introduced into a number of 

countries, 3, 569, 613-14. 



INDEX. 



289 



Frederick the Valiant, Jewish, 
statute of (continued), con- 
firmed by liudolph of Ilabs- 
burg, 3, (j;i5. 
confirmed in Poland, 4, 111. 

Frederick, elector palatine, cor- 
responds with Abraham Za- 
cuto Lusitano, 4, G78. 
re-admits the Jews into 
Worms, 4, G99. 

Frederick the Wise, elector of 
Saxony, patron of Luther, 4, 
469. 

Frederick, commissioner sent by 
Louis the Pious to Agobard, 
3, 166. 

Frederick Franz, duke of ]\Ieck- 
lenburg, emancipates the 
Jews, 5, 507. 

Frederick William, elector of 
Brandenburg, invites Jew- 
ish exiles to his state, 5, 
173-4. 

Frederick William I, of Prussia, 
court Jew of, 5, 219. 

Frederick William II, of Prus- 
sia, and the emancipation 
of the Jews, 5, 414, 416. 
Mirabeau on Prvissia under, 5, 

419. 
abrogates the poll-tax, 5, 464. 

Fredei'ick William III, of Prus- 
sia, tutor of, 5, 372. 
attends Herz's lectures, 5, 406. 
grants some political rights to 

Jews, 5, 507, 508. 
nullifies the emancipation of 

the Jews, 5, 524. 
interrupts the Keform move- 
ment in Berlin, 5, 563. 
forbids Jews to bear Christian 
names, 5, 630. 

Free Towns, the. See Hanse 
Towns, the. 

Freedom of Conscience, in the 
French National Assembly, 
5, 439. 



Freemasons' Lodge, the first 
Jewish, hearth of the Re- 
form movement, 5, 674. 
Freiburg, the Jews of, pro- 
tected during the Black 
Death j)ersecutions, 4, 106. 
burnt, 4, 107. 
French, the, in Naples, 4, 384. 
French literature, attracts the 

German Jews, 5, 411. 
French Revolution, the, charac- 
terized, 5, 429. 
outbreak of, 5, 435, 
excesses of, 5, 436-7. 
progress of, 5, 441. 
Jews take no part in the atro- 
cities of, 5, 450. 
reaction from, 5, 477-8. 
French translation, a, of the 

Bible projected, 5, 449. 
Frenks, the. See Frankists, the. 
Fresco, Moses, rabbi of Con- 
stantinople, urges the Jews 
to study Turkish, 5, 664. 
Friedlander, Barmann, promi- 
nent Konigsberg Jew, 5, 397. 
Friedlander, David (1750-1834), 
promotes the revival among 
Jews, 5, 397. 
successor to Mendelssohn, 5, 

412. 
urges the abolition of the 

Jewish poll-tax, 5, 414. 
representative of the Berlin 

Jewish community, 5, 415. 
director of the Berlin Free 

School, 5, 416. 
mediocrity of, 5, 417. 
deplores the decay of morality 

among Jews, 5, 419. 
makes overtures to the 

Church, 5, 421-2, 426. 
children of, baptized, 5, 422. 
leaves attacks on Judaism un- 
answered, 5, 469. 
consulted by Jacobson, 5, 502. 



290 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Friedlander, David {coiitiiiucd), 
efforts of. for the emancipa- 
tion of the Jews, 5, 508. 
on the "hep, hep! " persecn- 

tions. 5, 534. 
influence of, on Heine, 5, 54(5. 
Heine's criticism of, 5, 547. 
followers of, criticised by Ber- 

naj's, 5, 574-5. 
and ISIannheimer, 5, 580. 
member of the Society for 

Culture, 5, 58:5. 
Jost a disciple of, 5, 595. 
Friedlander, Meyer, prominent 

Konig-sberg- Jew, 5, 397. 
Friedlander, Wolf, prominent 

K()nig"sberg' Jew, 5, 397. 

Friedrichsfeld, David, one of 

the Measfim, 5, 400. 

refutes Van Swieden, 5, 454. 

" Friends of Reform," Society 

of the, 5, G75-G. 
Fries, J. F., attacks the Jews, 

5, 5:?1. 
Friesland, East, Jews live in, 4, 

CGo. 
Frohbach, astronomical work 

by, 4, G3S. 
Fronto, guardian of Jerusalem. 

2, 311. 

Fuero juzgo, Visig'othic code, 

translated, 3, 594-5. 
Fueros, Spanish law of custom. 

grants citizenship to Jews, 

3, 292. 

" Fulfillment of Prophecy, The," 
by I'ierre Jurieu, 5, 176. 

Fulko de Neuilly, jireaches the 
third crusade, 3, 405 

Fulvia, Roman patrician, prose- 
lyte, 2, 13G, 215. 

Funes, the Jews of, attached, 4, 
78. 



Furin al-Mizrayim, Purim of 

Cairo, 4, 39G. 
Furtado, Abraham, member of 

Maleslierbes' commission, 5, 

432. 
a representative French Jew, 

5, 436. 
deputy of the French Jews, 5, 

438. 
ancestrj^ and jouth of, 5, 483. 
role played by, during' the 

Revolution, 5, 483. 
president of the Assembly of 

Jewish Notables, 5, 487. 
speech of, in answer to the 

imperial commissioners, 5, 

489-90. 
speeches of, before the Sj'^n- 

hedrion, 5, 495, 497. 
view held b^', of Judaism, 5, 

496. 
informs Napoleon of ant i- Jew- 
ish agitation, 5, 498. 
Fiirth, the Jews of. indifferent 

to the confiscation of He- 
brew books, 4, 438, 
rabbis of, Poles, 5, 17. 
Jewish exiles from Vienna 

settle in, 5, 173. 
interdicts Mendelssohn's Pen- 
tateuch translation, 5, 331- 

2. 
Talmud school of, closed, 5, 

567. 
rabbi of, opposes the Reform 

movement. 5, 571. 
honor shown to Cremieux at, 

5, 668 
Future life, the, doctrine of, 1, 

^04-6. 
iu the Mishna, 2, 473. 



INDEX. 



291 



G 



Gabaot, Roman cami) under 

Cestius Uallus, 2, 265-6. 
Gabara, ordered not to protect 

Josephus, 2, 281. 
taken by Vespasian, 2, 286. 
Gabata, Galilaean fortress, 2, 56. 
Gabinius, Aulus, governor of 

Syria, subdues Alexander, 

2, 70. 
divides Judjea into provinces, 

2, 71. 

defeats Alexander, 2, 7:!. 
Gabriel, the name of an angel, 
1, 403. 
makes revelations to Mahomet, 

3, 71. 

Gad, Chaldsean god of fortune, 
1, 340. 

Gad, prophet, joins David, 1, 
100, 113. 
orders David to sacrifice on 
Mt. Moriah, 1, 138. 

Gad, the tribe of, asks for land 

east of the Jordan, 1, 29-30. 

appeals to Samuel for help, 1, 

80. 
territory of, taken by Hazael, 

1, 220. 
descendants of, in Chaibar, 3, 
437. 

Gadara, incorporated with Ju- 
daea, 2, 103. 

Gaffarelli, Jacob, Christian Kab- 
balist, taught by Leo !Mode- 
na, 5, 71. 

Gailan, emir, persecutes Sabbn- 
tians, 5, 151. 
oppresses the Jews, 5, 168. 

Galaigo, Joseph Chayim, ad- 
dresses Mendelssohn, 5, 369. 

Galaistes, governor of Gabata, 
assists Aristobulus, 2, 56. 

Galante, Moses, adherent of 
Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 132. 

Galatia, a Greek-Christian com- 
munity in, 2, 227. 



Galatino, interested in the Kab- 

bala, 4, '481, 583. 
Galba, emperor, short reign of, 

3, 299. 
Galen, writings of, elaborated 

by Maimonides, 3, 473. 
Galerius, emperor, persecutes 

Christianity, 2, 539. 
Galicia, the Jews of, proscribed 
b3' the Council of Buda, 3, 
614. 
resist the opening of secular 

schools, 5, 394. 
described by Eohrer, 5, 472. 
taxed, 5, 508. 
oppressed, 5, 523. 
aiTected by the Reform move 

ment, 5, 582. 
beginnings of culture amoiig'. 

5, 611-12. 
improvement of, undertake:! 
by the " Israelitische Al- 
lianz," 5, 703. 
Galician school, the, founders 
of, 5, 607. 
Hebrew stj'le of, 5, 617. 
contribute to the Kerem 

Chemed, 5, 621. 
inspire the contributors to the 
Scientific Journal, 5, 625. 
Galilasan Synod, the, second as- 
sembl^^ of the teachers of 
the Law at Usha, 2, 434. 
Galilasans, name given to Chris- 
tians, 2, 596. 
Galilee, lake, description of, 1, 

42. 
Galilee, province, description of, 
1, 45. 
Gelil Haggo.yim, 1, 164. 
appeals to Judas Maccabasuu, 

1, 475. 
rescued b3^ Simon Tharsi, 1, 

475. 
Judfeans of, omiVrate, 1, 475. 
JudfPans of, killed. 1, 486. 



292 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Galilee {contiitucd), restored to 
Jiidsea, 2, 76. 

declares in favor of Antigonus, 
2, 85. 

subdued by Herod, 2, 87. 

given to Herod Antipas, 2, 
119. 

Roman troops in, to fight Ju- 
das the Galilaean, 2, 126. 

under Herod Antipas, 2, i:i7. 

lack of culture in, 2, 148. 

morality in, 2, 148. 

language of, 2, 148-9. 

Jesus in the towns of, 2, 157. 

a Messiah from, not accepta- 
ble, 2, 161. 

given to Agrippa I, 2, 177. 

pilgrims from, murdered, 2, 
243. 

under the command of Jose- 
phus, 2, 272, 278-9. 

divided into Upper and Lower, 
2, 272. 

civil war in, 2, 282-3. 

strength of, broken by Jose- 
phus, 2, 285, 286. 

subject to Rome, 2, 288. 

Zealots of, possess three forti- 
fied places, 2, 289. 

end of the Roman conquest of, 
2, 290. 

fugitives from, in Jerusalem, 
2, 291. 

recovers under Jewish gover- 
nors, 2, 333. 

the seat of the Synhedrion, 2, 
458. 

Babylonian stiulents in the 
academies of, 2, 511. 

first churches in, 2, 565. 

Jews inhabit the cities of, in 
the sixth centurj% 3, 12. 

prevalence of mysticism in, 4, 
617. 
Gfililee, the Jews of, join the 
Persian general, 3, 19. 



Galilee, the Jews of (continued), 

join an expedition against 

the Christians of Tyre, 3, 20. 

Galileo, teacher of Josejih Del- 

medigo, 5, 75, 
Gallaico, Elisha. <S'('e Elisha Gal- 

laico. 
Gallienus, emperor with Odena- 

thus, 2, 528. 
Gallipoli, the Jews of, in the 

twelfth century, 3, 424. 
Gallus, emperor, campaign of, 
against the Persians, 2, 568. 
death of, 2, 572. 
Gallus, Cestius, governor of 
Syria, on the turbulent 
state of Judffia, 2, 250-1. 
arranges a demonstration in 

Jerusalem in 66, 2, 251-2. 
in communication with the 

Peace party, 2, 257. 
sends a deputy to Jerusalem, 

2, 257. 
campaign of, near Jerusalem, 

2, 264-6. 
retreats, 2, 266-7, 
losses of, 2, 267. 
death of, 2, 284. 
Gama, Vasco da, aided by Jo- 
seph Yecinho's instruments, 
4, 367. 
Gamala, capital of Gaulanitis, 
taken by Alexander Jan- 
na^us, 2, 45. 
birthplace of Judas the Gali- 

Ijean, 2, 125. 
focus of insurrection in Gali- 
lee, 2, 273. 
impregnable position of, 2, 

274. 
refuge of the Babylonian Ju- 

da^ans, 2, 275. 

revolts from Agrippa II, 2, 275. 

taken by Vespasian, 2, 289-90. 

Gamaliel I, the Elder, grandson 

of Hillel, president of the 

Synhedrion, 2, 192-3. 



INDEX. 



293 



<Gramaliel I (continued), gentle 
reforms of, 2, 193. 

grants heathens the right of 
gleaning, 2, 478. 
Gamaliel II, Patriarch, presi- 
dent of the Jamnia Synlie- 
drion, 2, 334. 

tries to reconcile the schools 
of Hillel and Shammai, 2, 
335, 33G-8. 

humanity of, 2, 336, 

regulates the calendar, 2, 33G, 
356. 

journeys of, 2, 336. 

character of, misunderstood, 
2, 336. 

inquires into the character of 
students of the Law, 2, 338- 
9. 

uses excommunication, 2, 339- 
40, 347. 

contest of, with Joshua ben 
Chananya, 2, 340-2. 

deposed, 2, 341. 

rejects Moabites and Ammon- 
ites as proselytes, 2, 343. 

reconciled with Joshua, 2, 
344-5. 

reinstated, 2, 345. 

opposes Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, 
2, 347. 

death of, 2, 350, 404, 479. 

introduces set prayers, 2, 363. 

supposed relation of, to the 

. Jewish Christians, 2, 379. 

and Akylas, 2, 385. 

journey of, to Eome, 2, 387. 

and Flavins Clemens, 2, 387, 
389, 391. 

influences Nerva, 2, 392. 

funeral of, 2, 404. 

sons of, 2, 404, 479. 
Gam.aliel III, Patriarch, in- 
structions of his father to, 
2, 466. 

recommends trades, 2, 467. 



Gamaliel III {continued), advises 
caution in intercourse with 
the Romans, 2, 467-8. 

and Abba-Areka, 2, 512. 
Gamaliel IV, Patriarch, scant 
knowledge of the Law of, 
2, 532. 
Gamaliel V, Patriarch, succes- 
sor to Hillel II, 2, 612. 
Gamaliel VI (Batraah, 370-425), 
last of the Patriarchs, 2, 
612. 

dignities bestowed on, 2, 617- 
18. 

physician, 2, 618. 

last of the house of Hillel, 2, 
618. 
Gans, David. See David Cans. 
Gans, Edward, apostate, 5, 551, 
5S7. 

founder of the Society for Cul- 
ture, 5, 583. 

selfishness of, 5, 585. 

reproaches the Jews, 5, 586. 

desires a professorship, 5, 587. 

compared with Riesser, 5, 600. 

compared with Steinheim, 5, 
607. 
Gaon, title of the principal of 
the Sora Academy, 3, 90-1, 
93. 

of the principal of the Pum- 
beditha academj% 3, 93, 177. 

of Isaac Ibn-Sakni, 3, 285. 

of the head of the Bagdad col 
lege, 3, 429. 

0-: Samuel ben Ali Halevi, 3, 
438. 

of Eibeschiitz, 5, 289. 

of Elijah Wilna, 5, 389. 

See also Gaonate, the; Geonim, 
the; Pumbeditha, the acad- 
emy of, principals of; Sora, 
the academy of, principals 
of. 
Gaon of Castile, Isaac Campan- 
ton, 4, 230. 



294 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Gaonate, the, Anan ben David 
hostile to, 3, 130. 
European and African Jews 

independent of, 3, 208, 210. 
decline of, 3, 231, 253. 
See also Gaon; Geonim, the. 
Garcilaso, Spanish ambassador 
to Rome, opposes the Portu- 
ijuese Marranos, 4, 379. 
Gascony, the Jews of, under 
Henry II, 3, 409. 
banished, 3, 640. 
during- the Pastoureaux mas- 
sacres, 4, 56. 
" Gate of Heaven, The," Kabba- 
listic work by Abraham de 
Herrera, 5, 54. 
Gates, the, of the second Tem- 
ple, 2, 111. 
Gath, Philistine city, 1, 54, 80. 
surrendered to the Israelites, 

1, 117. 

returned to the Philistines, 1, 

117-18. 
conquered by Hazael, 1, 221. 
conquered by Uzziah, 1, 231. 
" Gatherer, The," (Ha-Meassef), 
a Hebrew journal, 5, 399. 
editors of, 5, 400. 
interest in, 5, 403, 404. 
contributors to, in Berlin, 5, 
411. 
Gatino, Ezra. See Ezra Gatino. 
Gaucelin, de, lords of Liinel, 

Jews under, 3, 390. 
Gaul, early Jewish settlements 

in, 3, 35. 
Gaul, the Jews of, 3, 35-40. 
names borne by, 3, 30. 
intermarry with Christians, 

3, 36. 
obey the dietary laws, 3, 36. 
treated with hostility', 3, 37- 
40. 
Gaulanitis (Gaulouitis), invad- 
ed by Alexander Jannseus, 

2, 44, 45. 



Gaulanitis {continued), given to 
Philip, 2, 119, 
given to Agrippa II, 2, 245. 
a field in, given to Judah II, 
2, 482. 
Gauls, body-guard of Cleopatra, 

given to Herod, 2, 103. 
Gayo da Rieti. See Moses ben 

Isaac da Rieti. 
Gayo, Maestro. See Isaac ben 

INIordecai. 
Gaza, Pliilistine port, 1, 54. 
left in possession of the Phil- 
istines, 1, 117. 
frontier town of Israel, 1, 129. 
taken by Necho, 1, 297. 
taken by Alexander the Great, 

1, 412. 
battle of, 1, 417. 

Greek citizens of, resist Jo- 
seph, 1, 425. 

Jewish prisoners sold at the 
slave markets of, 2, 419. 

proclaimed the Holy City of 
the Sabbatians, 5, 132. 

Jews of, flee before Napoleon. 
5, 459. 
Gaza, the district of, overrun by 
Alexander Jannseus, 2, 40. 

surrenders to Ptolemy VIII, 

2, 40. 

taken by Alexander Jannaeus, 

2, 41. 
Gazara, fortified by Bacchides, 

1, 491. 
surrenders to Simon Tharsi, 

1, 523. 

fortified by Simon Tharsi, 1, 

524. 
the son of Simon Tharsi at, 1, 

525. 
claimed by Antiochus Sidetes, 

2, 4-5. 

a Synhedrion established at, 
2, 71. 
Geba. See Gibeah. 



INDEX. 



295 



Gredaliah, son of Ahikam, over- 
seer of the JudcEiin fug-i- 
tives, 1, 315. 
governor of Judah, disciple of 

Jeremiah, 1, 319. 
guardian of Zedekiah's daugh- 
ters, 1, 319. 
joined by Jeremiah, 1, 320. 
erects a sanctuary at Mizpah, 

1, 321. 
informed of Ishmael's treach- 
ery, 1, 322. 
murder of, 1, 322. 
a fast on the anniversary of 
the murder of, 1, 325. 
Gedaliah Levi, quarrels with 

Vital Calabrese, 5, 52. 
Gedalya Ibn-Yachya (of the 
Italian branch, 1515-1587), 
historian, expelled from Ka- 
venna, 4, 592. 
works of, 4, 616. 
consulted by Basnage, 5, 196. 
Gedalya Ibn-Yachya I (of the 
Turkish branch), patron of 
Jewish literature, 4, 609. 
Gedalya Ibn-Yachya II, patron 

of Jewish literature, 4, 609. 
Gehazi, disciple of Elisha, 1, 218. 
recounts Elisha's deeds, 1, 223. 
Ge-henna. See Hinnom. 
Geiger, Abraham (1810-1874), 
scholar, characteristics of, 
5, 626. 
attitude of, towards the Tal- 
mud, 5, 626, 669. 
devoted to the reform of Ju- 
daism, 5, 626. 
journal of, 5, 626, 632. 
at the Frankfort rabbinical 
conference, 5, 685. 
Gelasius, pope, kind to Jews, 3, 

29. 
Geldern, Betty von, Heine's 

mother, 5, 545. 
Gelil Haggoyim, 1, 164. See 
Galilee. 



Gelimer, grandson of Genseric, 
in the triumph of IJelisarius, 

3, 26. 

Gemara. Sec Talmud, the Baby- 
lonian. 

Gemara di Bene Ma'araba. See 
Talmud, the Jerusalem. 

Gematria, Kabbalistic term, 4, 
5. 

Gemmingen, Uriel von, arch- 
bishop of Mayence, the 
Frankfort Jews appeal to, 

4, 430. 

not friendly to Pfefferkorn, 4, 

430, 431. 
appointed commissary, 4, 437. 
and the confiscation of He- 
brew books, 4, 437, 441. 
favors the Jews, 4, 438. 
dela^ys the execution of the 
judgment against Eeuchlin, 
4, 452. 
" General Privilege " for the 
Jews, issued by Frederick 
the Great, 5, 304. 
Genesareth. See Tiberias, lake. 
Genesis, treatise on, by Samuel 

Ibn-Tibbon, 3, 398. 
Geneva, the lake of, scene of 
Black Death persecutions, 
4, 103-4. 
Genoa, commerce of, in the fif- 
teenth century, 4, 285. 
suffering of the Spanish exiles 

in, 4, 362-3. 
Judah Leon Abrabanel in, 4, 
384. 
Genoa, the Je'ws of, under the 
Ostrogoths, 3, 28. 
seek permission to repair the 

synagogue, 3, 30. 
in the twelfth century, 3, 424. 
banished, 4, 553-4. 
Genseric, the Vandal, carries 
the Temple vessels to Africa, 
2, 611. 



296 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Gentz, Frederick von, 011 Jew- 
ish women, 5, 413. 
immorality of, 6, 4215. 
reactionary leader, 5, 477, 512. 
Geonim, the, beginning of the 

epoch of, 3, 90-1. 
history of, dark, 3, 92. 
duties of, 3, 93. 
power of, as viewed by the 

Jews of distant lands, 3, 

100. 
decisions of, binding, 3, 118-19. 
opposed to the Exilarchs, 3, 

137. 
literary works of, in the ninth 

century, 3, 178-9. 
favor scientific pursuits, 3, 

187. 
responses of, criticised, 3, 198. 
chronicle of, bj^ Sherira, 3, 

233. 
Talmudic work of, surpassed 

bj' Spanish Talmudists, 3, 

282. 
See also Gaon; Gaonate, the; 

Pumbeditha, the academy 

of, principals of; Sora, the 

academy of, principals of. 
George II, of England, ratifies 

the naturalization of the 

Jews, 5, 337-8. 
George, of Hesse, forbids the 

use of a sentence in the 

.vleuTi praj-er, 5, 185. 
George, bishop of Speyer, tries 

the Reuchlin - Hoogstraten 

case, 4, 454-5. 
Gepidse, the, overrun Rome, 3, 

27. 
Gerasa, besieged by Alexander 

Jannrpns, 2, 45. 
Gere ha-Zedek, true proselytes, 

in the fhiily prayers, 2, 384. 
Gerizim, Mount, description of, 

1, 45. 
the Samaritan Temple on, 1, 

390. 



Gerizim, Mount (contmucd). 
Temple of, destroyed, 2, 8. 
temple to Jupiter on, 2, 422. 
Gerlach, archbishop of May- 
ence, obtains Jews as " servi 
camerse," 4, 12S. 
German-Frankish empire, the. 
Sec Franks, the, the empire 
of. 
German language, the, carried 
to Poland by German Jews, 
4, 421. 
German merchants antagonize 

Jews in Toland, 4, G32. 
G«rman translation of the Bible 
by Luther, 4, 4G9, 475. 
by Sachs, 5, 693. 
German translation of the Pen- 
tateuch by Mendelssohn. 
See under Pentateuch, the. 
Germans, the simplicity of, 4, 
422. 
purity of, 4, 423. 
Germanus, Moses, proselyte, 5, 

177-8. 
Germany, Jewish emigrants 
from, held up in Lombardj', 
3, 638-9. 
refuge of the Jews banished 

from England, 3, 646. 
preferred to Spain by the 

Asherides, 4, 90, 96. 
re-admits Jews soon after the 

Black Death, 4, 127-8. 
French exiles settle in, 4, 177. 
exiles from, take refuge in Po- 
land, 4, 2G3. 
exiles from, form a congrega- 
tion in Constantinople, 4, 
402. 
professorships for Hebrew in- 
stituted ill. 4, 471. 
Messianic hoj)es connected 
with Solomon IMolcho in, 4, 
497. 
Portuguese Marranos perish 
in, 4, 509. 



INDEX. 



297 



Germany (continued), religious 

parties in, 5, 25. 
the Sabbatian movement in, 5, 

160, 22s. 
Chayim Malach in, 5, 214. 
feeling of solidarity developed 

in, 5, 51."). 
the romantic movement in, 5, 

515-16. 
debt of, to Borne and Heine, 

5, 556. 
See also Franks, the, the em- 
pire of. 
Germ.any, the Jews of, in the 

sixth century, 3, 40-1. 
advanced under Charlemagne, 

3, 141. 
yield precedence to the Jews 

of Spain, 3, 23G. 
under the Saxon emperors, 3, 

241, 242-3. 
compelled to be tradesmen, 3, 

242-3. 
lack of culture among, 3, 243. 
not creative in the eleventh 

century, 3, 281. 
occupations of, 3, 281. 
compared with the Christians, 

3, 281. 
devoted to the study of the 

Talmud, 3, 281, 419. 
suffer during the crusades, 3, 

297, 351-4. 
under Henry IV, 3, 298. 
expect the Messiah, 3, 298. 
dependent on the emperor, 3, 

308. 
gloom and bigotry of, 3, 309. 
debts owing to, repudiated by 

the pope, 3, 349. 
become " servi camerse," 3, 

356-7, 416-17, 516, 569. 
degradation of, 3, 357. 
in the twelfth centurj^ 3, 

416-21. 
protected by the emperors 

during the crusades, 3, 416. 



Germany, the Jews oi (continued). 

privileges of, 3, 417-18. 
massacred under Henry VI, 3, 

418-19. 
high morality of, 3, 419. 
little affected by the Fourth 

Lateran Council, 3, 516-17. 
heavilj' taxed, 3, 517. 
naive faith of, 3, 549. 
accused of aiding Jenghis- 

Khan, 3, 580-1. 
charged with the blood accu- 
sation, 3, 583-5, 635. 
persecuted after Frederick 

II's death, 3, 611-12. 
address Solomon ben Adret 

for religious decisions, 3, 

620. 
in the Maimunist controversj', 

3, 624. 

piety of, 3, 625. 

determine to emigrate, 3, 634, 

637. 
offer to ransom Mei'r of Koth- 

enburg, 3, 639-40. 
persecuted by Eindfleisch, 4, 

35-7. 
neglect the Talmud in the 

fourteenth century, 4, 96. 
under Louis IV, 4, 96-7. 
during the Armleder persecu- 
tions, 4, 97-8. 
during the Black Death jjer- 

secutions, 4, 105-111. 
intellectual decay among, 4, 

133-4. 
effect of persecution on, 4, 166. 
under Sigismund, 4, 218. 
privileges of, confirmed, 4, 219. 
liturgy of, compiled by Maha- 

ril, 4, 225. 
fast during the Hussite wars, 

4, 225-6. 

neglect the Talmud in the fif- 
teenth century, 4, 227. 

hatred of, increases, 4, 248; 5, 
528, 532-3. 



298 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Germany, the Jews of (coH/iH!/fd), 

bear the expenses of the 

Council of Constance, 4, 248. 
under Albert II, 4, 'Z-i9. 
terrified by John of Capis- 

trano, 4, 258. 
urged to emigrate to Turkey, 

4, 271-3. 
under Frederick III, 4, 293-1, 

413, 
influence the Jews of Italy, 4, 

294. 
speak a corrupt jargon, 4, 3SS- 

9. 
representative of, 4, 414. 
uncertain lot of, under Maxi- 
milian I, 4, 414-15. 
find a refuge in Poland, 4, 418, 

420. 
carry the German language to 

Poland, 4, 421. 
expulsion of, proposed, 4, 427. 
ordered to submit their books 

to Pfetferkorn, 4, 429. 
citizens of the Holy Eoman 

Empire, 4, 443. 
the extermination of, planned, 

4, 462-3. 
narrow-mindedness of, 4, 479. 
adherents of Asher Liimmlein, 

4, 483. 
suffer through the I^rotestant 

Reformation, 4, 542-3. 
submit questions to the Polish 

Talmudists, 4, 639. 
submit disputes to the Synod 

of the Four Countries, 4, 

644. 
during the Catholic reaction, 

4, 652, 653. 
seek refuge in Amsterdam, 4, 

680. 
in the seventeenth century, 4, 

694-5. 
under Matthias, 4, 700-1. 
and the Thirty Years' War, 4, 

701. 



Germany, the Jews of (continued), 
help the Jews of Poland, 4, 
707-8; 5, 16. 

intercede for the Jews of Vi- 
enna, 5, 171. 

poverty of, 5, 205. 

Dohm's apology begins the 
emancipation of, 5, 356-7. 

after Mendelssohn's death, 5, 
395-6. 

attracted to French literature, 
5, 411. 

apostasj' among, 5, 420. 

decay of morality among, 5, 
422. 

emancipated b^^ the French, 5, 
459. 

not well thought of, 5, 461-3. 

subject to the poll-tax, 5, 464. 

in the constitution drawn up 
by Humboldt, 5, 514. 

attacked by J. F. Fries, 5, 521. 

defenders of, 5, 521-3, 533-4. 

the "hep, hep! " persecutions 
of, 5, 528-32. 

writers among, 5, 534-5. 

rapid advance of, 5, 557. 

under Polish infiuence, 5, 558. 

estranged from Judaism, 5, 
560. 

influenced by Bernays and 
IMannheimer, 5, 582. 

effect of the July Revolution 
on, 5, 598, 600. 

forced into reforms, 5, 628. 

and the Damascus affair, 5,669. 

rupture among, 5, 672, 674. 
Germany, the Jews of, emanci- 
pation of. f<(T Emancipa- 
tion of the German Jews, 
the. 
Germany, rabbis of, in sympa- 
thy with Solomon Petit, 3, 
627. 

insignificance of, 4, 133. 

willing to excommunicate Luz- 
zatto, 5, 241. 



INDEX. 



299 



Germany, rabbis of (continued), 
oppose the Reform move- 
ment, 5, 571. 
protest against the Bruns- 
wick rabbinical conference, 
5, 6S2. 
Germany, North, the Jews of, 
few in number, 4, 111. 
the Protestant Reformation 

in, 4, 469. 
Jews tolerated in the towns 
of, 4, C86. 
Germany, South, the Jews of, 
charged with the blood ac- 
cusation, 4, 227. 
attacked by Lutheran peas- 
ants, 4, 542. 
Germany, Young, the creation 
of Borne and Heine, 5, 556. 
compelled to advocate Jewisli 
emancipation, 5, 602. 
Gerona, Serachya Halevi Gerun- 
di persecuted by the Jews 
of, 3, 389. 
home of the Kabbala, 3, 556; 

4, 1. 
the Jews of, persecuted, 4, 
172. 
Geronimo de Santa Fe. See 
Joshua ben Joseph Ibn- 
Vives Allorqui. 
Gerrick, commissioner of Louis 
the Pious to Agobard, 3, 166. 
Gershom ben Jehuda (960-1028), 
disciple of Leontin, founds a 
Talmud school at Mayence, 
3, 242, 243. 
writes commentaries on the 

Talmud, 3, 243-4. 
authority of, 3, 244, 245. 
studies the Massora, 3, 244. 
forbids polygamy, 3, 244. 
regulates the carrying of let- 
ters, 3, 244-5. 
penitential hymns by, 3, 246. 
son of, an apostate, 3, 246. 



Gershom ben Jehuda (continued), 
protects repentant apostates, 
3, 246. 
memory of, perpetuated by 
the Mayence community, 3, 
247. 
consults Hai Gaon, 3, 252. 
introduces Talmud study in 
France and Germany, 3, 
281. 
Talmudical work of, sup- 
planted by Rashi's, 3, 288. 
abrogation of the polygamy 
ordinance of, 3, 378. 

Gerson, Christian, vilifies the 
Talmud, 5, 181. 

Gersonides. See Levi ben Ger- 
son. 

Gerundi. (See En-Vidal Ephraim: 
Jacob ben Sheshet; Jonah 
ben Abraham; Nissim; Se- 
rachya Halevi. 

Gerville, Cahier de, favors the 
emancipation of the Jews, 5, 
444-5. 

Gesenius, exegete, 5, 623, 695. 

Gesereth ha-Roim. See Pastou- 
reaux. 

Gesereth Mezoraim, the perse- 
cution caused by lepers in 
France, 4, 57-8. 

Ghassanids, the, Arab tribe, 3, 
67, 68. 

Ghatafan, the, Arab tribe, in- 
duced to make war upon 
Mahomet, 3, 79. 
distrustful of their allies, 3, 

80. 
promise help to the Jews of 
Chaibar, 3, 82. 

Ghazati. See Nathan Benjamin 
Levi. 

Ghent, the Jews of, expelled, 4, 
662. 

Ghetto, Venetian Jew quarter, 
the first in Italy, 4, 408. 
See Jew's quarter. 



300 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Ghinucci, Geronimo de, cardi- 
nal, and the Tortuguese In- 
quisition, 4, 507, 516, 520. 
Ghirondi, rabbi of Padua, 

scholar, 5, 022. 
Ghuzz, Turkish tribe, allied 
with the Jews of Khorasan, 
3, 4;i4. 
Gibbethon, Danite citj', occu- 
pied by the Philistines, 1, 189. 
attacked by Elah's army, 1, 

192. 
Omri chosen king at, 1, 192. 
Gibeah (Geba), Philistine garri- 
son of, killed by Jonathan, 
1, 85. 
Saul's capital, 1, 89, 91. 
inhabitants of, flee before the 
Philistines, 1, 104. 
Gibeon, Joshua's victory at, 1, 
.34-5. 
seat of a high priest, 1, 120. 
Gibeonites, the, submit to Joshua, 
1, 34. 
massacre of, under Saul, 1, 94. 
murder the descendants of 

Saul, 1, 123. 
under Ezra, 1, 367. 
Gibraltar, the fortress of, asked 
as a refuge for Marranos, 4, 
282. 
Gideon, judge, delivers the Is- 
raelites from the Midianites, 
1, 62-3. 
the ideal of Oliver Cromwell, 
5, 26. 
Gihon, river west of Jerusalem, 

1, 114. 
Gilboa, mount, description of, 1, 
44. 
battle of, between Saul and 
the Philistines, 1, 103. 
Gilead, balm of, where found, 
1, 43. 
description of, 1, 50. 
first scene of Elijah's activity, 
1, 200. 



Gilead, the inhabitants of, pros- 
peritj' of, 1, 64. 

appeal to Judas Maccaba^us, 
1, 474-5. 

emigrate to Judaea, 1, 476. 
Gilgal, camp of the Israelites. 
1, 32, 40. 

Samuel holds popular assem- 
blies at, 1, 78. 

Saul at, 1, 85-6. 

the tribes pay homage to Saul 
at, 1, 90. 

Samuel reproves Saul at, 1, 
92-3. 

David met at, by the men of 
Judah, 1, 146, 147. 

an association of prophets at, 
1, 205. 

visited by Elijah, 1, 208. 

development of the propheti- 
cal school at, 1, 234. 
Gilion, Evangels, 2, 378. 
Gil-Nunjoz, bishop of Palma, 
charges the Jews with the 
blood accusation, 4, 246. 
Gilo, birthplace of Ahithophel, 

1, 123. 

Gimso, explanation of, 2, 330. 

iS'rc Emmaus. 
Ginsea, murder of Galilaeans at, 

2, 243. 

Girgashites, the, subdivision of 

the Canaanites, 1, 3. 
Gischala, the Judaeans of, forced 
into insurrection, 2, 272-3. 
in possession of the Zealots, 

2, 289. 

taken by Titus, 2, 290. 
the Jews of, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 427. 
Giulio, cardinal, and Reubeni, 

4, 492. 
Giza, teacher of the Law, flees 
during Tvobad's persecutions, 

3, 4. 

principal of the Sora academy, 
3, 5. 



INDEX. 



301 



Giza (cnntinued), Saburean, 3, G. 
commits the Talmud to writ- 
ing-, 3, 6-7. 
successors to, not known, 3, 7. 
Gladiatorial combats introduced 

into Antioch, 1, 444. 
Glaphyra, daughter of Arcne- 
laus of Cappadocia, wife of 
Alexander, 2, 112. 
second and third husband and 
son of, 2, 12s. 
Glass-working, occupation of 

the Antioch Jews, 3, 426. 
Gleaning, the right of, granted 

to heathens, 2, 478. 
Gleim, admires " Phaedon," 5, 

307. 
Gley, priest, interested in Napo- 
leon's Synhedrion, 5, 494. 
Glogau, the Jews of, massacred, 
4, 111. 
Chayon at, 5, 218. 
Jews from, settle in Branden- 
burg, 5, 174. 
" Glorious Stone, or the Image 
of Nebuchadnezzar, The," 
by Manasseh ben Israel, 5, 
37-8. 
" Glory to the Virtuous," drama 

by Luzzatto, 5, 242-4. 
Glynn, Lord Chief Justice, on 
Cromwell's commission for 
the Jewish question, 5, 43. 
Gnosis, the higher knowledge of 

God, 2, 374. 
Gnosticism, spread of, 2, 374. 
sects of, 2, 375. 
system of, 2, 375-7. 
influence of, on Judaism, 2, 

377, 380-1. 
Akiba deprecates the influence 
of, 2, 382. 
Gnostics, the, theosophists, 2, 
374-7. 
mystic-allegoric language of, 
2, 374. 



Gnostics, the (continued), the 

God of, 1, 375-6. 
influence Elisha ben Abu^^a, 

2, 377. 
tamper with the Septuagint, 

2, 38G. 
hostility of, accentuates the 

legal character of Judaism, 

2, 471. 
God, the name of, not pro- 
nounced, 2, 413. 
Godard, and the emancipation 

of the French Jews, 5, 443. 
God-flesh, Francisco. See Astruc 

TJaimuch. 
Godfrey, bishop of Wiirzburg, 

grants privileges to the 

Jews, 4, 259. 
lianishes the Jews, 4, 259-60. 
Godfrey of Bouillon, takes Je- 
rusalem, 3, 308. 
Goethe, admires " Phaedon," 5, 

307. 
expresses regard for Solomon 

INIaimon, 5, 409. 
romanticism of, 5, 423. 
prejudices of, against the 

Jews, 5, 461, 4G2. 
Goldberg, Samuel Lob, founder 

of the " Kerem Chemed," 5, 

621. 
Goldbergs, the, Hebrew st3-le of, 

5, G17. 
" Golden Bull," the, issued at 

the Diet of Nuremberg, 4, 

128. 
" Golden Penny," the, tax im- 
posed on the Jews, 4, 96-7, 

166. 
Goldschmidt, Moritz, founder 

of the " Israelitische Al- 

lianz," 5, 703. 
Goldsmid brothers, the, in the 

Damascus affair, 5, G45. 
Golgotha, the place of skulls, 2, 

165. 
temple to Venus on, 2, 422. 



302 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Goliath, Philistine champion, 1, 

95. 
killed by David, 1, 97. 

Gomez, archbishop of Toledo, at 
the Burgos disputation, 4, 
140. 

Gomez, Antonio Enriquez de. 
See Paz, Eurique Enriquez de. 

Gomez, Duarte. See Usque, Sol- 
omon. 

Gomez, Isaac, de Sosa, Marrano 
poet, 5, 113. 

Gonsalvo de Cordova, viceroy of 
Naples, employs a Jewish 
physician, 4, 384-5. 
descendant of, a Jewish 

author, 4, 385, 666; 5, 54. 
opposes the banishment of the 

Jews, 4, 385. 
dismissal of, 4, 385. 

Gonzago, Ludovico, duke, em- 
ploys a Jewish physician, 4, 
287. 

Gonzago, Vicenzo, duke of Man- 
tua, permits the use of the 
expurgated Talmud, 4, 659. 

Gonzalez, Luis, Marrano, tries 
to suppress the Inquisition, 
4, 329. 

Gonzalo de Santa Maria, son of 
Solomon Levi, Benedict XIII's 
agent, 4, 216, 217. 

Good Friday. See Eastertide. 

" Good News of the Messiah for 
Israel," by Paul Felgen- 
hauer, 5, 30. 

Gorgias, Syrian general, in- 
vades Judaea, 1, 467. 
at Emmaus, 1, 408. 
defeated by Judas Maccabseus, 
1, 468-9, 470. 

Gbrres, romanticist, 5, 516. 

Goshen, home of the Israelites 
in Egypt, 1, 7. 
in the Zohar, 4, 23. 

Gospels, the four, translated 
into Ilebrew, 4, 143. 



Gotha, the Jews of, during the 
Black Death persecutions. 
4, 109. 
Goths, the, invade the Roman 
empire, 2, 527, 
in Rome, 3, 27. 
Gottingen, Jews tolerated in, 4, 

080. 
Gottschalk, crusader, and the 

Jews, 3, 298. 
Goze, opponent of Lessing, 5, 

320. 
Gozolas, name borne by Gallic 

Jews, 3, 36. 
Gracian. See Solomon Gracian. 
Gradis, David, member of Males- 
herbes' commission, 5, 432. 
representative French Jew, 5, 
430, 438. 
Graes, Ortuin de (Ortuinus 
Gratius), inspires anti-Jew- 
ish pamphlets, 4, 424. 
writes the " Mirror for Ad- 
monition," 4, 425. 
helps Pfefferkorn with " The 
Enemy of the Jews," 4, 428. 
tool of Hoogstraten, 4, 450. 
" Letters of Obscurantists " 
directed against, 4, 461. 
Grammar, a Hebrew, by Saa- 
diah in Arabic, 3, 190. 
by Abulsari Sahal ben ISIaz- 

liach Ivohen, 3, 204. 
by Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, 3,201. 
by Ibn-Janach, 3, 262-3. 
by Yizchaki, 3, 273. 
by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, 3, 371. 
by David Kimchi, 3, .394. 
by Profiat Duran, 4, 191. 
by Judah ben Yechiel, 4, 289- 

90. 
by Ibn-Gebirol, 3, 267. 
by Reuchlin, 4, 434. 
by Ellas Levita, 4, 472. 
Grammar, Hebrew, the study 
of, stimulated by Karaism, 
3, 136. 



INDEX. 



303 



Grammar, Hebrew, the study of, 
{continued), among the Span- 
ish Jews, 3, 235, 317; 4, 91. 
decays in the post-Maimunio 
period, 3, 561. 

Grammarians and Lexicogra- 
phers, Jewish, list of: 

Aaron ben Asher, Judah ben Ye- 

Abraham de chicl, 

Balmes, Lara, David Cocn 
Abraham ben de 

Meir Ibn-Ezra, Mar-Zemach I ben 
Abu Ibrahim Paltoi, 

Isaac Ibn-Kas- Menachem ben 

tar ben Yasus, Saruk, 

Abulsari Sahal Moses ben Asher, 

ben Mazliach Moses ben Samuel 

Kohen, Ibn-G'ikatilia, 

David do Pomis, Moses Kimchi, 

David Kimchi, Musaphia, Benja- 
Dunash ben La- min 

brat, Nachshon ben Za- 
Elias Levita, dok, 

Jacob Tam, Nathan ben Ye- 
Jehuda Ibn-Ba- chiel, 

lam, Profiat Duran, 

Jehuda Ibn- Saadiah, 

Daud, Samuel Halevi 
Jephet Ibn-Ali Ibn-Nag-rela, 

Halevi, Solomon Ibn-Ge- 
Jonah Marinus, birol, 

Joseph ben Isaac Solomon Lurya. 

Kimchi, 

Granada, called the city of the 
Jews, 3, 42. 

the Jews masters of, 3, 109. 

Talmud school of, 3, 236. 

Cordova Jews emigrate to, 3, 
255. 

capital of the Berber king- 
dom, 3, 256. 

home of the descendants of 
the Exilarchs, 3, 275. 

massacre of the Arabs of, 3, 
2T6-7. 

invaded by Almotassem, 3. 
278. 

Mahometan court of, cultured, 
3, 291. 

conspiracy against the Ma- 
hometans of, 3, 316. 



Granada (continued), home of 
the Ibn-Ezra brothers, 3, 

318. 
Talmud school of, destroyed, 

3, 384. 

Samuel Ibn-Wakar farms the 
import duties of, 4, 80-1. 

at war with Castile, 4, 84-5. 

ally of Pedro the Cruel, 4, 
125, 126. 

forced converts emigrate to, 

4, 179, 318, 351. 

war of Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella with, 4, 344. 

Jewish physicians of, 4, 344. 

fall of, 4, 345-6. 

entered by Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella, 4, 345. 

Jews disappear from, 4, 354. 

autos-da-fe in, 5, 91-2. 
Granada, the Jews of, Samuel 
Ibn-Nagrela chief of, 3, 259. 

enjoy complete equality, 3, 
261. 

Joseph Ibn-Nagrela chief of, 

3, 274. 

arouse the hatred of the Ber- 
bers, 3, 275, 278. 

persecuted by the Berbers, 3, 
278-80, 281. 

Arabic scholars, 4, GO. 

protected by Boabdil's treaty, 

4, 345. 

Granville, Lord, English am- 
bassador at Paris, presents 
Montefiore at court, 5, 668. 

Granville, Ranulph de, courtier 
of Kichard I, protects the 
Jews, 3, 410. 

Grapte, granddaiighter of Helen 
of Adiabene, erects a palace 
in Jerusalem, 2, 219. 

Grattenauer, opposes the eman- 
cipation of the Jews, 5, 468, 
472. 
refuted, 5, 470, 471. 



304 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Gratus, Valerius, fourth pro- 
curator of Judaea, 2, 135, 
137. 

Great Assembly (Keueseth ha- 
Gedolah), the, under Ezra 
and Nehemiah, 1, 381. 
a permanent religious council, 

1, 394. 

traditional laws ascribed to, 

2, 19. 

" Great Assembly, the," the 
court of the Exilarch, 3, 95. 
Greece, Jews from, form a con- 
gregation in Constantinople, 
4, 402. 
Greece, the Jews of, celebrate 
two days of the new-moon, 
2, 363. 
autonomy of, 3, 27. 
occupations of, 3, 175. 
not permitted to hold olHce, 3, 

175. 
in the twelfth century, 3, 

424-5. 
in the sixteenth centiiry, 4, 

406. 
molested by the Greek Catho- 
lics, 4, 552-3. 
Greek art, under John Hjrea- 
nus, 2, 14. 
under Herod, 2, 118. 
Greek Christian communities, 
established by Paul, 2, 
227-S. 
Greek Christians, the, despise 
the JudiPun Christians, 2, 
231. 
differences between, and Ju- 

daean Christians, 2, 232. 
Kre I'agan Christians. 
Greek colonies, in Juda?a, 1, 419. 
Greek culture, in Judaea in the 
third century, 1, 426, 427-9. 
acqiiired b}"^ Jews in the Amo- 
raim period, 2, 537-8. 
Greek customs, among the Ju- 
daeans, 1, 427, 527. 



Greek games, introduced into 

Judaea, 1, 445. 
Greek islands, the, the Spanish 

exiles on, 4, 363-4. 
Greek Judaeans, the, become 
Nazarenes, 2, 219-20, 221. 
attack the Law, 2, 221-2. 
Greek language, the, spoken by 
Judaeans in Hasmonaean 
times, 2, 15. 
study of, forbidden by the 
teachers of the Law under 
Hadrian, 2, 400. 
acquirement of, permitted by 
Jochanan bar Napacha, 2, 
494. 
spoken by the Jews of Italy 
in the twelfth centur}', 3, 
423. 
Greek learning, the, of the Alex- 
andrian Judaeans, 1, 505. 
Greek philosophy, an aid to 

Christianity, 2, 373. 
Greek poems, by a Samaritan 

and a Judipan, 1, 517. 
Greek translation of the Scrip- 
tures, by Akylas, 2, 385, 386- 
7. 
ordered to be read in the syna- 
gogues bj'^ Justinian I, 3, 14- 
15. 
See also Seiituagint, the. 
Greek translations of Hebrew 

works, 2, 359. 
Greek words in the Mishna, 2, 

4G1. 
Greeks, the, characteristics of, 
1, 411. 
influence of, on the Judaeans, 

1, 427-9. 
in Judaea, hate the Judaeans, 

1, 434; 2, 246-7. 
learn Judaism through the 

Septuagint, 1, 512-14. 
beyond the Jordan, hostile to 
Judasa, 2, 7. 



INDEX. 



305 



Greeks, the (continued), cultured, 

opposed to Christianity, 2, 

229. 
and Jews, contrasted, 5, 706-8. 
Gregoire, Abbe, influenced by 

Ensheim, 5, 401. 
champion of the Jews, 5, 432. 
competes for the Metz piize 

on the Jewish question, 5, 

434-5, 
in the National Assembly, 5, 

435, 440. 
exhorts the Jews to obtain 

naturalization, 5, 436. 
intercedes for the Alsatian 

Jews, 5, 437. 
entertains a distorted view of 

Jewish history, 5, 593. 
Gregory I, pope, protects the 

Jews against forced conver- 
sions, 3, 25, 33. 
forbids Jews to own slaves, 3, 

33, 34. 

remits the land-tax of con- 
verts, 3, 33. 

praises Eeccared for his atti- 
tude towards the Jews, 3, 

34, 46 

Gregory VII (Hildebrand), 

pope, on the venality of the 

clergy, 3, 287. 
and the Jews, 3, 293, 298. 
forbids Jews to hold offices in 

Christian countries, 3, 293-4. 
tries to arrest the influence of 

the Jews at the Castilian 

court, 3, 294. 
Gregory IX, pope, permits the 

burning of the Talmud, 4, 

460. 
hostile to the Jews, 3, 519, 520. 
enforces the decrees of the 

Fourth Lateran Council, 3, 

521. 
banishes philosophical writ- 
ings from the University of 

Paris, 3, 528. 



Gregory IX, pope {continued), 
establishes the Inquisition in 
France, 3, 542. 

legate of, in the Maimunist 
controversy, 3, 542. 

re-issues the Jewish constitu- 
tion of Innocent III, 3, 564. 

reproaches Frederick II with 
heterodoxy, 3, 567. 

orders a crusade, 3, 570. 

deprecates the compulsory 
baptism of Jews, 3, 570. 

the Talmud accused before, 3, 
573-4. 

orders the confiscation of the 
Talmud, 3, 574-5, 
Gregory X, pope, protects Jews 
against forcible baptism, 3, 
635. 
Gregory XIII, pope, forbids the 
emploj-ment of Jewish phy- 
sicians, 4, 653-4. 

puts the Jews under the In- 
quisition, 4, 654. 

orders the confiscation of the 
Talmud, 4, 654. 

institutes sermons for Jews, 

4, 654-5, 706. 

Gregory, bishop of Tours, 

charges a poet to celebrate 

the achievements of Avitus, 

3, 39. 

Grimani, Dominico, cardinal, 
employs a Jewish phj-sician, 

4, 411. 

in the Keuchlin-Hoogstraten 
case, 4, 458. 

Grodno, Mordecai Jafa rabbi at, 
4, 645, 

Groede, burial ground of the 
Dutch Jews at, 4, 672. 

Grbningen, Martin von, trans- 
lates the " Augenspiegel," 

4, 460. 

Grotius, Hugo, studies Hebrew, 

5, 21, 



3o6 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Grotius, Hugo (continued), intro- 
duced to Manasseh ben Is- 
rael, 5, 22. 
Grund, Christian, advocate of 
Jewish emancipation, 5, 463, 
465-6. 
Guarini, work of, translated, 5, 

114. 
Gudeo, papal legate, presides 
over the Council of Vienna, 
3, 611. 
Guebres, neo-Persians. See Sas- 

sanides. 
Guglielmo di Portaleone, Italian 

physician, 4, 287. 
" Guide of the Perplexed, The " 
(Moreh Nebuchim, Dalalat 
al Hairin), religious philo- 
sophical work by Maimon- 
ides, 3, 477-85. 

addressed to Joseph Ibn-Ak- 
nin, 3, 478. 

connects Judaism and philos- 
ophy, 3, 478-9, 485-6. 

explains the Jewish doctrine 
of the universe, 3, 479. 

on the influence of God on the 
universe of entities, 3, 480-1. 

on the nature of sin, 3, 481-2. 

on the intellectual and moral 
powers of man, 3, 482-3. 

on the prophetic faculty and 
the prophets, 3, 482-4. 

on miracles, 3, 483. 

on IMoses, 3, 483-4. 

on revelation, 3, 484-5. 

supplants all other Jewish reli- 
gious-philosophical sj'stems, 
3, 486; 4, 479. 

effect of, on the Mahometan 
and Christian world, 3, 486. 

Latin translation of, 3, 486, 
542-3; 4, 60, 474. 

weakness of, 3, 4SG-7. 

condemned by Mahometans, 3, 
488. 



" Guide of the Perplexed, The " 
{continued), condemned by 
Abraham ben David, 3, 490. 

Hebrew translation of, 3,490-2. 

assailed by anti-Maimunists, 
3, 523. 

satirized, 3, 538. 

denounced by Solomon Petit, 
3, 626. 

studied by the Italian Jews, 3, 
629. 

ordered to be burnt at Accho, 
3, 631. 

defended by Shem-Tob Fala- 
quera, 3, 634 

attacked by Aaron ben Elia 
Nicomedi, 4, 95. 

neglected in Spain in the four- 
teenth century, 4, 143. 

studied by Moses Isserles, 4, 
638. 

studied by Mendelssohn, 5, 
295. 

studied by Solomon Maimon, 
5, 407. 
Guide Ubaldo, duke of Urbino, 
permits IMarranos lo live in 
Pesaro, 4, 569, 578. 

banishes the Marranos, 4, 
580-1. 
Guidon, physician, convert to 
Islam, employed to convert 
Sabbata'i Zevi, 5, 153-4. 
Guienne, the Jews of, under 
Henry II, 3, 409. 

wells of, poisoned, 4, 57. 
Guilds, the, antagonize the Jews 
in Frankfort, 4, 695, b\i(i. 

antagonize the Jews In 
Worms, 4, 698-9. 

persecute the Jews in Poland, 
5, 1. 

arouse passion against the 
Jews of Prussia, 5, 191. 
Guldberg, von, Danish minister, 
and Mendelssohn's Penta- 
teuch translation, 5, 333. 



INDEX. 



307 



Gumpertz, Aaron Solomon, 
friend of Meudelssohn, 5,295. 

Gumprecht, obtains the emanci- 
pation of the Jews of 
Frankfort, 5, 505. 

Gunther of Schwarzberg, at war 
with Emperor Charles IV, 
4, 109, 110. 



Gustavus Adolphus, the daugh- 
ter of. tSee Christina of Swe- 
den. 

Guttenstein, de, count, impris- 
ons Pfelferkorn, 4, 424. 

Gymnasia, introduced into Je- 
rusalem, 1, 445. 



Haaja, tiee Hai, 

Haarlem, Jews not permitted to 

settle in, 4, 685. 
Haatakah, tradition, anaong the 

Karaites, &, 159. 
Habakkuk, ajjocryphal addi- 
tions to, 2, 624; 
Habor, the Ten Tribes colonized 

in, 1, 205. 
Habus, king of Granada, vizir 
of, patron of Samuel Ibn- 
Nagrela, 3, 256. 
makes Samuel Ibn-Nagrela 

minister, 3, 256-7. 
poems addressed to, 3, 257. 
parties formed at the death 

of, 3, 258. 
makes Samuel Ibn-Nagrela 
chief of the Granada Jews, 
3, 259. 
employs Jewish officials, 3, 
319. 
Hadad, prince of Idumsea, allied 
with Shishak, 1, 176. 
regains possession of Idumsea, 
1, 176-7. 
Hadadezer, king of Zobah, ally 
of the Ammonites, defeated 
by David, 1, 126-7. 
Hadrian, pope, hostile to the 

Jews, 3, 142. 
Hadrian, emperor, hostile to the 
Jews, 2, .350; 5, 724-5. 
rebellions against, 2, 399. 
clemency of, to the rebels, 2, 
400. 



Hadrian, emperor (continued), 
deposes and executes Lucius 
Quietus, 2, 400-1, 

permits the restoration of the 
Temple, 2, 401-2. 

withdraws the permission, 2, 
402-3. 

visits Judaea, 2, 406. 

and Joshua ben Chananya, 2, 
406-7. 

coins of, 2, 407, 419. 

projects the rebuilding of Je- 
rusalem as a pagan city, 2, 
407. 

mocks at Judaism, 2, 407-8. 

first action of, against Bar- 
Cochba, 2, 411. 

concerned about the Bar- 
Cochba rebellion, 2, 413-14. 

sends Julius Severus to Judaea, 
2, 414. 

persecutes Jewish prisoners 
and fugitives, 2, 419-20. 

taxes the Jews heavily, 2, 420. 

decrees laws against Judaism. 
2, 421, 423-6. 

sends Turnus Rufus to Judaea, 
2, 421. 

rebuilds Jerusalem, 2, 421-2. 

column in honor of, 2, 422. 

erects heathen temples in Ju- 
daea, 2, 422. 

tries to graft paganism on Ju- 
daism, 2, 422. 

cruelty of, to the dead, 2, 
430. 



3o8 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Hadrian, emperor (continued), 
persecutes the Christians, 2, 
430-1. 
death of, 2, 432. 
decrees of, revoked, 2, 433. 
edict of, revived, 3, 23. 
Hagadah, the. See Agada, the. 
Hagenau, the duke of, Jevps of 

Alsace tributary to, 5, 348. 
Haggai, Jewish name of Robert 

de Redingge, 3, 641. 
Haggai, prophet, urges the 
completion of the second 
Temple, 1, 359. 
extols Zerubbabel, 1, 3G0. 
Haggai. See also Chaggai. 
Haggeth, wife of David, 1, 135. 
Hagin (Chayim.) Denlacres, 
chief rabbi of England, 3, 
644. 
Hagiographa, the, commenta- 
ries on, by Solomon ben Ye- 
rucham, 3, 206. 
by Joseph Kara, 3, 346. 
Hai ben David (890-897), Gaon 

of Pumbeditha, 3, 183. 
Hai (Haaja, Haya) ben Sherira 
(909-10.38), chief judge, 3, 
233, 250. 
Gaon of Pumbeditha, 3, 234, 

250. 
popularity of, 3, 234, 250. 
authority of, rivaled by Ger- 

shom ben Jehuda's, 3, 244. 
character and attainments of, 

3, 250. 
compared with Saadiah, 3, 

250. 
consults the Patriarch of the 

Eastern Christians, 3, 250. 
consults the Koran, 3, 251. 
commentary on the Talmud 

by, 3, 251. 
denounces mysticism, 3, 251-2. 
consulted by African and Eu- 
ropean Talmudists, 3, 252, 
260. 



Hai (Haaja, Haya) ben Sherira 

(continued), the head of Ju- 
daism, 3, 252. 
revives the academy of Sora, 

3, 253. 
eulogies on, 3, 253. 
Hai Gaon. See Hai ben Sherira. 
Haidamaks, the, ravages of, 

among Polish Jews, 5, 8-10. 

11-12, 388. 
See Cossacks, the. 
Hakim, Fatimide caliph, decrees 

the conversion of Jews to 

Islam, 3, 247. 
ordains Jew badges, 3, 247-8. 
expels the Jews, 3, 248. 
assassination of, 3, 248. 
Halacha, the, oral teaching, 2, 

328, 329. 
knowledge of, acquired by pa- 
gans, 2, 384. 
cultivated by Rabba bar Nach- 

mani, 2, 576, 578. 
neglected under Theodosius II, 

2, 623. 
See also Law, the oral; Mishna, 

the. 
Halacha, the, the study of, 

scorned by the Nazarenes, 

2, 371. 
declines in Jndfea, 2, 540. 
new method of, introduced by 

Judah ben Ezekiel, 2, 545. 
strengthens the judgment, 2, 

625. 
Halachas, the, Gamaliel II 

maintains the authority of, 

2, 338, 339. 
arrangement of, by Akiba, 2, 

353, 354. 
collected by the half-Tanaites, 

2, 470-1. 
See also Law, the oral; Mishna, 

the. 
Halachic development, the, of 

the Law, 5, 723-4. 
" Halachoth," by Alfassi, 3, 286. 



INDEX. 



309 



, Halachoth Gedoloth, by Simon 

of Cairo, 3, ITU. 
Halachoth Ketuoth, work by 

Judah the Blind, 3, VM. 
supplemented by Halachoth 

Gedoloth, 3, 179. 
Halah, the Ten Tribes colonized 

in, 1, 2G5. 
Halberstadt, the Talmud school 

of, closed, 5, 567. 
Haleb. See Aleppo. 
Halevi, Aaron. See Aaron Ha- 

levi. 
Halevi, Abraham. See Abraham 

Ibn-Daud Halevi. 
Halevi, Abu Said ben Chalfon. 

See Abii Said. 
Halevi, Ali. See Ali Halevi. 
Halevi, Eleazar ben Joel. See 

Eleazar ben Joel Halevi. 
Halevi, Elia, French Jewish 

poet, 5, 4G0. 
Halevi, Elias. See Elias Halevi. 
Halevi, Isaac. See Isaac ben 

Asher Halevi; Isaac Halevi. 
Halevi, Jacob ben Moses Mdlin. 

See Jacob ben Moses. 
Halevi, Jehuda. See Jehuda 

Halevi. 
Halevi, Jephet Ibn-Ali. Sec 

Jephet Ibn-Ali Halevi. 
Halevi, Joseph ben Ephraim 

Ibn-Benveniste. See Joseph 

ben Ephraim Ibn-Benveniste 

Halevi. 
Halevi, Joseph, ben Meir Ibn- 

Migash. _ See Joseph ben 

Meir Ibn-Migash. 
Halevi, Joseph Amarkala. See 

Joseph Amarkala Halevi. 
Halevi, Meir ben Baruch. See 

Meir ben Baruch Halevi. 
Halevi, Meir ben Todros. See 

Mei'r ben Todros Halevi. 
Halevi, Moses Uri. See Moses 

Uri Halevi. 



Halevi, Samuel. See Samuel 
ben Abraham Ibn-Chasdai; 
Samuel ben Ali Halevi; Sam- 
uel Halevi; Samuel Halevi 
Ibn-Nagrela. 
Halevi, Serachya. See Serachya 
Halevi Gerundi; Serachya 
Halevi Saladin. 
Halfen, Azaria and Solomon, 
rabbis at Damascus, charged 
with ritual murder, 5, 638. 

ordered to translate suspi- 
cious Talmud passages, 5> 
640. 
Halicz, Karaites in, 5, 182. 
Halle, Aaron. See Wolfsohn, 

Aaron. 
Halles district, the, of Paris, 
opposes the emancipation of 
the Jews, 5, 445. 
Hamadan (Ears), center of the 
Judghanites, 3, 149-50. 

the corumunity of, excommu- 
nicated, 3, 194. 

the Jews of, in the twelfth 

century, 3, 434. 

Hamath., the inhabitants of, 

colonized in Samaria, 1, 285. 

Hamburg, settlement of Jews 

in, 4, 685-8. 

the Lutherans of, object to 
Jews, 4, 685, 687, 691-3. 

refuses permission to German 
Jews to settle there, 4, 685- 
6. 

harbors Portuguese Jews as 
"traders," 4, 686-7. 

admits Jews under restric- 
tions, 4, 688. 

bank of, supported by Jews, 
4, 689. 

synagogues at, 4, 689-90, 691. 

German Jews in, 4, 691. 

posts of honor occupied by 
Jews in, 4, 692. 

called " little Jerusalem," 4, 
693. 



3IO 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Hamburg {contiitucd), Joseph 

Delmedigo at, 5, 78. 
the Sabbaiian movement in, 

5, 139, 140-1, 150, 151, 155. 
stagnation of trade in, 5, 149. 
Jews from, settle in Branden- 
burg, 5, 174. 
Portuguese Jews of, wealthy, 

5, 205. 
rabbis of, Poles, 5, 206. 
Lessing at, 5, 319-20. 
the Reform movement in, 5, 

563-4. 
Talmud school of, closed, 5, 

567. 
the Dayanim of, oppose the 

Eeform Temple, 5, 570, 573. 
the "hep, hep! " persecution 

in, 5, 573. 
Bernays appointed to the rab- 
binate of, 5, 576-7. 
conflagration in, 5, 674. 
See also Reform Temple Union, 

the. 
Hamburg, the Jews of, de- 
scribed by John Miller, 4, 

690. 
wish to settle in England, 5, 

18. 
emancipated, 5, 506. 
Ha-Meassef, a Hebrew journal, 

5, 339. See " Gatherer, The." 
Hamma, Jews tolerated in, 4, 

686. 
Hammuna, friend of Chanina 

bar Chama, 2, 456. 
Hamon, Isaac, physician in 

Granada, power of, 4, 344. 
Hamon, Joseph, phj^sician to 

Selim I, 4, 401. 
Hamon, Moses, phj^sician to 

Solyman I, patron of Jewish 

literature, 4, 401. 
family of, exempt from taxes, 

4, 402. 
protector of the Turkish 

Jews, 4, 553. 



Hamon, Moses (continued), dis- 
poses the sultan in favor 
of the iSIendes family, 4, 
575. 

Hanameel, cousin of Jeremiah, 
1, 290. 

Hananel, gate, tower at, in Je- 
rusalem, 1, 231. 

Hanania. See Chananya. . 

Hananiah, informs Nehemiah 
of the distress of the Ju- 
dseans, 1, 372. 
commander of the Birah, 1, 
382. 

Hanau, Solomon, teacher of 
Wessely, 5, 367. 

Hanau, Jews permitted to set- 
tle in, 4, 695. 
rabbi of, opposes the Reform 
movement, 5, 571. 

Handicrafts, Jews engage in, 3, 
401, 425, 426, 427, 606. 
Jews forbidden to engage in. 

4, 203, 205, 216. 

discussed by the French Syn- 

hedrion, 5, 497. 
See Artisans; Trades. 
" Handspiegel," by Pfefferkorn, 
Reiichlin's reply to, 4, 446-8. 
Hanna Bachari Bey, opponent 
of the Damascus Jews, 5, 
633, 635. 
Hannah, mother of Samuel, 1, 

73. 
Hanover, the flagellants in, 4, 
111. 
Jews tolerated in, 4, 686. 
Chayon at, 5, 231. 
the Jews of, deprived of civil 
rights. 5, 512. 
Hanse Towns, the, object to the 
emancipation of the Jews, 

5, 519. 

Hanse Towns, the, the Jews of, 
emancipated under French 
influence, 5, 506. 



INDEX. 



311 



Hanse towns, the, the Jews of 

(continued) , send a deputy to 

the Congress of Vienna, 5, 

513. 
oppression of, disapproved of, 

5, 514. 
deprived of tlie rights secured 

by French influence, 5, 519. 
Hanukkah. Sec Chanul<a. 
"Hanun, king of the Ammonites, 

at war with David, 1, 126-7, 

129. 
Haphtarah, the lesson from the 

Trophets, 1, 400. 
Haquinet, son of Manessier de 

Vesoul, 4, 150. 
Hardenberg, Prussian minister, 

and the emancipation of the 

Jews, 5, 507, 527. 
disapproves of the oppression 

of the Jews, 5, 514. 
carelessness of, 5, 519-20. 
Hariri of Basra, Arabic poet, 

imitated by Solomon Ibn- 

Sakbel, 3, 318. 
Ilarith Ibn-Abu Shammir, kills 

the Jewish chiefs of Yath- 

rib, 3, 67. 
feud of, with Samuel Ibn- 

Adiya, 3, 68, 69. 
Harith Ibn - Am^ru, Kendite 

prince, proselyte, 3, 63. 
" Harmony of Heaven, The," 

by Judah Leon Abrabanel, 

4, 4S0. 
Haroun Alrashid, Abbassid ca- 
liph, and Charlemagne, 3, 

143. 
re-enacts the " covenant of 

Omar," 3, 145. 
death of, 3, 145. 
Harp, Lake of the. See Tibe- 
rias. 
Harrach, count, patron of Ben- 
David, 5, 410. 
Harrison, General, Jewish spirit 

of, 5, 34. 



Hartmann von Deggenburg, 

leads a massacre of Jews, 4, 

98. 
Hartmann, Frederick Traugott, 

opponent of the Jews, 5, 

359, 361. 
Hasmonsean dynasty, the, the 

members of: 

Alexander I Jan- Aristobulus II, 

ni^us, Hyrcanus I, John 

Alexander (II), Hyrcanus II, 

Antigonus, Salome Alexan- 

Aristobulus I, dra, 

Simon Tharsi. 

Hasmonsean party, the, leaders 
of, 1, 489. 
comparison of, with the Assi- 

da^ans, 1, 489. 
aims of, 1, 489-90. 
attacked by the Bene-Amri, 1, 

491. 
defeated by Bacchides, 1, 491. 
fight for Antiochus VI, 1, 
498. 
Hasmonasans, the, and Greek 
art, 2, 14. 
palace of, in Jerusalem, 2, 14. 
mausoleum of, 2, 14. 
hated by the Pharisees, 2, 33. 
assume the royal title, 2, 35. 
contrast between the first and 

the last, 2, 84. 
temporary character of the 

rule of, 2, 143. 
See also Maccabees, the. 
Hasselbauer, bishop of Prague, 
friend of Eibeschiitz, 5, 250. 
Hathor, an Egyptian goddess, 1, 

9. 
Hatti Sherif, firman emancipat- 
ing the Turkish Jews, 5, 
641, 664. 
Hauran (Havvoth Jair). See Au- 

ranitis. 
" Havayot d'Abayi ve Raba," 

1, 585. 
Haya. See Hai ben Sherira. 



312 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Hazael, of Damascus, at war 
with Jehoram of Israel, 1, 
210. 

gains territory from Jehu, 1, 
220-1. 

at war with Jehoahaz and 
.Toash, 1, 221. 
Hazor, rallying place of the Ca- 

naanites, 1, 37. 
Heathen, the, view held by, of 
Juda'ans and Judaism, 2,20.3. 

adopt Judaism, 2, 215-19. 

disgusted with the deiflcation 
of human beings, 2, 228. 

Judaeans forbidden to deal 
with, 2, 270. 

join the Bar-Cochba rebellion, 
2, 410. 

intercourse with, regulated by 
the Mishna, 2, 476-S. 

intercourse with, interdicted 
by Tertullian, 2, 476-7. 

permitted to glean, 2, 478. 

purchases from, permitted by 
Judah II, 2, 483-4. 

become acquainted with Jew- 
ish literature, 2, 502. 

relaxing of the laws against, 
2, 525. 
Heber, the Kenite, in Charisi's 

Tachkemoni, 3, 559. 
Hehert, sets up the religion of 

Reason, 5, 450. 
Hebrew alphabet, the, Assj^rian 

characters of, 1, 395. 
" Hebrew Chrestomathy," by 
Adam Martinet, 5, 628, 629. 
Hebrew gram,mar. See Gram- 
mar. 
Hebrew language, the, cher- 
ished by the Babylonian ex- 
iles, 1, 340, 364. 

Judaeans ignorant of, 1, 386. 

cultivated under the Hasmo- 
nseans, 2, 14-15. 

called New-Hebrew (Xeo-He- 
brew), 2, 15. 



Hebrew language, the (con- 
tinued), used in the histori- 
cal writings, 2, 16. 

mispronounced in Galilee, 2, 
149. 

of the Mishna, 2, 461. 

spoken in Judsea, 2, 461-2. 

learnt by Origen, 2, 488. 

in the Amoraim period, 2, 
538-9. 

interest in, under Tlieodosius 
II, 2, 623, 625. 

Jews forbidden to teach Chris- 
tians, 2, 624. 

revived under Arab influence, 
3, 111-12. 

furnished with vowel points, 
3, 112. 

neglected in the ninth centu- 
ry, 3, 157. 

studied by Menachem ben Sa- 
ruk, 3, 224-5. 

promoted by the controversy 
under Chasdai Ibn-Shaprut, 

3, 226-7, 

improvement in, in the twelfth, 
century, 3, 317. 

taught as a means for con- 
version, 3, 597, 640-1; 4, 245. 

words of, used by Spanish 
satirists, 4, 181. 

study of, introduced into Ger- 
many by Reuchlin, 4, 432, 
433, 434. 

panegyric on, by Reuchlin, 4, 
433-4, 436. 

study of, at the German uni- 
versities advised by Reuch- 
lin, 4, 443. 

studied by Egidio de Viterbo, 

4, 457. 

professorships for, instituted, 

4, 471, 473, 474. 
studied by Christians, 4, 471- 

4, 651. 
widely studied in Holland, 5, 

21. 



INDEX. 



313 



Hebrew language, the {con- 
tinued), society for the pro- 
motion of, 5, 398-9. 

a bond for the Jews of west- 
ern Europe, 5, 402. 

love of, prevents apostasy, 5, 
420. 

importance of, in the Jewish 
liturgy, 5, 562. 

omission of, from the divine 
service objected to, 5, 564. 

Portuguese pronunciation of, 
adopted in Hamburg, 5, 571. 

retained in the Vienna Tem- 
ple, 5, 580. 

renaissance of, through Erter, 
5, 613, 616. 

banishment of, from the lit- 
urgy proposed by Holdheim, 
5, 680. 

abolition of, in the liturgy 
discussed, 5, 685. 

See also Grammar, Hebrew; 
Literature, Jewish. 
Hebrew literature, allegories 
in, 1, 158-9. 

under Hezekiah, 1, 279. 

during the Babylonian Cap- 
tivity, 1, 334-6, 340-2. 

in the Persian period, 1, 410- 

translated into Greek, 2, 359. 
See also Literature, Jewish; 
JudjBO-Greek literature; Po- 
etry. 
*' Hebrew Physician, The," by 

David de Pomis, 4, 656-7. 
" Hebrew Rites, The," by Leo 

Modena, 5, 71-2, 180. 
Hebrew writings. See Confisca- 
tion and burning of Hebrew 
books. 
Hebron, king of, defeated by 
Joshua, 1, 34-5„ 
chief city of Judah, 1, 38, 77. 
residence of David, 1, 109. 
David leaves, 1, 114. 



Hebron {continued), Absalom de- 
clared king in, 1, 139. 

owned by Idumajans, 1, 435, 
474. 

Jewish prisoners sold at the 
slave markets of, 2, 419. 

Maimonidcs in, 3, 457. 

occupations of the Jews of, 4, 
75. 

Sabbatai" Zevi at, 5, 128. 
Hechal, the Holy Place, 1, 

1G5. 
Hegel, influence of, on Edward 
Cans, 5, 583. 

on Young Israel, 5, 585. 
Heidelberg, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted, 5, 530-1. 
Heidelberg, the University of, 
on the confiscation of He- 
brew books, 4, 437, 441. 

Spinoza offered a professor- 
ship at, 5, 108. 
Heidenheim, Wolf, one of the 
Measfim, Massoretic studies 
of, 5, 400. 
Heilmann, rabbi, opponent of 
Eibeschiitz, 5, 2G2, 263, 268, 
269. 
Heilperin, Jechiel, historian, 5, 

202. 
Heine, Heinrich (1799-1854), as 
a Jew, 5, 536, 544. 

as a German, 5, 537. 

as poet, 5, 537. 

as a thinker, 5, 544-5. 

character of, 5, 545, 555-6. 

love of, for his mother, 5, 
545. 

Jewish education of, 5, 545-6. 

pride of, in his race, 5, 546. 

attitude of, towards Judaism, 
5, 546. 

influence of Berlin Jewish so- 
ciety on, 5, 546. 

joins the Society for the Cul- 
ture of Jews, 5, 547. 

criticises the Jews, 5, 547-8. 



314 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Heine, Heinrich {continued), con- 
tempt cf, for apostates, 5, 
548-9, 5bl-2. 

glorifies Jewish historj'^ in the 
" Eabbi of Bacharach," 5, 
549-50, 

baptism of, 5, 550-1. 

characterizes Judaism and 
Christianitj', 5, 552. 

on Shylock, 5, 552-3. 

on Moses, 5, 553-5. 
' inspired by Jewish poetry, 5, 
• 555, 694. 

on the " hep, liep! " persecu- 
tions, 5, 556. 

debt X»f the Jews to, 5, 556. 

debt of Germany to, 5, 556. 

on Isaac Bernays, 5, B77. 

on Moses Moser, 5, 583. 

on the journal of the Society 
for Culture, 5, 586. 

on Edward Gans's apostasy, 
5, 587. 

compared with Steinheim, 5, 
607. 

compared with Erter, 5, 615- 
16. 

on Hellenism and Judaism, 5, 
688. 
Hejas, the Jews settle in, 3, 54. 

See Arabia, northern. 
Hejira, the, Mahomet's flight 

from Mecca, 3, 73. 
Helam, the battle of, the Ara- 

ma?ans defeated at, 1, 127. 
Helen, queen of Adiabene, pros- 
elyte, 2, 216-17. 

visits Jerusalem, 2, 218, 224. 

gift of, to the Temple, 2, 218. 

mausoleum of, 2, 219. 
Helicon, favorite of Caligula, 2, 

187. 
Heliodorus, treasurer of Seleu- 
cus II, tries to force his way 
into the Temple, 1, 438. 

murders Seleucus, 1, 443. 



Heliopolis (Onion), district con- 
taining the Temple of Onias, 
1, 508. 

revenues of, devoted to the 
Temple, 1, 508. 

called the Arabian province, 1, 
510. 
Helisachar, incites the sons of 
Louis the Pious against 
their step-mother, 3, 166. 
Helkias, son of Onias IV, gen- 
eral, sides with Cleopatra, 
mother of Ptolemy VIII, 2, 
10, 12. 

death of, 2, 41. 
Hell, attorney, levies blackmail 
on the Jew^s of Alsace, 5, 
349. 

prevents debtors from paying 
Jews, 5, 350. 

banished, 5, 350. 
Hell, belief in, derived from 

Magianism, 1, 403. 
Hellenism, the attacks of, ac- 
centuate the legal character 
of Judaism, 2, 471. 
Hellenists, the, aims of, 1, 435- 
6. 

Onias III opposed to, 1, 437. 

persecute Onias III, 1, 438-9, 
444. 

condemned by Jesus Sirach, 
1, 440-1. 

invite the interference of An- 
tiochus IV, 1, 444. 

introduce games and gymna- 
sia into Judfea, 1, 444-6. 

refuse to sacrifice to Hercules, 
1, 446. 

procure Jason's dismissal, 1, 
446-7. 

disapprove of Menelaus as high 
priest, 1, 447. 

take refuge in the Acra, 1, 
454. 

betray the liiding places of 
the Chassidim, 1, 457-8. 



INDEX. 



315 



Hellenists, the (continued), ap- 
peal to Antiochus V, 1, 478. 

lose favor at the Syrian court, 
1, 480. 

opi^ose Judas Maccabseus, 1, 
480, 482. 

fear Judas Maccabseus, 1, 483. 

masters of Palestine, 1, 488. 

called " Traitors of the Cove- 
nant," 1, 489. 

plan to deliver Jonathan and 
Simon to the Syrians, 1, 493. 

deserted by Bacchides, 1, 494. 

take refuge in Bethzur, 1, 494. 

appeal to Demetrius II, 1, 497. 

driven out of Bethzur, 1, 498. 

secret understanding of, with 
Diodotus Tryphon, 1, 500. 

driven from their strongholds, 
1, 523, 

seek refuge in Egypt, 1, 523. 

end of, 1, 523-4. 
Heller, Lipmann (1579-1654), 
Tahnudist, character and 
attainments of, 4, 703. 

commentary on the Mishna 
by, 4, 704. 

rabbi of Vienna and Prague, 
4, 704-6. 

apportions the war tax, 4, 
704. 

accused and imprisoned, 4, 
705. 

fined and deprived of his office, 

4, 706. 

relaxes the Jewish marriage 

law, 5, 13. 
draws up penitential prayers, 

5, 13. 

Heman, grandson of Samuel, 
psalmist, 1, 79, 120-1. 

Hengstenberg, exegete, 5, 695. 

Henna. See Hinnom. 

Hennigs, Augustus von, Danish 
state councilor, interested 
in IVlendelssohn's Pentateuch 
translation, 5, 333, 334. 



Henrique, bishop of Ceuta, and 
the prosecution of Marra- 
nos, 4, 499. 

Henrique, Infante of Portugal, 
grand inquisitor, deposition 
of, demanded by Paul III, 4, 
521. 
sends a list of Marrano delin- 
quencies to Rome, 4, 523. 

Henry II, emperor, banishes 
the Jews from Mayence, 3, 
245-6. 

Henry IV, emperor, and the 
Jews of Worms, 3, 293. 
issues a decree in favor of the 

Jews, 3, 298. 
permits Jews forcibly bap- 
tized to return to Judaism, 
3, 30G. 
grants protection fo the Jews, 

3, 308, 416. 

Henry VI, emperor, Jews mas- 
sacred imder, 3, 418-19. 
Henry of Anjou (III of France), 
candidate for the Polish 
throne, 4, C04, 605. 
Henry II (de Trastamare), of 
Castile, rival of Pedro the 
Cruel, 4, 114. 
gains allies against Pedro, 4, 

122. 
maligns his brother, 4, 122-3. 
begins war with his brother, 

4, 123. 

taxes the Jews of Burgos, 4, 

123, 124. 
gains Toledo and Seville, 4, 

124. 
leaves Spain, 4, 124. 
takes northern Spain, 4, 124. 
refuses to exclude Jews from 

state offices, 4, 125. 
taxfes the Jews, 4, 125-6. 
victorious at Montiel, 4, 126. 
accession of, 4, 136. 
attitude of, towards Jews, 4, 

137, 138. 



3i6 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Henry II, of Castile (continued), 
decrees Jew badges, 4, 139. 

discriminates against Jewish 
creditors, 4, 139, 

forces Jews into religious de- 
bates, 4, 140. 

Jewish courtiers of, 4, 156. 

death of, 4, 15G. 

Jews hated under, 4, 167. 
Henry III, of Castile, discord 
early in the reign of, 4, 
167. 

regents for, quell the riot 
against the Jews of Seville, 
4, 168. 

confers dignities upon Solo- 
mon Levi, 4, 184. 

employs Jewish physicians, 4, 
185, 190. 

advised not to employ Jewish 
officials, 4, 185. 

Jews under, 4, 193. 

death of, 4, 193, 196. 

appoints Solomon Levi execu- 
tor of his will, 4, 194. 
Henry IV, of Castile, the Jews 
under, 4, 274-6. 

plunders the houses of Jews 
and Marranos, 4, 274. 

employs Jewish officials, 4, 
275. 

forbids the Jews to dress lux- 
urious]3% 4, 275-6. 

disproves the charge of child 
murder against the Jews of 
Spain, 4, 27C. 

punishes the murderers of the 
Jews of Medina del Campos, 
4, 278. 

statute book of, assigns a low 
position to the Jews, 4, 278, 

deposed, 4, 278, 

reproached with partiality to- 
wards the Jews, 4, 279-8f\ 

protects the Marranos of Val- 
ladolid, 4, 281, 

death of, 4, 283. 



Henry IV, of Castile (continued), 
opposes the establishment of 
the Inquisition, 4, 310. 
Henry I, of England, grants 
privileges to the Jews, 3. 
504. 
Henry II, of England, the Jews 

prosperous under, 3, 409. 
Henry III, of England, the 
Jews under, 3, 570-1, 587- 
92, 

the minority of, 3, 587-8. 

appoints a chief rabbi, 3, 588, 

restrains the intolerance of 
the Church, 3, 588, 

summons a Jewish Parlia- 
ment, 3, 589-90, 

refuses the Jews permission 
to leave England, 3, 591. 

deposes Elias of London, 3, 
591, 

protects the Jews of London, 

3, 592. 

Henry VIII, of England, over- 
throws Catholicism, 4, 541, 

Henry II, of France, Obadiah de 
Sforno dedicates his works 
to, 4, 411. 
treats Neapolitan Jews kindly. 

4, 544. 

confiscates the ]\[endes prop- 
erty, 4, 574, 
refuses to pay the Mendes- 
Nassi family his debt, 4, 
596, 597, 

Henry III, of France. -See 
Henry of Anjou. 

Henry IV, of France, and Man- 
uel rimentel, 4, 672. 

Henry of Orange, well disposed 
towards Jews, 4, 678. 

Henry de Trastamare, See 
Henry II, of Castile. 

Henry I, archbishop of May- 
ence, protects the Jews dur- 
ing the second crusade, 3, 
352-3, 



INDEX, 



317 



Henry, bishop of Ratisbon, en- 
Torces anti-Jewish restric- 
tions, 4, 301. 
attempts to convert tlie Jews, 

4, 301, 
charges Israel Bruna with 

child-murder, 4, 303. 
urges an inquiry ag^ainst the 
Jews, 4, 304. 
Henry Julius, duke of Bruns- 
wick, expels the Jews, 4, 
C52. 
" Hep, hep! " cry, the, against 
the Jews, 5, 528-32. 
Rachel Levin on, 5, 534. 
'■'' Hep, hep! " persecutions, the. 
Borne on, 5, 542-3. 
Heine on, 5, 556. 
in Hamburg-, 5, 573. 
Hephzi-bah, wife of Hezekiah, 

1, 2S0. 
Heraclius, emperor of the East, 
sues for peace with Chosru 
IT, 3, 19. 
allies himself witli the Jews, 

3, 21-2. 
makes peace with the Per- 
sians, 3, 22. 
persecutes the Jews of Pales- 
tine, 3, 22-3, 47. 
forbids Jews to enter Jerusa- 
lem, 3, 23. 
Hercules d'Este I, duke of Fer- 
rara, patron of Abraham 
Farissol, 4, 412-13. 
Hercules d'Este II, duke of Fer- 
rara, friend of the Jews, 4, 
544. 
protects the INfarranos, 4, 569. 
protects Gracia Mendesia, 4, 
575. 
Hercules, chief of the Jewish 

community of Arta, 3, 424. 
Hercules, demi-god, Jason sac- 
rifices to, 1, 446. 
Herder, admires " Phsedon," 5. 
307. 



Herder {continued), aversion of, 

to Jews, 5, 4G2. 
Heresy, signs of, enumerated by 

the Inquisition, 4, 315-16. 
Hermandad, the, union of Span- 
ish towns, enforces anti- 
Jewish measures, 4, 251. 
Hermann III, bishop of Co- 
logne, protects the Jews 
during the first crusade, 3, 
304. 
Hermann the Carpenter, leader 
of the first crusade in Co- 
logne, 3, 303, 306. 
<' Hermitage" (Stiibel), the 

Zaddik's room, 5, 382. 
Hermon (Anti-Lebanon), moun- 
tain, description of, 1, 44. 

Jesus at, 2, 158. 
Herod I (37-3), son of Antipa- 
ter, governor of Galilee, 2, 
77. 

subdues Ezekias, 2, 77-8. 

honored by Sextus Caesar, 2, 
78. 

before the Synhedrion, 2, 78- 
9. 

governor of Ccelesyria, 2, 79. 

assassinates IMalich, 2, 80. 

betrothed to Mariamne, 2, 81. 

tetrarch of Judsea, 2, 81. 

opposed by the Parthians, 2, 
82. 

escapes to Rome, 2, 83, 86. 

favored by Antony, 2, 86. 

proclaimed king of Judsea by 
the Roman Senate, 2, 86. 

struggle of, with Antigonus, 
2, 87. 

marries Mariamne, 2, 87. 

besieges Jerusalem, 2, 87-8. 

has Antigonus beheaded, 2, 
89. 

policy of, 2, 89. 

kills the Synhedrists, 2, 89. 

appoints Ananel high priest, 
2, 90. 



31! 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Herod I (continued), tries to ob- 
literate his Idumaean de- 
scent, 2, 90. 

fears Hyrcaiius and Aristobu- 
lus (III), 2, 90-1. 

brings Hyi'cauus to Jerusa- 
lem, 2, 91. 

pi-oclaims Aristobulus (III) 
high priest, 2, 91. 

has him murdered, 2, 92. 

accused before Cleopatra, 2, 
92-3. 

orders the murder of Ma- 
riamne, 2, 93. 

threatened by a sister of An- 
tigonus, 2, 9t. 

at war ^vith Malich, 2, 94-5. 

orders the execution of Hyr- 
canus II, 2, 96. 

confines Mariamne in Alexan- 
drion, 2, 96. 

appoints Hillel president of 
the Synhedrion, 2, 96, 99, 

appoints Menahem deputy, 2, 
100. 

received with favor by Octa- 
vius, 2, 101-2. 

territory of, increased, 2, 103. 

executes Mariamne, 2, 104. 

quells Alexandra's sedition, 2, 
105. 

submits to Augustus, 2, 105. 

ornaments Sebaste and Caesa- 
rea, 2, 106. 

exhausts the people by taxa- 
tion, 2, 107. 

degrades the high priesthood, 
2, 107. 

marries Mariamne II, 2, 107. 

requires an oath of allegiance 
from his subjects, 2, 108. 

remodels the Temple, 2, 109- 
11. 

distrustful of his family, 2, 
112. 

appoints Antipater his suc- 
cessor, 2, 112, 113. 



Herod I {continued), executes 
Mariamne I's sons, 2, 113. 

conspiracy against, 2, 113. 

appoints Herod Autipas his 
successor, 2, 114. 

contest of, with the Pharisees, 
2, 114-15. 

attempts suicide, 2, 115-16. 

executes Antipater, 2, 116. 

orders executions for the day 
of his death, 2, 116. 

death of, 2, 117. 

territory added to Judaea by, 
2, 118. 

will of, 2, 119-20. 

sends gifts to Athens, 2, 193. 

palace of, stormed b}' the 
Zealots, 2, 260. 

palace of, in Galilee destroj'cd 
by Josephus, 2, 279. 
Herod II, brother of Agrippa I, 
praetor and prince of Chal- 
cis, 2, 190. 

allied with Agrippa I, 2, 196. 

opposes Cuspius Fadus, 2, 197. 

asks for a truce, 2, 197. 

titular king of Judaea, 2, 198. 

death of, 2, 199, 235. 

widow of, 2, 235. 
Herod ben Gamala, partisan of 

Rome, 2, 274. 
Herod ben Miar, partisan of 

Rome, 2, 274. 
Herod (Antipas), son of Cleopa- 
tra of Jerusalem and Herod 
I, disinherited, 2, 119. 
Herod (Philip), son of ISla- 
riamne II and Herod I, dis- 
inherited, 2, 119. 

wife of, 2, 173. 
Herod Antipas (Antipas I), son 
of !Malthace and Herod T, 
successor to Herod I, 2, 
114. 

ruler of Galilee and Peraea, 2. 
119. 

envious of Archelaus, 2, 120. 



INDEX. 



319 



H«rod Antipas (continued), 

builds Tiberias, 2, 137-8. 
character of, 2, 138. 
beheads John the Baptist, 2, 

147. 
pursues Jesus, 2, KiO. 
abandons his wife to marry 

Herodias, 2, 173. 
defeated by the Nabathaeans, 

2, 173. 
assisted by Vitellius, 2, 173. 
procures an office for Agrippa 

1, 2, 175. 

banished to Lyons, 2, 177. 
Herod Philip, son of Cleopatra 

of Jerusalem. See Philip, 

tetrarch. 
Herodian dynasty, the, the 

members of: 

Agrippa I, Herod I, 

Agrippa II, Herod II, 

Archelaus, Herod Antipas, 

Philip. 

Herodian tim.e, the, character- 
ized, 5, 723. 
Herodians, the, appeal to Au- 
gustus, 2, 122. 

petition for the removal of ob- 
noxious emblems from the 
Eoman standard, 2, 139. 

oppose John the Baptist, 2, 
147. 

morality of the opponents of, 

2, 151. 
immorality of, 2, 236. 

Herodias, wife of Herod 

(Philip), daughter of, 2, 

147. 
illegal marriage of, with 

Herod Antipas, 2, 173. 
appealed to by Cypros, 2, 175. 
envious of Agrippa I, 2, 177. 
banished to Lyons, 2, 177. 
Herodium, fortress, burial place 

of Herod I, 2, 117. 
surrenders to Bassus, 2, 315. 



Heron, Syrian commander, de- 
feated by Judas Maccaba?us, 
1, 402. 

Herrera, Abraham (Alonzo) de, 
descendant of Gonsalvo de 
Cordova, in Amsterdam, 4, 
666. 
identifies the Kabbala with 
Neo-platonism, 5, 54, 88. 

Herrera, Pedro de. See Pedro 
de Herrera. 

Herrera, proijhetess of, burnt, 

4, 494. 

Herschel, Solomon, rabbi of 
London, repeats Manasseh 
ben Israel's oath concerning 
ritual murder, 5, 654-5. 

Heruli, the, overrun Eome, 3, 27. 

Herz Medelsheim. See Berr, 
Cerf. 

Herz, Henrietta, influence of, 
in Berlin, 5, 412-13. 
salon of, 5, 413, 422-3, 540. 
influence of romanticism on, 

5, 423. 

relation of, to Schleiermacher, 
5, 423. 

and Dorothea Mendelssohn, 5, 
424. 

apostasy of, 5, 425-6, 
Herz, Leb, Sabbatian, 5, 152. 
Herz, Marcus (1747-1803), phy- 
sician, translates the " Vin- 
dicise Judaeoriim," 5, 362. 

youth and education of, 5, 405. 

distinguished by Kant, 5, 405- 
6. 

as a physician, 5, 400. 

marriage of, 5, 406. 

lectures on Kant's philosophy, 
5, 406. 

influences Berlin Jews, 5, 407. 

house of, a center of culture, 
5, 412. 

mediocrity of, 5, 417. 

disapproves of Dorothea Men 
delssohn, 5, 424. 



320 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Heschels, Leb, rabbi, opposes 
Eibeschiitz, 5, 262, 2G3, 268, 
269. 
Hesychius, consular agent, ac- 
cnsetl by Gamaliel V, 2, 613. 
Hess, Hermann, chancellor of 
the University of ISIayence, 
and the confiscation of He- 
brew books, 4, 437. 
Hess, Isaac, introduces ]\Ieudels- 

sohn to Lessing, 5, 297. 
Hesse, the Jews of, deprived of 
civil rights, 5, 512. 
emancipated, 5, 601. 
Hetman (Attaman), Cossack 

chieftain, 5, 2. 
Hewn-stone Hall, meeting place 
of the Synhedrion in Jeru- 
salem, 2, 239. 
Hexapla, parallel texts of Bible 
versions by Origen, 2, 4S8-9. 
Hezekiah, king of Judah, vir- 
tues of, 1, 266-7. 
limited power of, 1, 267-8. 
banishes idolatry, 1, 267. 
celebrates the Passover, 1, 268. 
allied with Egypt, 1, 270. 
assures Sennacherib of his 

submission, 1, 274. 
refuses to surrender to Sen- 
nacherib, 1, 274-5. 
illness of, 1, 276. 
recovers, 1, 277. 
honors Merodach-baladan's em- 
bassy, 1, 278-9. 
marriage of, celebrated, 1, 279. 
Hebrew literature under, 1, 

279. 
burial of, 1, 280. 
Hibat-allah. See Xathaniel. 
Hiel of Bethel fortifies Jericho, 

1, 201. 
Hieronymus. See Jerome. 
High priests, the, seat of, in 
Shiloh, 1, 41. 
dignity of, raised under Joash, 
1, 219. 



High priests, the {continued), 
heads of the Council of 
Seventy, 1, 394. 

considered political chiefs, 1, 
418. 

installed by the Roman pro 
curator, 2, 129, 137. 

vestments of, kept in the Au 
tonia, 2, 129. 

chosen bj' the Eoman gover- 
nor, 2, 172, 197. 

chosen by Herod II, 2, 198. 

chosen from certain familiae, 
2, 237. 

feuds among, 2, 237. 

power of, under Agrippa II, fi, 
246. 

.short terms of, 2, 249. 

deputy to, 2, 330. 

See also Aaronides; Priests. 
High priests, the, list of: 



Aaron, 
Abiathar, 
Achitub, 
Alcimus, 



Jehoiakim, 
Joaser, 

Johanan, son of 
Joiada, 



Alexander Jan- Joiada, 

n;cus, .Jonathan ben 
Amaziah (Rethel), Anan, 

Anan.of the fami- JonathanHaphus, 

ly Seth, Jo-seph, of the 
Anan,of the farai- house of Ca- 

ly Anan, myth, 

Ananel, Joseph Caiaphas, 

Ananias, Joshua, of the 
Antig'onus, family of Phabi, 

Aristobulus I, Joshua, of the 
Aristobulus II, family of Sie, 

Aristobulus III, Joshua ben Dam- 
Azariah, iiai, 

Azariah ben Za- Joshua ben Gam- 

dok, ala, 

Eleazar, Joshua, son of Je- 
Eli, hozedek, 

Eliashib, .TudasMaccabieus, 

Elionai. Manasseh, 

Hilkiah, Matthias ben The- 
Hyrcanus I, .John ophilus. 

Hyrcanus II, Menelaus the IJnn 
Ishmael II, jamito, 

Jaddua, Onias T, 

Jason, Onias II, 

Jehoiada, Onias III, 



INDEX. 



321 



High priests, the, list of (con- 
titiued) : 

Phineas, Simon, son of lioC- 

Phineas ben Sam- thus, 

uel, Simon Tharsi, 

Seraiah, Uriah, 

Simon I, Zachariah ben Je- 

Simon II. hoiada, 
Zadok. 

High-roads, the king's, built by 

Solomon, 1, 171-2. 
" High Tower, The," drama by 

Lnzzatto, 5, 235. 
Hilchetha Gabriatha, Talmud 

commentary by Samuel Ibn- 

Nagrela, 3, 2J9. 
Hildebrand. See Gregory VII. 
Hilderic of Nismes, governor of 

Septimania, revolts against 

Wamba, 3, 104-5. 
promises the Jews religious 

liberty, 3, 105. 
Hildesheim, Jews tolerated in, 

4, 686. 

the Jews of, deprived of civil 
rights, 5, 512. 
Hildesheimer, the Frankfort 
deputy to the Synhedrion, 

5, 497. 

Hilduin, incites the sons of 
Louis the Pious against 
their step-mother, 3, 1G6. 
Hilkia, treasurer of the Temple, 

envoy to Nero, 2, 248. 
Hilkiah, high priest, charged 
with the repairs of the Tem- 
ple, 1, 289. 
finds the Book of the Law, 1 , 292. 
counsels Josiah, 1, 293. 
ancestor of Ezra, 1, 365. 
Hillali, oldest copy of the Bible 

in Spain, destroyed, 3, 387. 
Hillel I, appointed president of 
the Synhedrion, 2, 96, 99. 
disciple of Shemaya and Ab- 

talion, 2, 96. 
character of, 2, 96-7. 
maxims of, 2, 97-8. 



Hillel I (continued), justifies the 

oral law, 2, 98. 
justifies new laws, 2, 99. 
enacts the Prosbol, 2, 100. 
followers of, swear allegiance 

to Herod, 2, 108. 
death of, lamented, 2, 130. 
descendants of, presidents of 

the Synhedrion, 2, 130, 192. 
spreads the knowledge of the 

Law in Judaea, 2, 149. 
the model of Jesus, 2, 149-50. 
quoted by Bhilo, 2, 213. 
compared with Philo, 2, 214. 
followers of, support the Peace 

party, 2, 256. 
the founder of Talmudic Jti- 

daism, 2, 327. 
laws of interpretation by, 2, 

327, 338. 
laws of interpretation by, 

supplemented, 2, 331, 356. 
reverence paid to the house of, 

2, 360. 
compared with Abba Areka, 

2, 517. 
end of the house of, 2, 618. 
Hillel, disciples of, distin- 
guished, 2, 131. 
conception of the Messiah held 

by, 2, 144. 
morality of, 2, 151. 
Hillel, the school of, 2, 101. 
conciliatory, 2, 131. 
disputes with the school of 

Shammai under Gamaliel II, 

2, 333, 336-8. 
deductions of, condemned by 

Joshua ben Chananya, 2, 350. 
estimation of, by the Naza- 

renes, 2, 372. 
extends the application of tra- 
dition, 2, 462. 
Hillel II, brother of Judah II, 

censured for irreligiousness, 

2, 480. 
Agadist, 2, 487. 



322 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Hillel II {continued), maxim of, 

2, 487. 

consulted by Origen, 2, 487. 

versed in the Scriptures, 2, 
487, 488. 

Patriarch, unselfishness of, 2, 
560. 

defamed by Joseph the ajjos- 
tate, 2, 56G. 

adopts a fixed calendar, 2, 
572-4. 

honored by Julian the Apos- 
tate, 2, 597, 598. 
Hillel ben Samuel of Verona 
(1220-1295), Talmudist, foun- 
der of Italian Jewish cul- 
ture, 3, 629; 4, 59. 

Maimunist, 3, 629, 630. 

accomplishments of, 3, 629. 

tries to prevent a renewal of 
the Maimunist controversy, 

3, 631-2. 

Himyar, ancestor of the Arabs, 

3, 61, 62. 
Himyara, part of southern Ara- 
bia, 3, 54. 
Himyarite kingdom, the Jew- 
ish, 3, 62-7. 
Himyarites, the, conversion of, 

to Christianity projected, 4, 

298. 
Hinderbacli, bishop of Trent, 

charges the Jews with child 

murder, 4, 298. 
Hinkmar, bishop of Rheims, 

anti-Jewish feelings of, 3, 

171. 
favorite of Charles the Bald, 

3, 172. 
Hinnom (Ge-henna), the vale 

of, south of Jerusalem, 1, 

115. 
tower at the gate of, 1, 231. 
Ahaz sacrifices to Moloch in, 

1, 260-1. 
sacrifices in, under Manasseh, 

1, 283. 



Hinnom, the vale of {continued), 
Moloch worship in, under 
Jehoiakim, 1, 300. 
gives its name to hell, 1, 404. 
Hippicus, tower in the wall of 
Jerusalem, refuge of the Ro- 
man garrison, 2, 260. 
left undeniolished by Titus, 2, 
309. 
Hippodrome, the, in Jerusalem, 
occupied during the disturb- 
ance by Sabinus, 2, 123. 
Hippos, incorporated w'itli Ju- 

diea, 2, 103. 
Hiram, of Tyre, allied with Da- 
vid, 1, 118. 
allied with Solomon, 1, 162. 
supplies material for the Tem- 
ple, 1, 164. 
supplies Solomon with sailors, 
1, 170. 
Hiram, artist in bronze, em- 
ployed in the building of the 
Temple, 1, 165. 
Hiram, brother of Merbal, king 

of Phoenicia, 1, 342. 
Hirsch (Hirschel), Berlin jew- 
eler, excites Voltaire's ani- 
mosity, 5, 339. 
Hisham, Ommiyyade caliph, 3, 
239. 
releases Jacob Ibn-Jau, 3, 241. 
Historians, Jewish, consulted 

by Basnage, 5, 196. 
Historians, Jewish, list of: 
Abraluim Ibii- Heilperin, Je- 

Daud Halcv), chlel 

Abraham Zucuto, .Tos6 ben Chalafta, 
Almosnino,!M().s('s Joseph ben Josh- 
Barrios, Miguel iia Cohen, 

de Joseph ben Mat- 

Bariich, thias (.Toso]ihus), 

Confortc, David Josephus, pseu- 
David Gans, do- 

Elias bon Elka- JosophTbn-Verpra, 
nah Kapsali, .lost, Isaac Mar 

Ep)iraim ben J:: fus 

Cob, .Justus, son ot 

Gedalya Tbn-Fa Pistus, 

ohya. 



INDEX. 



323 



Historians, Jewish, list of {con- 
tinued): 

LOwisolin, Solo- Kapoport, Solo 
mon monJehuda 

Luzzatto, SamuL'I Siimucl Shulani, 
David Sheriia, 

Proflat Duran, Usque, Samuel 

Usque, Solomon. 

Historians of the Jews, list of: 

Adams, Hannah Basnag-e, Jacob 

Ewaid, Heinrich. 

Historical writings of the Jews, 
the, carried into the Babj'- 
lonian Exile, 1, 335. 
compiled by Baruch, 1, 336-7. 
collected by the Sopherim, 1, 

400. 
translated into Greek, 1, 514. 
History, Jewish, cultivated in 
Hasnionaean times, 2, 15-16. 
beginnings of, 4, 554. 
in the " Moniteur," 5, 485. 
distorted, 5, 592-3. 
by Christians, 5, 593. 
by Jews, 5, 593-6. 
as viewed by Krochmal, 5, 609- 

10. 
the " Kerem Chemed " devoted 

to, 5, 621. 
a review of, 5, 705-31. 
" History of neo-Hebraic Poet- 
ry," by Franz Delitzsch, 5, 
628-9. 
" History of the Jews," by Ge- 

dalya Ibn-Yachya, 4, 616. 
" History of the People of Is- 
rael, The," by Ewald, 5, 696. 
" History of the Eeligion of the 
Jews," by Jacob Basnage, 5, 
197. 
" History of the World," by Ge- 

dalya Ibn-Yachya, 4, 616. 
Hittites, the, subdivision of the 
Canaanites, 1, 3. 
suffer under David, 1, 131. 
mercenary troops under Da- 
vid, 1, 137. 



Hittites, the (continued), de- 
clared bondmen by Solomon, 
1, 163. 
king of, hostile to Ben-hadad 
III, 1, 221. 
Hivites, the, subdivision of the 
Canaanites, 1, 3. 

submit to Joshua, 1, 34. 

declared bondmen by Solo- 
mon, 1, 163. 
Hochmeister, title of rabbis in 

Franconia, 4, 259. 
Hochstraten. See Hoogstraten, 

Jacob. 
Hodges, English consul-general, 
services of, in the Damascus 
affair, 5, 653, 659. 
Hodki, Haidamak leader, 5, 10. 
Holdheim, Samuel (1806-1860), 
Talmudist, at the Bruns- 
wick rabbinical conference, 
5, 678, 681. 

opposes Talmudic Judaism, 5, 
678, 680-1. 

secular studies of, 5, 678. 

temperament of, 5, 679. 

chief rabbi of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin, 5, 679. 

view held by, of Judaism, 5, 
680-1. 

compared with Frankel, 5, 
684. 

at the Frankfort rabbinical 
conference, 5, 685. 

preacher of the Berlin Reform 
Association, 5, 686. 

innovations of, 5, 686-7. 

compared with Sachs, 5, 687- 
8, 692. 

Sachs's opinion of, 5, 691. 
Holland, soldiers of, in the im- 
perial army against the Hus- 
sites, 4, 225. 

a refuge for Jews, 4, 661, 676- 
7, 678. 

second Jewish colony of, 4, 
685 



324 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Holland (continued), learning in, 

5, 20-1. 

war of, with England, and the 

re-settlement of Jews In 

England, 5, 34. 

displeased with the efforts to 

settle Jews in England, 5, 4G. 

rabbis of, jirepared to exeom- 

ninnicate Luzzatto, 5, 241. 
ambassador of, intercedes for 
the Moravian and Bohemian 
Jews, 5, 253. 
funds advanced to, by Isaac 

Pinto, 5, 340. 
the Measfim in, 5, 400-1. 
See also Amsterdam; Batavian 
Republic, the. 
Holmes, Nathaniel, Puritan, 
attitude of, towards the 
Jews, 5, 27. 
on the place of the Jews in 
the Messianic time, 5, 29-30. 
Hoist, Ludwig, attacks the 

Jews, 5, 543. 
Holstein, favors the emancipa- 
tion of the Jews, 5, 519. 
Holwan, the Exilarch's income 

from, 3, 96. 
Holy City, the, beginnings of, 

1, 114. See Jerusalem. 
Holy Days, the, kept by the 

Babylonian Judaeans, 1, 364. 
Holy Ghost, the, dogma of, in- 
troduced into Christianitj', 

2, 500-1. 

Holy Land, the. See Palestine. 
Holy of Holies, the, Debir, 1, 
165. 
entered by Antiochus Epipha- 

nes, 1, 451-2. 
entered bj^ Pompey, 2, 66. 
the Pomans desecrate, 2, 124. 
entered by Titus, 2, 308. 
Holy Place, the, Hechal, 1, 165. 
Holy Roman Empire, the, dis- 
nienil»i>red, 5, 465. See Rome; 
Germany. 



Holy Sepulcher, the, Church of, 
fear that Jews will gain pos- 
session of, 4, 272, 274. 

Holy Week. See Eastertide. 

Homberg, Herz, assists Mendels- 
sohn in his Pentateuch 
translation, 5, 334. 
teacher in an Austrian school, 

5, 369. 
one of the Measfim, 5, 401-2. 

Homel, the Jews of, massacred. 
5, 10. 

Homem, Gaspar Lopez, I'ortu- 
guese Marrano, 4, 064. 

Homem, Mayor Rodrigues, Mar- 
rano, sends her daughter to 
Holland, 4, 664-5. 
emigrates to Holland, 4, 667. 

Homer, read by the Alexandrian 
Judaeans, 1, 505. 
Greek views of the world in, 
2, 208. 

" Homilies of the Jews in Di- 
vine Worship," bj' Zunz, 5, 
620-1. 

Honorius III, pope, enforces 

anti-Jewish decrees, 3, 513. 

exempts the Toulouse Jews 

from wearing badges, 3, 514. 

prevents the employment of 

Jews as diplomats, 3, 514. 

Honorius IV, pope, bids the 
English clergy proceed 
against the Jews, 3, 645. 

Honorius, emperor of the West, 

and the Jews, 2, 616-17, 622, 

forbids the collection of the 

Patriarch's tax, 2, 617. 
forbids Jews to enter military 
service. 2, 617. 

Hooghe, Romein de, poet, on 
the Amsterdam synagogue, 
5, 167. 

Hoogstraten, Jacob, Dominican 
general in Cologne, 4, 424. 
and the confiscation of He- 
brew books, 4, 437. 4 11 



INDEX. 



325 



Hoogstraten, Jacob (coiitimtcd), 
decides tliat the Talmiul 
ought to be burnt, 4, 444. 

proposes the indictment of the 
Jews, 4, 444. 

accuses Reuchliu of heresy, 4, 
450. 

tries Reuchliu and the " Au- 
genspiegel," 4, 451. 

orders the burning of the 
" Augensplegel," 4, 451-2. 

the examination of, ordered 
by Leo X, 4, 454. 

fails to appear for trial, 4, 
454. 

convicted of slander, 4, 455. 

appeals to Leo X, 4, 455. 

tries to have the Speyer judg- 
ment overturned, 4, 458. 

summoned to Rome, 4, 458. 

satirized in the " Letters of 
Obscurantists," 4, 461. 

asks for a decision by council, 
4, 464, 

influences Leo X to suspend 
his case, 4, 4G5. 

leaves Rome in disgrace, 4, 
465. 

life of, endangered, 4, 465. 
Hoornbeek, John, anti-Jewish 

author, 5, 46. 
Hophni, son of Eli, character 

and death of, 1, 70. 
Hophra. See Apries. 
Horeb, mount, scene of the first 

revelation to Moses, 1, 15. 
Hormisdas IV, of Persia, char- 
acter of, 3, 7-8. 

persecutes the Jews, 3, 8. 

murdered, 3, 8. 
Hosannas, Day of, a second Day 

of Atonement, 4, 626. 
Hosea (I), prophet, under Jero- 
boam II, prophecies of, 1, 
240-2. 
Hosea (II), prophet, under 
Hoshea, 1, 251. 



Hoshea, son of Elah, murders 
I'ekah, 1, 260. 
king of Israel, 1, 263. 
ally of Egypt and vassal to 

Shalmaneser, 1, 263. 
withdraws his tribute from 

Shalmaneser, 1, 264, 
fortifies Samaria, 1, 264. 
imprisoned for life, 1, 264. 
Hosiander, probable author of 
the " Little Book about the 
Jews," 4, 515. 
Host desecration, the charge of, 
believed by Maximilian I, 4, 
414. 
Host desecration, charged 
against the Jews of Rottin- 
gen, 4, 35. 
of Deckendorf, 4, 98. 
of Prague, 4, 164-6. 
of Segovia, 4, 195-6. 
of Austria, 4, 223. 
of Silesia, 4, 261. 
■ of Passau, 4, 306. 
of the Mark of Brandenburg, 

4, 437, 440. 
See also Blood accusation, the; 
Child murder. 
Hosts, God of, meaning of, 1, 

130-1. 
House of Commons, the, passes 
the Statute of Judaism, 3, 642. 
" House of God, The," Kabba- 
listic work by Abraham de 
Herrera, 5, 54. 
" House of Jacob," first Amster- 
dam synagogue, 4, 667. 
House of the Forest of Lebanon, 

Solomon's armory, 1, 108. 
Ho'wan, the Temple of, Jewish 
children brought up as Ma- 
gians in, 2, 629. 
Howdon, Lord, on the Damas- 
cus affair, 5, 656. 
Hubmaier, Balthasar, Anabap- 
tist, agitates against the 
Jews, 4, 542-3. 



326 



HISTORY OF THE ]E\VS. 



Huesca, the Jews of, excommn- 

iiicate the anti-Maimuiiists, 

3, 537. 
the Marranos of, conspire 

against Pedro Arbues, 4, 

330. 
Huet, Peter Daniel, and ^^lanas- 

seh ben Israel, 5, 22. 
Huete, meeting of the deputies 

of Castile congregations at, 

3, 617. 
the Jews of, persecuted, 4, 170. 
Kufnagel, translates Wessely's 

" Songs of Glory," 5, 404. 
Hugh, chaplain of Toulouse, 

and the Jews, 3, 174. 
Hugh Capet, of France, death 

of, said to have been caused 

by the Jews, 3, 242. 
Hujej Ibn-Achtab, chief of the 

Benu-Nadhir, 3, 78. 
induces Arabian tribes to 

make war against Mahomet, 

3, 79, 80. 
killed, 3, 81. 
daughter of, 3, 83. 
Hulagu, Tartar sultan, ravages 

of, 3, 606. 
founder of the Mongol king- 
dom in Persia, 3, 038. 
Huldah, prophetess under Jo- 

siah, 1, 286, 293. 
Humanists, the, espouse Reuch- 

lin's cause, 4, 4^6. 
courted by Leo X, 4, 465. 
favor Charles V's election, 4, 

468. 
Humboldt, "Wilhelm von, rela- 
tion of, to Henrietta Herz, 

5, 423. 
draws up a constitution for 

Germany, 5, 514. 
Huna, on the refugees from Scp- 

phoris, 2, 571. 
Htma (212-297), Babylonian Am- 

ora, chief teacher at Sora, 

2, 545. 



Huna {continued), agriculturist, 
2, 545. 
and Chania ben Anihii, 2, 546. 
charitableness of, 2, 546. 
presides over the Metibta, 2, 

547-8. 
death of, 2, 548. 
and Judah ben Ezekiel, 2, 552. 
and Chasda, 2, 553. 
and Mar-Sheshet, 2, 553-4. 
Huna, Exilarch, buried in Ju- 

da'a, 2, 455, 509. 
Huna bar Nathan, at the court 

of Jezdijird, 2, 610. 
Huna ben Chiya, principal of 
the Pumbeditha academy, 
wealth of, 2, 576. 
opposition to, 2, 577. 
death of, 2, 577. 
Huna ben Joshua, teacher at 
the academy of Nares, 2, 
593-4. 
Huna-Mar (48S-50S), Exilarch, 

Amora, 2, 631; 3, 3. 
Huna-Mari, Exilarch, executed 
by Firuz, 2, 629. 
learned in the Law, 2, 631. 
Hunal', Gaon of Sora, reforms 

the divorce law, 3, 92. 
Hundt, Hartwig, pamphlet by, 

against the Jews, 5, 532. 
Hungary, adopts Frederick the 
Valiant's Jewish statute, 3, 
569. 
Jews invited into, 3, 613. 
Jewish exiles from, take ref- 
uge in Poland, 4, 263. 
Messianic hopes connected 
with Solomon Molcho in, 4, 
497. 
Polish-Jewish fugitives in, 5, 

16. 
the Sabbatian movement in, 5, 

208. 
rabbis of, protest against the 
Brunswick rabbinical con- 
ference, 5, 682. 



INDEX. 



327 



Hungary, the Jews of, condi- 
tion of, in early days, 3, 
520. 
possess the right of coinage, 

3, 521. 

farmers of salt mines and 

taxes, 3, 521. 
kindly treated by Andreas, 3, 

521. 
the decrees of the Fourth 

Lateran Council enforced 

against, 3, 521. 
indispensable to the pros- 
perity of the country, 3, 613. 
proscribed by the Council of 

Buda, 3, 614-15. 
banished by Louis I, 4, 111. 
liturgy of, arranged bj^ Maha- 

ril, 4, 225. 
urged to emigrate to Turkey, 

4, 271-2, 
Sabbatians, 5, 149. 

modify their divine service, 5, 
582. 
Huns, the, incursions of, 2, 604. 

aid Kobad, 3, 2. 
Huozmann. See Eiidiger. 
Hurwitz, Isaiah (Sheloh), de- 
votee of the Kabbala, 5, 52, 
55. 
Hurwitz, Phineas Levi (1740- 
1802), rabbi of Frankfort, 
opposes Mendelssohn's Pen- 
tateuch translation, 5, 331. 
death of, 5, 566. 
Hurwitz, Sabbatai, draws up 

penitential prayers, 5, 13. 
Hurwitz, Salkind, competes for 
the Metz prize on the Jcmt- 
ish question, 5, 434. 
in the National Guards, 5, 
443. 
Hushai, David's favorite, 1, 122. 
faithful to David in Absalom's 

rebellion, 1, 141-2. 
pretends to submit to Absa- 
lom, 1, 142-3. 



Huss, John, attacks the papac3% 
4, 221. 

condemned to death, 4, 221-2. 
Hussite war, the, and the Jews. 
4, 222. 

cruelties of, 4, 224-6. 

Cierman Jews in sympathy 
with, 4, 226. 
Hussites, the, hated by Em- 
peror Albert IL 4, 249. 

excite Catholic bigotry, 4, 258. 

protect the Jews of Ratisbon, 
4, 301. 

the Dominicans threaten to 
ally themselves with, 4, 459. 
Hutten, Ulrich von, agent at 
the imperial court, instruct- 
ed to aid the Jews, 4, 431. 

espouses Reuchlin's cause, 4, 
456-7. 

supposed author of the " Let- 
ters of Obscurantists," 4, 
462. 

enemy of ecclesiastical domi- 
nation, 4, 465. 

favors Charles V, 4, 468. 

in the pantomime on the Ref- 
ormation, 4, 468. 
Hypatia, killed by monks, 2, 619. 
Hyrcanion, fortress, built by 
John Hyrcanus, 2, 46. 

held by a sister of Antigonus, 
2, 94. 
Hyrcanists, the, Hyrcanus II's 
party, defend the Temple, 2, 
65. 
Hyrcanus I, John, son of Simon 
Tharsi, 1, 520. 

lives at Gazara, 1, 525. 

defeats Cendebseus, 1, 529. 

escapes from Ptolemy ben Ha- 
bub, 1, 530-1. 

mother of, imprisoned, 1, 531; 
2, 2. 

reign of, 2, 1. 

contest of, with Ptolemy ben 
Habub, 2, 2-3. 



32i 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Hyrcanus I, John {coiitiinird), 

besieged by Antioclius Si- 

detes, 2, 3-4. 
sends an embassy to Kome, 2, 

4-5. 
furnishes Syria troops against 

Parthia, 2, 5. 
acknowledges Alexander Za- 

bina king of Syria, 2, 6. 
Samaritan campaign of, 2, 7-8. 
destroys the Temple on Geri- 

zim, 2, 8. 
converts the Idumreans forci- 
bly to Judaism, 2, 8-9. 
appeals to Rome, 2, 9. 
besieges Samaria, 2, 9. 
destroys Samaria, 2, 10. 
conquests of, 2, 11-12. 
has coins struck, 2, 12. 
worldly ambition of, 2, 13. 
erects a mausoleum at IModin, 

2, 14. 
employ's Pharisees and Saddu- 

cees, 2, 31. 
offended by the Pharisees, 2, 

32-3. 
fills the high offices with Sad- 

ducees, 2, 33. 
death of, 2, 33. 
sons of, 2, 34. 
Hyrcanus I, John, the wife of, 

queen, supplanted by Aris- 

tobulus I, 2, 35. 
imprisonment and death of, 2, 

3G. 
Hyrcanus II, son of Alexander 

Jannaeus, 2, 47. 
proclaimed high priest, 2, 48, 

7G. 
conspiracy against, 2, 5G. 
accession and character of, 2, 

57. 
defeated at Jericho by Aris- 

tobulus, 2, 58. 
deprived of the royal dignity, 

2, 58. 



Hyrcanus II (continued), aided 

bji- the Nabathaean king, 2, 

59. 
refuses to supply the sacrifi- 
cial lamb during the siege 

of Jerusalem, 2, CO. 
summoned to Damascus, 2, 63. 
favored by Pompey, 2, G4, 
made ethnarch, 2, GG, 7G. 
leaves Jerusalem, 2, 70. 
petitioned to punish Herod, 2, 

78. 
permits the Synhedrion to 

svimmon Herod, 2, 78. 
reproved by Shemaya, 2, 79. 
adjourns the Synhedrion, 2, 

79. 
takes counsel with Malich, 2, 

80. 
mutilated, 2, 82. 
dethroned, 2, 82-3. 
taken captive to Babylon, 2, 

83. 
welcomed by the Babylonian 

Judjeans, 2, 90. 
returns to Palestine, 2, 91. 
executed, 2, 96. 
descendants of, in Nahardea, 

2, 551. 
Hyrcanus, son of Josei^h, his 

father's representative in 

Egypt, 1, 429-30. 
favored by Ptolemy IV, 1, 430. 
rebuked for extravagance, 1, 

430. 
successor of his father, 1, 

431-2. 
flees to Alexandria, 1, 432. 
in favor with Ptolemy V, 1, 

437. 
wealth of, 1, 437. 
betrayed bj'' the Hellenists, 1, 

444. 
tax-collector for the king of 

Egypt, 1, 414. 
Hyrkania, Judseans banished 

to, 1, 408. 



INDEX. 



329 



Ibbur, impregnation of the soul, 
Kabbulistic term, 4, 621. 

Ibbur, work on the calendar by 
Isaac Ibn-Albalia, 3, 283. 
See also Calendar. 

Iberia, early Jewish settlements 
in, 3, 35. See Spain. 

Ibleam, Zechariah, king of Is- 
rael, murdered at, 1, 243. 

Ibn- Abbas. See Jehuda and 
Samuel Ibn-Abbas. 

Ibn-Abbas, plots to depose 
Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, 3, 258. 

Ibn-Abi Musa, idiots to deiDose 
Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, 3, 258. 

Ibn-Abi Obsaibiya, physician, 
colleague of Abraham Mai- 
muni, 3, 495. 

Ibn-Abitur. See Joseph ben 
Isaac Ibn-Abitur. 

Ibn-Abitur family, the, opposes 
Chanoch ben Moses, 3, 238. 

Ibn-Albalia. See Baruch Ibn- 
Albalia; Isaac ben Baruch 
Albalia. 

Ibn-Albalia family, the, early 
settlement of, in Spain, 3, 43. 

Ibn-Alfachar. See Abraham Ibn- 
Alfachar; Jehuda bar Josepb 
Ibn-Alfachar. 

Ibn-Alfachar family, the, of 
the nobility of Jewish Spain, 
3, 235, 537, 

Ibn-Alfara, Arabic poet, elegy 
by, 3, 279. 

Ibn-Aljami. See Nathaniel. 

Ibn-Alruchi (Arruchi). /See Da- 
vid Alrui. 

Ibn-Benveniste Halevi. See Jo- 
seph ben Ephraim Ibn-Ben- 
veniste Halevi. 

Ibn-Chabib. See Jacob Ibn- 
Chabib. 

Ibn-Chasdai. See Abraham ben 
Chasdai; Samuel ben Abra- 
ham Ibn-Chasdai. 



Ibn-Daud. See Abraham Ibn- 
Daud Halevi; Jehuda Ibn- 
Daud (Chayuj). 

Ibn-Daud family, the, traces 
descent from David, 3, 43. 

Ibn-Daudi, the, descendants of 
the last Exilarch, settle in 
Spain, 3, 254. 

Ibn-Ezra. See Abraham ben 
Meir; Abuhajaj Joseph; Abu- 
Ibrahim Isaac; Abulhassan 
Jehuda; Isaac ben Abraham; 
Jacob; Jehuda; Moses. 

Ibn-Ezra family, the, Chasdai 
Ibn-Shaprut a member of, 
3, 215. 
of the nobilit3' of Jewish 
Spain, 3, 235. 

Ibn-Falyaj family, the, of the 
nobility of Jewish Spain, 3, 
236. 

Ibn-Earussal. See Solomon Ibn- 
FaruKsal. 

Ibn-Gebirol. See Solomon Ibn- 
Gcbii'ol. 

Ibn-Giat. See Isaac ben Jehuda; 
Judah. 

Ibn-Giat family, the, of the 
nobility of Jewish Spain, 3, 
236. 

Ibn-G'ikatilia. See Isaac Ibn- 
G'ikatilia; Moses ben Sam- 
uel Ibn-G'ikatilia. 

Ibn- Janach. See Jonah ISIarinus. 

Ibn-Jau. See Jacob Ibn-Jau. 

Ibn-Kamnial. See Abulhassan 
Abraham ben Meir Ibn- 
Kamnial. 

Ibn-Labi. See Vidal ben Benve- 
niste Ibn-Labi. 

Ibn-Migash. See Joseph ben 
Meir; Meir ben Joseph. 

Ibn-Migash family, the, of the 
nobility of Jewish Spain, 3, 
236. 



330 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Ibn-Misha'l, Jewish diplomat, 
3, 284. 

Ibn-Nagrela. See Joseph Ibn- 
Nagrela; Samuel Halevi Ibn- 
Nagrela. 

Ibn-Raz, assailant of Rabbini- 
cal Judaism in Leo Modena's 
work. 5, 73-4. 

Ibn-Roshd. See Averroes. 

Ibn-Kumahis, Moorish admiral, 
captures and sells the four 
emissaries from Sora, 3, 203, 
208, 209. 

Ibn-Sahal. Sec Joseph ben Ja- 
cob Ibn-Sahal. 

Ibn-Sahula (1245), fabulist, 3, 
5G0. 

Ibn-Said (Sid). See Zag Ibn- 
Said. 

Ibn-Sakbel. See Solomon Ibn- 
Sakbel. 

Ibn-Sakviyah, Karaite writer, 
opposed by Saadiah, 3, 192. 

Ibn-Satanas. See Joseph ben 
Isaac Ibn-Abitur. 

Ibn-Shalbib. See Amram ben 
Isaac Ibn-Shalbib. 

Ibn-Shem Tob. >S'('e Joseph ben 
Shem Tob; Shem Tob ben 
Joseph Ibn-Shem-Tob. 

Ibn-Shoshan. See Abraham; Jo- 
seph ben Solomon Ibn-Sho- 
shan; Solomon ben Joseph 
Ibn-Shoshan. 

Ibn-Shoshan family, the, mem- 
bers of, die from the Black 
Death, 4, 113. 

Ibn-Sina (Avicenna), Mahome- 
tan interpreter of Aristotle, 
3, 478. 

Ibn-Tibbon. See Jacob ben Ma- 
chir; Judah ben Moses; Ju- 
dah ben Saul; Moses; Samuel. 

Ibn-Verga. See Joseph; Judah; 
Solomon. 

Ibn-Vives. See Joshua ben Jo- 
seph Ibn-Vives. 



Ibn-Wakar. .S'ec Jehuda; Sam- 
uel. 
Ibn-Yachya. See David; David 
Negro; Gedalya; Gedalya I; 
Gedalya II; Joseph; Moses; 
Solomon Ibn-Gebirol. 
Ibn-Yachya family, the, Turk- 
ish branch of, 4, G09. 
Italian branch of, 4, GIG. 
Ibn-Yachya-Negx"o. See David; 

Judah. 
Ibn-Yachya-Negro, two broth- 
ers, favorites of Alfonso V, 
of Portugal, 4, 339. 
Ibn-Yaish, prominent at the 
court of Alfonso XI, of Cas- 
tile, 4, 84. 
Ibn-Zachariah Yachya Chayuj. 

See Jehuda Ibn-Daud. 
Ibn-Zadik. See Abu-Amr Joseph 

ben Zadik Ibn-Zadik. 
Ibrahim, sultan, war of, with 

Venice, 5, 119. 
Ibzan, judge, 1, CG. 
Icabo, character in Samuel 
Usque's work, 4, 558, 559, 
5G0. 
Idolatry, among the EgyiJtians, 
1, 9-10. 
practiced by the Israelites in 

Egypt, 1, 11. 
among the Israelites in the 

desert, 1, 23-4. 
of the Israelites at Baal-Peor. 

1, 28. 
the Israelites reclaimed from, 

by Samuel, 1, 75-G. 
under Solomon, 1, 175. 
under Jeroboam, 1, 18G-7. 
under Omri, 1, 195-6. 
under Jezebel, 1, 197-8. 
under Joram, 1, 209. 
under Jeroboam II, 1, 233. 
under IVIenahem, 1, 244, 247. 
under Ahaz, 1, 2fi0-l. 
removed bj^ Hezekiah, 1, 268. 
under ^lanasseh, 1, 282-3. 



INDEX. 



331 



Idolatry (continued), uprooted 

by Josiah, 1, 294-5. 
relapse into, under Jehoiakim, 

1, 299-300. 
under Jehoiachin, 1, 30G. 
practiced by Judaeans in 

Egypt, 1, 326-7. 
among tlie Babylonian exiles, 

1, 332, 339, 340. 
stamped out among the Ju- 
daeans by the fall of Baby- 
lon, 1, 350. 
laws against, inviolate under 

all circumstances, 2, 424. 
regulations against, in the 

Mishna, 2, 476-8. 
practiced by the Arabs, 3, 72. 
See also Astarte; Baal, the wor- 

sliip of. 
Idumaea, urges Zedekiah to re- 
volt from Nebuchadnezzar, 

1, 310. 
ruled bj^ procurators, 2, 137. 
Eleazar ben Ananias governor 

of, 2, 270. 
Idumsean, applied to Herod and 

Eome, 2, 114-15. 
Idumaeans, the, antagonize the 

Israelites in the desert, 1, 

27. 
characteristics of, 1, 55. 
relations of, to the Israelites, 

1, 56-9. 
routed by Othniel, 1, 60. 
attracted to Palestine under 

Solomon, 1, 173. 
gain independence, 1, 185. 
revolt of, from Judah, 1, 209. 
conqiiered by Amaziah, 1, 

222-3. 
attack Jerusalem under Uz- 

ziah, 1, 226-7. 
defeated by Uzziah, 1, 230. 
allies of Nebuchadnezzar, 1, 

314. 
molest fugitive Judaeaus, 1, 

318. 



Idumaeans, tlic (continued), ap- 
propriate Judipan territory, 
1, 325-6. 

settled to the south of Judaea, 
1, 355. 

in possession of Judaean terri- 
tory, 1, 435. 

hostile to the Judaeans during 
the Syrian invasions, 1, 473, 
474. 

defeated by Judas Maccabaeus, 

1, 474. 

hostile to Judam under John 

Hyrcanus, 2, 7. 
forcibly converted to Judaism, 

2, 8-9. 

colony of, in Samaria, 2, 9, 10. 
expeditions of, against Simon 

bar Giora, 2, 293. 
help the Zealots against Anan, 

2, 295-6. 
disliked by the Zealots and 

the Moderates, 2, 296. 
allied with the aristocratic 

party, 2, 298. 
one of the factions in Jerusa- 
lem, 2, 301. 
try to make terms with Titus, 

2, 309. 
Ifra-Ormuzd, mother of Shabur 

II, leans towards Judaism, 

2, 580, 592-3. 

generous towards the Pumbe- 

ditha academy, 2, 581. 
protects the Jews, 2, 592. 
assists Eaba bar Joseph, 2, 
592. 
Iggaron, Hebrew lexicon by 

Saadiah, 3, 190. 
Iggeret Tem.an, by Alaimonides, 

3, 462-4. 

Ignatius, Christian martyr, 2, 

621. 
Ijon, subjugated by Ben-hadad 

I, 1, 191. 
Ikkarim, work by Joseph Albo. 

4, 239. 



332 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Ilai, member of the Jainnhi 

Synhedrion, 2, o57. 
Illias Perdidas. Sec San Thomas. 
Illiberis (Elvira), the Council 
of, forbids Christians to 
trade with Jews, 2, 620. 
anIa-Jewish decrees of, 3, 43, 
44. 
lUyria, sj^nagogues of, pro- 
tected by Arcadius, 2, GIG. 
the Jews of, autonomous, 3, 
27. 
Ilpha, companion of Jochanau 

bar Napacha, 2, 493. 
Imam, founder of the Fatimide 

dynasty, 3, 212. 
Imamate, the, the high priest- 
hood among the Mahome- 
tans, 3, 110. 
Immaculate Conception, the, 
dogma of, attacked by Chas- 
dai Crescas, 4, 187. 
Immanuel ben Solomon Romi 
(12G5-1330), poet, under Mai- 
inunist influence, 3, G30; 4, 
GO. 
characterization of, 4, 63-4. 
position of, in the Roman Jew- 
ish community, 4, 64-5. 
friend of Dante, 4, 65. 
works of, 4, G5-7. 
place of, in neo-Hebraic poe- 
try, 4, 67; 5, 112. 
in Fermo, 4, 68. 
on the poets of his time, 4, GS. 
Immorality, under Jeroboam II, 

1, 233-4. 

under Jotham, 1, 249-50. 
under Ahaz, 1, 261. 
under Jehoiakim, 1, 300. 
under Zerubbabel, 1, 358. 
of the Juda^an aristocracy, 2, 

234. 
of Judieans under the Koman 

dominion, 2, 237-8. 
among the Jews of Babylonia, 

2, 516-17, 579. 



Immorality (continued), among 
the Marranos at Amster- 
dam, 4, 680. 

among the Jews of Prussia, 5, 
419-20, 422. 
Immortality of the soul, the 
dogma of, in the " Guide of 
the Perplexed," 3, 482, 488. 

Maimonides' treatment of, at- 
tacked, 3, 524. 

in the Kabbala, 3, 554. 

doubt cast upon, by the French 
thinkers, 5, 305-6. 

Mendelssohn tries to restore 
the belief in, 5, 306-7. 
Imnestar, the Jews of, punished 
for Purim pleasantry, 2, 621. 
Imrulkais Ibn-Hojr, Arabic 
poet, protected by Samuel 
lbn-Adiya,'3, 6S-9. 
" In Praise and Honor of Em- 
peror Maximilian," anti- 
Jewish pamphlet by Pfeffer- 
korn, 4, 439. 
" In Refutation of Anan," by 

Saadiah, 3, 1S9. 
Incarnation, the dogma of, re- 
futed by Closes Cohen de 
Tordesillas, 4, 141. 

expounded by Astruc Rai- 
much, 4, 182. 

refuted by Solomon Bonfed, 
4, 182. 

attacked by Chasdai" Crescas, 
4, 187. 

criticised by Joseph Ibn-Shem 
Tob, 4, 235. 

in the Kabbala, 4, 292. 

Jews averse to, 5, 420. 

belief in. threatened, 5, 682. 
Index expurgatorius, the, Kab- 

balistic writings on, 4, 584. 
India, trade with, under Solo- 
mon, 1, 170. 

Uzziah revives the trade with, 
1, 230. 

Jews settle in, 2, 629-30. 



INDEX. 



333 



India (cnntinued), south Arabian 
Jews trade with, 3, 54, 57. 

under tlie Exilarch's jurisdic- 
tion, 3, 420. 

the Jews of, in the twelftli 
century, 3, 435-G. 

desire of the Portuguese to 
reach, 4, 367. 
Infessura, chancellor of Eome, 

on Sixtus IV, 4, 321. 
Informers, among the Jewish 
Christians, 2, 37S-9. 

during Hadrian's persecutions, 
2, 425-6. 

under Severus, 2, 464-5. 

against the Jews of Sepphoris, 

2, 570. 

the excommunication of, re- 
vived, 3, 378. 

decree against, by the May- 
ence synod, 3, 517. 

against Jews in Sjiain, 4, 155-6. 

Innocent II, pope, convenes a 

Church Council in France, 

3, 376. 

Innocent III, pope, persecutes 
Raymond VI of Toulouse, 3, 
400, 501-2. 

preaches the third crusade, 3, 
405. 

refuses to sanction Philip Au- 
gustus' marriage, 3, 406. 

baneful influence of, 3, 496. 

protects the Jews against the 
crusaders, 3, 496-7. 

and Pedro II of Aragon, 3, 
497-8. 

reproaches Philip A\igustus 
with disregard of anti-Jew- 
ish decrees, 3, 498-9. 

reprimands Alfonso III of 
Castile for kindly treatment 
of Jews, 3, 499. 

threatens excommunication 
for intercourse with Jews, 
3, 499. 



Innocent III (con^inMcd) , threat- 
ens Count Nevers for favor- 
ing the Jews, 3, 500. 

organizes the Albigensian cru- 
sade, 3, 502, 

asked to decree a crusade 
against the Mahometans, 3, 
507. 

convokes the Fourth Lateran 
Council, 3, 508-9. 

introduces Jew badges, 3, 
511-12. 

detith of, 3, 513. 

a nti- Jewish decrees of, en- 
forced in southern France, 

3, 518. 

anti-Jewish decrees of, in 

Hungary, 3, 520-1. 
degrades the Jews, 3, 563. 
Jewish constitution of, re-is- 
sued, 3', 564. 
anti-Jewish decrees of, con- 
firmed, 3, 611. 
Innocent IV, pope, appealed to, 
in behalf of the Talmud, 3, 
579. 
condemns the blood accusa- 
tion, 3, 583-5, 635. 
opposes the forcible baptism 
of Jews, 4, 165. 
Innocent VH, pope, opposes the 
expulsion of the Jews, 4, 
346. 
Innocent VIII, pope, urges the 
establishment of the Portu- 
guese Inquisition, 4, 368. 
Innocents, the, legend concern- 
ing the slaughter of, 2, 116. 
'' Inquiry into Light and 
Truth," directed against 
Mendelssohn, 5, 363. 
" Inquiry into Probability," es- 
say by Mendelssohn, 5, 299. 
Inquisition, the, established in 
France, 3, 542. 
meets opposition in Navarre, 

4, 357. 



334 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Inquisition, the {continued), es- 
tablished at Beneven4;o, 4, 
385, 

condemns Molcho to the stake, 
4, 506-7. 

at Rome authorized, 4, 525. 

burns the Talmud and other 
Hebrew writings in Italy, 
4, 5G5. 

tries the Marranos of Ancona, 
4, 5GS, 570. 

permits the printing of the 
Zohar, 4, 583. 

persecutes the Bologna Jews, 
4, 590-1. 

in the Netherlands, 4, GOl, GG2. 

the Jews of Italy put under, 4, 
654. 

cruelties of, to Jews, re- 
counted by ^Manasseh ben 
Israel, 5, 31-2. 
Inquisition, the Portuguese, 
commission for the estab- 
lishment of, 4, 365. 

planned by Joao III, 4, 490 

idea of, abandoned, 4, 490-1. 

plans for, mooted, 4, 499-500. 

establishment of, opposed, 4, 
500, 505. 

established bj^ Clement VII, 4, 
507. 

inhumanity of, complained of 
by the Marranos, 4, 509. 

proceedings of, stopped by 
Clement VII, 4, 513. 

power of, abrogated by Clem- 
ent VII, 4, 514. 

commission on, 4, 514-15. 

reconsideration of, ordered by 
Paul III, 4, 516. 

arrested by Paul III, 4, 517. 

sanctioned by Paul III, 4, 518, 
527. 

cruelty of, 4, 519-20. 

practically abrogated by Paul 
III, 4, 520. 

rules of, enforced, 4, 521. 



Inquisition, the Portuguese 

{continued), crippled, 4, 522. 

described by Samuel Usque, 4, 

described by an assembly of 
cardinals, 4, 523. 

imprisons Marranos, 4, 670. 
Inquisition, the Spanish, first 
germs of, 4, 1G7. 

deals with Judaizing Marra- 
nos, 4, 256. 

and the Jews, 4, 308. 

established bj'^ Ferdinand and 
Isabella, 4, 309. 

views on the establishment of, 
4, 310. 

authorized by Sixtus IV, 4, 
311. 

commission to frame the stat- 
ute for, 4, 312. 

statute of, ratified, 4, 312. 

judges of, 4, 312. 

established in Seville, 4, 312-13. 

distrust of, 4, 313. 

orders the surrender of fugi- 
tive Marranos, 4, 313-14. 

first victims of, 4, 314. 

publishes the Edict of Grace, 
4, 315. 

heresy defined by, 4, 315-16. 

first auto-da-fe ordered by, 4, 
317. 

crucltj' of, censured by Sixtus 
IV, 4, 318-19. 

established in Aragon, 4, 319, 
330. 

opposition to, in Aragon, 4, 
319, 328-9. 

opposition to, in Sicily, 4, 319- 
20. 

judges of, cannot be Marra- 
nos, 4, 321. 

rigors of, modified by Sixtus 
IV, 4, 322. 

confined at first to the south- 
ern part of the country, 4, 
323. 



INDEX. 



335 



Inquisition, the Spanish (con- 
tinued), description of, by 

Samuel Usque, 4, 324-5. 
tribunals of, established by 

Torquemada, 4, 325. 
in Ferdinand's hereditary 

lands, 4, 325-C. 
code of, by Torquemada, 4, 

326-8. 
the introduction of, resisted 

by the northern provinces, 

4, 332. 
increase of the victims of, 4, 332. 
established in Barcelona and 

jSIajorca, 4, 332. 
described by Isaac Arama, 4, 

332. 
in Seville, 4, 335. 
turned against the enemies of 

the Jews, 4, 355. 
victims of, under Torquemada, 

4, 356. 
evil effects of, 4, 356. 
described by Peter Martyr, 4, 

484. 
Christian victims of, 4, 485. 
executes Marranos denounced 

by David Eeubeni, 4, 511. 
Interest, the charging of, for- 
bidden by the Council of 

Narbonne, 3, 518. See under 

Usury. 
Intermarriages, between the 

heathen and the Israelites, 

1, 56-7, 
between the Judseans and the 

Samaritans, 1, 361-2, 383. 
with Ammonites and Moabites 

prohibited, 1, 362. 
Ezra on, with the heathen, 1, 

367-9, 
law against, expounded by 

Ezra, 1, 380. 
dissolved by Nehemiah, 1, 386. 
between Jews and Christians 

forbidden by Constantius, 2, 

567. 



Intermarriages {continued), for- 
bidden by the Council of 
Illiberis, 2, 620. 

in Gaul, 3, 36. 

between the Vangioni and 
Jewish women, 3, 41. 

in Spain in the sixth century, 
3, 44. 

prohibited by the Council of 
Toledo and Reccared, 3, 46. 

between Jews and Arabs, 3, 
56-7. 

supposed to be prevented by 
Jew badges, 3, 511. 

in Hungary, 3, 521. 

in southern Spain, 3, 527. 

denounced hj IMoses of Coucy, 

3, 546, 

prohibited by the code of Al- 
fonso X, 3, 595. 

objected to by the Remon- 
strants, 4, 674. 

discussed by the Assembly of 
Jewish Notables, 5, 489, 491. 

discussed by the French Syn- 
hedrion, 5, 496-7. 

permitted in Mecklenburg, 5, 
507. 
" Investigation into the Evi- 
dences of Christianity 
against Unbelievers," by 
Caspar Bonnet, 5, 309, 
" Investigation of Religion, 
The," by Elias del Medigo, 

4, 293. 

" Investigation of Van Swie- 
den's Work in Reference to 
the Civil Rights of the 
Jews," by Friedrichsfeld, 5, 
454. 

lonians, the, buy Judseans as 
slaves, 1, 227. 

Ipsus, battle of, 1, 417. 

Irak, name for Babylonia among 
the Arabs, 3, 89. 
divided in jurisdiction between 
Sora and Pumbeditha, 3, 98, 



336 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Irak {continued). See Babylonia. 

Isaac, ambassador from Simon 
II to Nahar-Pakod, 2, 443- 
4, 

Isaac, father of Cliasdai Ibn- 
Shaprut, patron of men of 
letters, 3, 21fi, 224. 

Isaac, the Jew attached to 
Charlemagne's embassy to 
Haroun Alrashid, 3, 143. 

Isaac. See J^Iar-Isaac. 

Isaac of Accho, Kabbalist, at 
the siege of Accho, 3, 650. 
suspicions of the antlienticity 
of the Zohar, 4, 20. 

Isaac the Blind (1190-1210), 
founder of the Kabbala, doc- 
trines and disciples of, 3, 
547-8. 

Isaac the Elder. See Isaac ben 
Samuel. 

Isaac de Leon, last rabbi of To- 
ledo, disciple of, 4, 392. 

Isaac of Mayence, repentant 
apostate, 3, 303. 

Isaac of Salzuflen, refused the 
right of settlement in Ham- 
burg, 4, 085-6. 

Isaac of Vienna, disciple of Ju- 
dah Sir Leon, 3, 409. 

Isaac the Younger. See Isaac 
ben Abraham. 

Isaac ben Joseph, Palestinian 
Amora, banished from Ju- 
drea. 2, 507. 

Isaac ben Abba-Marl, Talmud- 
ist, 3, 399-400. 

Isaac ben. Abraham (Rizba, the 
Younger), Tossafist, 3, 408. 

Isaac ben Abraham Akrish 
(1489-1575), Spanish exile, 
wanderings of, 4, 3Sfi. 

Isaac ben Abraham Ibn-Ezra, 
accompanies his father on 
his journeys, 3, 309, 375. 
apostate to Islam, 3, 442. 



Isaac ben Abraham Ibn-Latif 
(1220-1290), Kabbalist, sys- 
tem of, 4, 3-4. 
Isaac ben Abraham Troki (1533- 
1590), Karaite writer, antag- 
onizes Christianity, 4, 648-9. 
Isaac ben Asher Halevi (Riba), 

of Speyer, Tossafist, 3, 345. 
Isaac ben Baruch Albalia (1035- 
1094), descent of, 3, 282. 

at Cordova and Granada, 3, 
283. 

works of, 3, 283. 

escapes the massacre of Gra- 
nada, 3, 283. 

as astronomer, 3, 283, 

chief of the Jews of Seville, 3, 
283-4. 

hostility of, to Alfassi, 3, 313. 

descendant of, 3, 364. 
Isaac ben Eliakim, rabbi of 

Wiirzburg, martjT, 3, 354. 
Isaac ben Jacob Alfassi (Alka- 
lai, 1013-1103), Talmudist, 
disciple of Nissim and Cha- 
nanel, 3, 282, 285. 

originality of, 3, 285-0. 

death of, 3, 309. 

elegies on, 3, 310, 323. 

makes Lucena famous, 3, 311 

hostility of, to Isaac Ibn-Alba- 
lia, 3, 313. 

di.sciples of, distinguished, 3, 
314. 

successor of, 3, 315. 

college of, attended by Jehuda 
Halevi, 3, 322. 

commentaries of, annotated 
by Serachj^a Halevi Gerundi, 
3, 389. 

compientary on the Talmndic 
work of, by Jonathan of 
Liinel, 3, 397. 

method of, followed by Nach- 
mani, 3, 532. 

Talmndic decisions by, justi- 
fied by Nachmani, 3, 532. 



INDEX. 



Z2>7 



Isaac ben Jacob Campanton 
(13G0-1463), Talmudist, 4, 
230. 
Isaac ben Jacob Halaban, Tos- 

safist, 3, 421. 
Isaac ben Jehuda Ibn-Giat 
(1030-1089), poet, philoso- 
pher, Talmudist, 3, 283, 284. 

disciple of, 3, 314. 
Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil, 
author of a religious man- 
ual, 3, 587. 
Isaac ben Joseph Caro, escapes 

from Portuci'al, 4, 378. 
Isaac ben Joseph Israeli II, as- 
tronomer, 4, 51. 
Isaac (I) ben Judah Abrabanel 
(1437-1509), descent of, 4, 
169, 337. 

friend of Yechiel of Pisa, 4, 
286-7. 

collects a ransom for Jewish 
prisoners, 4, 287, 339. 

minister of finance to Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella, 4, 336-7, 
343. 

character and ability of, 4, 
337. 

financier for Alfonso V of 
Portugal, 4, 337-8. 

noble and learned friends of, 
4, 338, 341. 

instructs the Italian Jews how 
to receive the Portuguese 
embassy, 4, 340. 

family of, 4, 340, 360, 383-4, 
408-10. 

flees to Toledo, 4, 341. 

as commentator, 4, 342-3. 

orthodoxy of, 4, 342. 

protects the Castilian Jews, 4, 
343-4, 

tries to have the edict of ban- 
ishment revol^pd, 4, 348. 

goes to Naples, 4, 359. 

commentary by, on the Books 
of Kings, 4, 359. 



Isaac (I) ben Judah Abrabanel 
(continued), employed by 
kings of Naples, 4, 359, 360. 
in Sicily, 4, 383-4. 
in Venice, 4, 385. 
consulted by the Venetian sen- 
ate, 4, 385-6. 
old age of, 4, 380. 
censures the impure language 
of the German Jews, 4, 388- 
9. 
death of, 4, 409. 
condemns free thinkers, 4, 

479. 
and Messianic expectations, 4, 
482. 
Isaac ben Leon, a Granada Jew, 

supports Palkin, 3, 258. 
Isaac ben Melr of Earner u, 
grandson of Rashi, Tossa^ 
fist, 3, 345, 375. 
Isaac ben Mordecai (Maestro 

Gayo), physician, 3, 628, 
Isaac ben Moses. See Profiat 

Duran. 
Isaac ben Moses Ibn-Sakni, 
given the title Gaon at Pum- 
beditha, 3, 282, 284-5. 
awakens interest in Talmud 
studies in Bagdad, 3, 429. 
Isaac ben Reuben Albergeloni, 
Talmudist and liturgical 
poet, 3, 284. 
Isaac ben Samuel (Ei, the 
Elder), great-grandson of 
Eashi, Tossafist, completes 
Eashi's commentary, 3, 403. 
college of, 3, 403-4. 
collects the " old Tossafoth," 

3, 404. 

son of, a martyr, 3, 404. 
forbids Jews to buy confis- 
cated property, 3, 40G-7. 
Isaac ben Sheshet Barfat (Ei- 
bash, 1310-1409), Talmudist, 

4, 145-6, 148. 



338 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Isaac ben Sheshet Barfat (co»- 

tinucd), disciple of Solomon 

ben Adret, 4, 147. 
opposed to the study of 

science, 4, 147. 
rig-id piety of, 4, 147, 148, 149. 
rabbi of Saragossa, 4, 148. 
opposes Chaj'im ben Galli- 

papa's innovations, 4, 149. 
authority of, 4, 149-50. 
imprisonment of, 4, 150. 
appealed to, in a dispute about 

the French chief rabbinate, 

4, 150, 153. 
chief rabbi of Tlemgen, 4, 

198-9. 
protects Marrano fugitives, 4, 

199. 
attacked by vSimon Duran, 4, 

199. 
Isaac ben Simeon, a Spanish 

Jew, has the Jewish prayers 

compiled, 3, 178. 
Isaac ben Suleiman Israeli I 

(S45-940), pln^sician, medi- 
cal author, and philosopher, 

3, 180-1. 
admiration of, for Saadiah, 3, 

192. 
influence of, on Jewish science 

in the Fatimide Caliphate, 

3, 211. 
Isaac ben Todros, Kabbalist, 

disciple of, 4, 74. 
Isaac Ibn-Albalia. Sec Isaac 

ben Baruch Albalia. 
Isaac Ibn-G'ikatilia, disciple of 

Menachem ben Saruk, de- 
fends him, 3, 227. 
poet, 3, 2.')7. 

teacher of Ibn-Janach, 3, 261. 
Isaac Ibn-Sahal, teacher of 

Ibn-Janach, 3, 2G1. 
Isaac (Zag) Ibn-Said, compiler 

of the Alfonsine Tables, 4, 

367. 



Isaac Ibn-Sakni. See Isaac ben 

Moses Ibn-Sakni. 
Isaac Ibn-Zachin, commits sui- 
cide to avoid baptism, 4, 

376. 
Isaac (I) Abrabanel. See Isaac 

(I) ben Judah Abrabanel. 
Isaac (II) Abrabanel, son of 

Isaac ben Judah, jihysician, 

4, 340, 385. 
Isaac (III) Abrabanel, son of 

Judah Leon, baiitized, 4, 361. 
Isaac Albalag, i^hilosopher, mys- 
ticism of, 4, 24. 
accused of heresy, 4, 342. 
Isaac Arama, on the Inquisi- 
tion, 4, 332. 
Isaac Benveniste, phj^sician, 

tries to prevent anti-Jewish 

legislation, 3, 508. 
has delegates sent to the 

Fourth Lateran Council, 3, 

509. 
tries to have the decree on 

Jew badges repealed, 3, 513. 
honored by Honorius III, 3, 

515. 
Isaac Bonastruc, has a tax im- 
posed on INIarrano fugitives, 

4, 199. 
Isaac Cohen Shalal, Nagid of 

Egypt, wealth and learning 

of, 4, 392. 
in Jerusalem, 4, 398. 
Isaac Halevi, of Worms, on 

Eashi, 3, 287. 
Isaac Hamon. See Hamon, 

Isaac. 
Isaac Israeli I. See Isaac ben 

Suleiman Israeli I. 
Isaac Israeli II. See Isaac ben 

Joseph Israeli II. 
Isaac Lurya Levi (1534-1572), 

descent and youth of, 4, 618. 
under the influence of the Zo- 

har, 4, 61S-19. 



INDEX. 



339 



Isaac Lurya Levi {continued), 

evolves a syslom from the 

Zohar, 4, 619-22. 
considers himself the Messiah 

of the branch of Joseph, 4, 

622, 624. 
goes to Safet, 4, 622. 
glorified by Chaj'im Vital Cal- 

abrese, 4, 62;)-4. 
disciples of, 4, 624. 
g-lorified after death, 4, 624-5. 
principles of, taught in Italy, 

4, 625. 
harm done bj', 4, 625-7; 5, 

559. 
lays stress on devotion in 

prayer, 4, 626. 
tlie Sabbath in the system of, 

4, 626. 

introduces a second Day of 

Atonement, 4, 626. 
influence of, on the Judaism 

of the seventeenth century, 

5, 51-2. 

disciples of, spread his Kab- 

bala, 5, 52. 
manuscripts by, 5, 53-4. 
Kabbala of, accepted by Sab- 

batai Zevi, 5, 118, 119. 
Messianic speculations in the 

works of, 5, 120-1. 
works of, studied by Chelebi, 

5, 125. 
Jerusalem Jews adherents of, 

5, 125. 
writings of, influence Luz- 

zatto, 5, 236. 
prayer book of, used by the 

Chassidim, 5, 386-7. 
tsaac Nathan ben Kalonymos, 

polemic works by, 4, 234. 
Bible concordance by, 4, 234-5. 
Isaac Pulgar, refutes the charges 

of Alfonso Burgensis, 4, 82. 
philosopher, 4, 91. 
'.'saac Sanjari, converts Bulan to 

Judaism, 3, 140. 



Isaac Triest, Jewish advocate 
before Maximilian I, 4, 436- 
7. 
Isaac Tyrnau, compiles the cus- 
toms of various communi- 
ties, 4, 134. 

orthodoxy of, 4, 227. 
Isaac Zarfati, urges the German 
Jews to emigrate to Turkey, 
4, 271-3. 
Isaacs, the five, 3, 282. 
Isabella I, the Catholic, of Cas- 
tile, candidate for the throne, 
4, 279. 

marriage of, 4, 280, 

accession of, 4, 284. 

superstition of, 4, 310, 

hesitates to sanction the In- 
quisition for Marranos, 4, 
311. 

attitude of, towards the Mar- 
ranos, 4, 311-12. 

annoyed by opposition to the 
Inquisition, 4, 320. 

See also Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella. 
Isabella II, of Castile, daughter 
of the preceding, to marry 
Manoel of Portugal, 4, 373. 

hostile to the Jews, 4, 373, 
379-80, 

demands the banishment of 
the Jews, 4, 374. 

cruelty of, 4, 376. 

death of, 4, 381. 
Isabelle, countess of Chartres, 
persecutes the Jews of Blois, 
3, 379. 
Isaiah, the Babylonian, prophet, 
describes the suffering of 
the exiles, 1, 344. 

oratory of, 1, 344-5. 

consolation given by, 1, 345-6. 

describes Israel as the apos- 
tle to the nations, 1, 346-7. 

prophesies the fall of Babylon, 
1, 347-8, 



340 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Isaiah, son of Amoz, prophet, 
prophecies of, 1, 251-3. 

wife of, 1, 251. 

disciples of, 1, 253-4, 279. See 
Anavim, the. 

warns Ahaz against the Assy- 
rian alliance, 1, 258-9. 

advises neutrality between 
Egypt and Assyria, 1, 270. 

reproves Shebna, 1, 271. 

predicts the doom of Assyria, 
1, 272-3. 

predicts Sennacherib's failure, 
1, 273, 276. 

exhorts Hezekiah not to sur- 
render, 1, 275. 

reproves Hezekiah for his re- 
ception of IVferodach-bala- 
dan's embassy, 1, 279. 

in Immanuel Romi's work, 4, 
G7. 
Isaiah., the Book of, reading of, 
forbidden bj' J^istinian I, 
3, 15. 

commentary on, by Abraham 
Ibn-Ezra, 3, 373. 
Isaiah ben Abba-Mari, author- 
ized to ordain disciples in 
France, 4, 152. 

relieves Jochanan of his oflfice 
as chief rabbi, 4, 152, 162. 

appoints his relations to the 
French rabbinates, 4, 153. 
Isaiah Chassid, Sabbatian lead- 
er, 5, 213, 229. 
Isambert, French deputy, charges 
Ratti Menton with cruelty, 
5, 650. 
Isavites, adherents of Obaiah 

Abn-Tsa ben Ishak, 3, 125. 
Iscion, Jewish printing house 

in, 4, 289. 
Isebab, teacher of the Law, 
clerk of the Jamnia Synhe- 
drion, 2, 357, 

charitably inclined, 2, 405. 

martyr, 2, 429. 



Ishbi of Gath, Philistine cham- 
pion, 1, 117. 
Ishbosheth, son of Saul, made 
king of the Ten Tribes by 
Abner, 1, 108. 

peaceable disposition of, 1, 
109. 

deserted by Abner, 1, 110. 

mourns Abner, 1, 112. 

death of, 1, 112. 
Ishmael, ancestor of the north- 
ern Arabs, 3, 60. 
Ishmael II, high priest, ap- 
pointed by Agripi^a II, 2, 
246. 

envoy to Nero, 2, 248. 
Ishmael of Akbara, founds a 

Karaite sect, 3, 157. 
Ishmael ben Elisha, teacher of 
the Law, opponent of Aki- 
ba's system, 2, 355-6. 

martyr, 2, 356, 427-8. 

praises Simon ben Nanos, 2, 
358. 

nephew of, 2, 370. 

deprecates Minaean influence 
on Judaism, 2, 37S. 

emigrates to Usha, 2, 405. 

at Lydda, 2, 423. 

counsels religious laxness as 
a measure of self-preserva- 
tion, 2, 424. 

Mei'r disciple of, 2, 436. 

method of, in southern Ju- 
daea, 2, 442. 
Ishmael ben Jose (ben Cha- 
lafta), teacher of the Law, 
ill-treated by the Samari- 
tans, 2, 457-8. 

denounces Jewish freebooters 
to the Romans, 2, 464-5. 

denounced, 2, 465. 
Ishmael Ibn-Nagrela. See Sam- 
uel Ilalevi Il)n-Nagrela. 
Ishmael, son of Nethaniah, pro- 
tected by Baalis of Ammon, 
1, 317-18. 



INDEX. 



341 



Ishmael, son of Nethaniah (con- 
tinued), treacherous to Geda- 
liah, 1, 321-2. 
kills Gedaliah, 1, 322. 
takes refuge with the Ammon- 
ites, 1, 322-3. 
end of, unknown, 1, 32.'5. 

Ishmael Almansur Ibnul' Kaim, 
Fatimide caliph, patron of 
Dunash ben Tamim, 3, 211. 

Ishmael Chanina, rabbi of Bo- 
logna, steadfastness of, 4, 
591. 

Ishmaelites, the northern Ara- 
bians, 3, 61. 

Isidore, archbishop of Seville, 
presides over the Council of 
Toledo, 3, 49. 
writes two books against the 
Jews, 3, 50. 

Isidorus, an Alexandrian actu- 
ary, hostile to the Judaeans, 

2, 181, 

envoy of the Greek Alexan- 
drians to Caligula, 2, ISO. 
Isis, Egyptian goddess, 1, 9. 
Islam, the faith of Mahomet, 3, 
71. 

intolerance of, 3, '87-8. 

divided on the election of the 
fourth caliph, 3', 90. 

among the Chazars, 3, 139. 

champion of, tries to convert 
Bulan, 3, 139-40. 

philosophy of, called Kalam, 

3, 146-9. 

theology affects the Jews of 
the East, 3, 148. 

objections of, to Judaism, an- 
swered by Saadiah, 3, 198. 

conversion to, decreed by Ha- 
kim, 3, 247. 

contest of, with Christianity, 
3, 297. 

characterized by Jehuda Ha- 
levi, 3, 329, 330. 



Islam (continued), characterized 
as idolatry by a Jewish 
writer, 3, 453. 

See also Conversions, forced, 
of Jews to Islam. 
Isle de France, the inheritance 
of the kings of France, 3, 
401. 

Jews banished from, by Philip 
Augustus, 3, 402-3. 

the Jews of, not permitted to 

move to Champagne, 3, 400. 

Isny, Hebrew printing house at, 

4, 474. 
Ispahan, Armenian Jews colo- 
nized in, 2, 591. 

called Jehudia, 2, 591. 
Ispahan, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted by Firuz, 2, 629. 

adherents of Obaiah Abu-Isa 
ben Ishak, 3, 124. 

in the twelfth century, 3, 434. 
Ispahanites, adherents of Obaiah 

Abu-Isa ben Ishak, 3, 125. 
Israel (Ten Tribes), the house 
of, renounces allegiance to 
David, 1, 140. 

revolts from David, 1, 148-50. 

dislike of, to Judah under Sol- 
omon, 1, 174. 
Israel (Ten Tribes), the king- 
dom of, first indications of, 
1, 109. 

founded by Jeroboam, 1, 183. 

subjects of, worship at Jeru- 
salem, 1, 185. 

idolatry introduced into, by 
Jeroboam, 1, 185-7. 

loyalty to monotheism in, un- 
der Ahab, 1, 198-9. 

luxury in, 1, 232. 

immorality in, under Jero- 
boam II, 1, 233. 

idolatry in, under Menahem, 
1, 244, 247. 

invaded by Pul, 1, 246-7. 



342 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Israel (Ten Tribes), the king- 
dom of (continued), power of, 
imder Menuhem, 1, 247. 
invaded by Tiglath-Pileser II, 

1, 259-CO. 
inhabitants of, carried to As- 
syria, 1, 260. 
debauchery of the nobles of, 

under Hoshea, 1, 2G2-3. 
end of, 1, 264-5. 
See also Samaria, etc. 
Israel (Ten Tribes), the kings 

of, list of: 
Ahab, Jeroboam II, 

Ahaziah, Menahem, 

Baasha, Nadab, 

Elah, Omri, 

Hoshea, Pekah, 

.Tehoahaz, Pekahiah, 

Jehoash, Shallum, 

Jehoram (Joram), Tibni, 
Jehu, Zechariah, 

Jeroboam I, Zimri. 

Israel (whole nation), history 
of, b3' Baruch, 1, 336-7, 
See under Israelites, the. 
Israel, Young, under Hegel's 

influence, 5, 585. 
Israel of Enns, charged with 

host desecration, 4, 223. 
Israel of Kozieniza, leader of 

the Chassidim, 5, 393. 
Israel of Miedziboz (Baal Shem, 
Besht, 169S-1759), founder of 
the new Chassidism, 5, 375. 
early life of, 5, 376. 
intense devoutness of, 5, 376-7. 
visions of, 5, 377. 
occupation of, 5, 378. 
miracles done by, 5, 378. 
followers of, 5, 378-9. 
successor of, 5, 379. 
introduces pilgrimages, 5, 380. 
sayings by, 5, 393. 
Israel Bruna (1400-1480), rabbi 
of Ratisbon, 4, 300, 302. 
calumniated by an apostate, 
4, 302, 303. 



Israel Bruna (continurd), mis- 
fortunes of, 4, 302. 

opi^osition to, in Ilatisbon, 4, 
302-3. 

imprisoned, 4, 303. 

protected by Frederick III, 4, 
303-4. 

released, 4, 304. 
Israel Isserlein, defends Israel 
Bruna, 4, 302. 

death of, 4, 303. 
Israel Najara, Damascus poet, 

4, 609. 
Israel Saruk, teaches Lurya's 

principles in Italj', 4, 625. 
Israel Zamosc, teaches Mendels- 
sohn, 5, 295. 
Israel, Abraham. See Abraham 

Israel. 
Israeli I. See Isaac ben Sulei- 
man Israeli I. 
Israeli II. See Isaac ben Joseph 

Israeli II. 
Israelites, the (wdiole nation), 
entr^' of, into the Holy 
Land, 1, 1, 32. 

claim Canaan, 1, 4-5. 

in Egypt, 1, 7-18. 

influenced by the Egj'ptians, 
1, 8-9, 10. 

Egyptian Viondmen, 1, 11. 

degenerate in slaverj^ 1, 11-12. 

liberation of, 1, 16-18. 

pass through the Red Sea, 1, 
18-19. 

at Mount Sinai, 1, 20-1. 

influence of the Sinaitic revel- 
ation on, 1, 22. 

worship idols in the desert, 1, 
23-4. 

wanderings of, in the desert, 
1, 25-31. 

elect judges in the desert, 1, 
26. 

wars of, in the desert, 1, 26-9. 

opposed by the Idumseans, 1, 
27. 



INDEX. 



343 



Israelites, tlie (whole nation) 
{cuntinucd), defeat Sihon, 1, 
27. 

practice idolatry at Baal-Peor, 
1, 28. 

cross the Jordan, 1, 31. 

defeated at Ai, 1, 33. 

defeat the five kings of Ca- 
naan, 1, 34-5. 

conquest of Canaan by, 1, 39- 
40. 

and the heathen practices of 
the Canaanites, 1, 51, 57-9. 

relation of, to the neighboring 
nations, 1, 53-9. 

intermarriages of, with the 
heathen, 1, 56-7. 

oppressed by the Moabites, 1, 
CO. 

oppressed by the Philistines, 
1, 61. 

oppressed by Jabin, 1, 61. 

oppressed by the Midianites, 
1, 61-3. 

attacked by the Philistines, 1, 
70-2. 

idolatry of, under Samuel, 1,75. 

warfare of, with the Philis- 
tines and Ammonites, 1, 80. 

demand a king, 1, 80. 

choose a king, 1, 82-3. 

condition of, at the beginning 
of Saul's reign, 1, 84. 

defeat the Philistines at Mich- 
mash, 1, 86-9. 

defeat the Amalekites, 1, 91-2. 

wage war with Achish, 1, 
102-4. 

divided into two kingdoms, 1, 
109. 

David king of, 1, 112. 

wage war with the Philistines, 
1, 115-18. 

champions of, in the Philis- 
tine war, 1, 117. 

at war with Moabites, Am- 
monites, etc, 1, 125 9. 



Israelites, the (whole nation) 
(continued), enlargement of 
the territory of, 1, 129-30. 
/SV'C also Jews, the; Judasans, 
the. 

Israelites, the (whole nation), 
the kings of, list of: 

David, Saul, 

Kehoboam, Solomon. 

" Israelitische Allianz," found- 
ers and object of, 5, 703. 

" Israel's Hope," by ISIanasseh 
ben Israel, 5, 31-2, 33. 

Issachar, the tribe of, acquires 
pasture land in the north, 1, 
36-7. 
relation of, to the Phoenicians, 

1, 53. 

Isserlein, Israel. Sec Israel Is- 

serlein. 
Isserles. Sec Moses ben Israel 

Isserles. 
Issor, a proselj-te of Machuza, 

2, 587-8. 

Italy, loses its importance, 2, 

560. 
a province of the B^'zantine 

Empire, 3, 32. 
under the Lombards, 3, 33. 
Talmud scholars of, in the 

tenth century, 3, 212. 
French exiles settle in, 4, 177. 
Austrian exiles settle in, 4, 

224. 
tolerance in, in the fifteenth 

century, 4, 285. 
German rabbis in, hostile to 

philosophy, 4, 293. 
iMarranos flee to, 4, 318, 485. 
Spanish exiles go to, 4, 352, 

407-10. 
ships of, carry Spanish exiles, 

4, 358. 
Spanish spoken in, by the ex- 
iles, 4, 387. 
Spanish exiles leaders in, 4, 

389. 



344 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Italy {continued), professorships 
for Hebrew instituted in, 4, 
471. 

Jewish fugitives in, gather in 
national groups, 4, 478. 

the Kabbala in, 4, 481; 5, 488. 

liberty of, defended by Clem- 
ent VII, 4, 492. 

Polish Jewish fugitives in, 5, 
IG. 

rabbis of, I'oles, 5, 20G. 

the Sabbatian movement in, 5, 
209. 

congregations of, present ad- 
dresses to the Synhedrion, 
5, 49G. 

rabbis of, oppose the Reform 
movement, 5, 571. 

attitude of, towards the Da- 
mascus affair, 5, 650. 

See also wider Rome. 
Italy, the Jews of, in the fifth 
and sixth centuries, 3, 27-34. 

governed by the decrees of 
Theodosius I, 3, 29-30. 

and Pope Gelasius, 3, 29. 

under Theodoric, 3, 29-30. 

Cassiodorus on, 3, 31. 

support Theodatus, 3, 31-2. 

under the Byzantine rule, 3, 
32. 

under the Lombards, 3, 33. 

under Pope Gregory I, 3, 33-4. 

devoted to the Agada in the 
ninth centurj^ 3, ICO. 

banishment of, decreed by 
Louis II, 3, 174. 

yield precedence to the Jews 
of Spain, 3, 23G. 

uncultured in the eleventh 
century, 3, 290. 

political position of, favorable, 
3, 290. 

culture of, before Abraham 
Ibn-Ezra, 3, 369. 

taught the importance of He- 
brew grammar, 3, 371. 



Italy, the Jews of (continued),, 
in the twelfth century, 3, 
421-4. 

not interested in Talmud study^ 
3, 421. 

favorable condition of, under 
Alexander III, 3, 421. 

speak four languages, 3, 423. 

influence of Abraham Ibn- 
Ezra on, 3, 423. 

address Solomon ben Adret 
for religious decisions, 3, G20. 

in the Maimunist controversy, 

3, G24. 

refuse to support Solomon 
Petit, 3, 627-8. 

Ijolitical condition of, in the 
thirteenth century', 3, 628. 

influenced by Maimonides' 
philosophical works, 3, 629- 
30. 

culture of, in the fourteenth 
century, 4, 59. 

Maimonides' works translated 
for, 4, GO. 

distress of, during Vincent 
Ferrer's crusade, 4, 218. 

delegates of, wait on Martin 
V, 4, 219. 

poetry of, in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, 4, 230. 

Eugenius IV's bull against, 4, 
251. 

Nicholas Vs bull against, 4, 
253. 

Nicholas V abolishes the privi- 
leges of, 4, 254. 

privileges of, as financiers, 4, 
286. 

as physicians, i, 287. 

on friendly terms with Chris- 
tians, 4, 287-8. 

culture of, in the fifteenth 
century, 4, 289. 

as printers, 4, 289. 

participate in the renaissance, 

4, 289, 290. 



INDEX. 



345 



Italy, the Jews of {continued), 
inlluence of (Jerinan immi- 
grants on, 4, 294. 

the clergy arouses ill-will 
against, 4, 295-6. 

Bernardinus of Feltre preaches 
against, 4, 296. 

instructed how to receive the 
Portuguese embassy, 4, 340. 

popes friendly to, 4, 407. 

joined by numerous exiles, 4, 
408. 

ruled over by the immigrants, 
4, 408. 

adherents of Asher Liimm- 
lein, 4, 485. 

submit questions to the Polish 
Talmudists, 4, 639. 

suffer from the Catholic reac- 
tion, 4, 653-5. 

under the jurisdiction of the 
Inquisition, 4, 654. 

conversion of, planned by Gre- 
gory XIII, 4, 654-5. 

bribe the censors, 4, 659. 

poor, 5, 205. 

emancipated by the French, 5, 
459. 

send deputies to the Assembly 
of Notables, 5, 482, 488. 

emancipation of, nullified by 
Pius VII, 5, 518. 

address the Congress of Aix- 
la-Chapelle, 5, 527. 

influenced by the moderate 
Eeform movement, 5, 582-3. 

See also under Franks, the, 
the empire of, the Jews of; 
Rome, the Jews of. 
Italy, Lower, the Jews of, pro- 
tected by Gregory I, 3, 33. 
Italy, northern, the Jews of, 

number of, 3, 423-4. 
Italy, southern, the Jews of, in 
the twelfth century, 3, 421-4. 



Italy, southern, the Jews of 

{continued), driven away hy 

the Catholic reaction, 4, 653. 

Itil (Atel). See Volga, the. 

Itil (Atel), capital of the Cha- 

zars, captured, 3, 222. 
Ittai, commander of mc:^?nary 
troops under David, 1, 137. 
faithful to David in the war 

with Absalom, 1, 141. 
commander at IMahanaiin, 1, 
144. 
Ittur, Talmudic work by Isaac 

ben Abba-Mari, 3, 400. 
Itureea, conquest of, planned by 

John Ilyrcanus, 2, 13. 
Ituraeans, the, converted by 

Aristobulus I, 2, 37. 
Itzig, Daniel, connected by mar- 
riage with Friedliinder, 5, 
397, 
daughter of, 5, 413. 
representative of the Berlin 
Jewish community, 5, 415. 
Itzig, Fanny, holds a salon in 

Vienna, 5, 413-14. 
Itzig, Itzig Daniel, director of 
the Berlin Free School, 5, 
416. 
Ivan IV, of Russia, candidate 
for the Polish throne, 4, 
003. 
refuses to permit Jews to 
trade in Russia, 4, 633. 
Izates, prince of Adiabene, con- 
verted to Judaism, 2, 216. 
accession of, 2, 216-17. 
arbitrator in Parthia, 2, 217. 
war of, with Abia of Arabia, 

2, 217-18. 
sons of, study Hebrew, 2, 218. 
death of, 2, 218-19. 
relatives of, aid Judaea against 
Rome, 2, 264. 



346 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jaabez, Joseph. See Joseph 

Jaabez. 
Jaazer, fortress taken by Judas 

^laccabseus, 1, 474. 
Jabbok, the, river, description 

of, 1, 46. 
Jabesh-Gilead, besieged by the 

Ammonites, 1, 89-90. 
the inhabitants of, bury Saul 

and Jonathan, 1, 104, 107. 
Jabez. See Emden, Jacob. 
Jabin, Canaanite king-, opi^resses 

the Israelites, 1, 61. 
Jabin, king of Hazor, defeated 

by Josliua, 1, 37. 
Jabne. See Jamnia. 
Jabustrissa, the Jews of, in tlie 

twelftli century, 3, 424. 
Jacob, another name for the 

tribe of Judah, 1, 76. 
Jacob, brother of Jesus. See 

James. 
Jacob, the patriarcli, buj's land 

near Shechem, 1, 4. 
Jacob, Syrian priest, incites a 

crusade agfainst the Damas- 
cus Jews, 2, 662. 
Jacob of Belzyce, controversial- 
ist, 4, 64S. 
Jacob of Kephar Samia, a Jew- 
ish Christian, 2, 370. 
Jacob of London, Talmudist, 

chief rabbi of Engfland, 3, 

504. 
Jacob the Minaean, physician, 

defends the dogma of the 

Ascension, 2, 539. 
Jacob of Navarre, shelters a 

Marraiu), 4, 357-8. 
Jacob of Orleans, Tossafist, 

founds a school in London, 

3, 409. 
commits suicide. 3, 411. 
Jacob de Perpignan, permitted 

to remain in Bordeaux, 5, 

344. 



Jacob of Segovia, Kabbalist, 4, 

o 

Jacob ben Abba Marl ben Simon 
Anatoli (1200-1250), Maimu- 
nist, at the court of Fred- 
erick II, 3, 566. 

as a translator, 3, 566, 567. 

public discourses of, 3, 560. 

influences Italian Jewish cul- 
ture, 3, 629. 

attacked by the anti-Maimu- 
nists, 4, 32, 39, 40, 41. 
Jacob ben Asheri (Baal ha- 
Turim, 12S0-1340), Talmud- 
ist, pietj^ of, 4, 87-8. 

poverty and disinterestedness 
of, 4, 88. 

religious code of, 4, 88-90, 
537, 539. 

See also Turim. 
Jacob ben Eleazar, messenger 

to the Chazars, 3, 220. 
Jacob ben Machir Tibbon (Pro- 
fiat, 1236-1312), scientist, at- 
tainments of, 4, 30-1. 

chief of the enlightened par- 
ty, 4, 31. 

apiieals to Solomon ben Adret, 
4, 33. 

excommunicates the opponents 
of science, 4, 40-2. 
Jacob ben Meshullam, the Naza- 
rite, first promoter of the 
Kabbala, 3, 396. 
Jacob ben Moses Mblin Halevi 
(Maharil, 1365-1427), com- 
piles the customs of various 
communities, 4, 135. 

orders a fast during the Hus- 
site wars, 4, 225-6. 

rigid orthodoxy of, 4, 227. 
Jacob ben Nathaniel Ibn-Alfa- 
yumi, Talmudist of Yemen, 
3, 430. 

appeals to Maimonidcs, 3, 
462, 464. 



INDEX. 



347 



Jacob ben Natronai, Gaon of 
Soru, 3, IS-l, 185, 186. 

Jacob ben Nissim Ibn-Shahin, 
disciple of Cliushiel, Tul- 
mudist, 3, 211. 
elicits Slierira's " Letter," 3, 

233. 
disciple of, 3, 252. 

Jacob ben Samuel, disciple of 
Saadiah, defends him, 3, 
204. 
Karaite reply to, 3, 204-5, 200. 

Jacob ben Sheshet Gerundi 
(1243-1246), Kabbalist, 3, 556. 

Jacob ben Sosa, Idumaean lead- 
er, helps the Zealots, 2, 295, 
301. 

Jacob ben Yechiel Loans, phy- 
sician to Emperor Frederick 
III, 4, 413. 
favored by Maximilian I, 4, 

414. 
teacher of Reuchlin, 4, 433. 

Jacob Ibn-Chabib, scholar, 4, 
405. 

Jacob Ibn-Ezra, father of the 
poet Moses, official under 
Habiis, 3, 319. 

Jacob Ibn-Jau, supports Josej^h 
Ibn-Abitur, 3, 238, 240. 
chief judge of the Andalu- 

sian Jews, 3, 239. 
loses his power, 3, 240-1. 
death of, 3, 241. 

Jacob Ibn-Nuiiez, physician to 
Henry IV of Castile, 4, 275. 

Jacob, son of Judas the Gali- 
lean, insurrectionary leader, 
crucified, 2, 199. 

Jacob, son of Zebedee, disciple 
of Jesus, 2, 153. 

Jacob Abbassi, translator of 
Maimonides' IMishna com- 
mentary, 4, 60. 

Jacob Abi-Ayub, physician, ex- 
ecuted on a charge of mur- 
der, 4, 553. 



Jacob Almansur, Almohade 
leader, at war with Alfonso 
VIII, 3, 386-7. 
Jacob Berab (1474-1541), Span- 
ish exile, rabbi of Fez, 4, 
390. 
in Egypt, 4, 393. 
Talmudist, 4, 418. 
tries to re-introduce the Semi- 

chah, 4, 531-2. 
and Levi ben Chabib, 4, 533-4, 

536. 
reason adduced by, for the re- 
vival of ordination, 4, 535. 
forced to leave Palestine, 4, 

535. 
ordains four Talmud ists, 4, 

535-6, 
death of, 4, 536. 
Jacob Emden. Sec Emden, .Ja- 
cob. 
Jacob Jehuda Leon. See Leon. 
Jacob Joshua Falk. See Falk, 

Jacob Joshua. 
Jacob Mantin. See Mantin, Ja- 
cob. 
Jacob Pascate, supposed well 

poisoner, 4, 102. 
Jacob Perpignano (1170), head 
of the Marseilles Jewish 
community, 3, 400. 
Jacob Polak (1400-1530), Tal- 
mudist, alleged originator of 
the Pilpiil, 4, 418. 
Jacob Querido, supposed son of 
Sabbatai Zevi, reverenced 
by the Sabbatians, 5, 209. 
declared the Messiah, 5, 210. 
profligacy of, 5, 210. 
accepts Islam, 5, 211. 
death of, 5, 211. 
son of, 5, 211. 

jjrayers addressed to, 5, 274. 
Jacob Tarn, of Rameru (1100- 
1171), Tossafist, respected 
by the king of France. 3, 
343. 



348 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jacob Tarn (continued), grand- 
son of Rashi, 3, 345. 

attacked bj' crusaders, 3, o55. 

poem bj", on Abraham Ibn- 
Ezra, 3, .173, 376. 

character and life of, 3, 375-6. 

as a g-rammarian, 3, 376. 

presides over rabbinical syn- 
ods, 3, 376-8. 

orders mourning for the Jews 
of Blois, 3, 380-1. 

death of, 3, 381. 

disciples of, in England, 3, 
409. 

ancestor of the Ibn-Yachya 
family, 4, 609. 
Jacob Tus, translates the Pen- 
tateuch into Persian, 4, 401. 
Jacob Weil. See Weil, Jacob. 
Jacobacio, cardinal, on the com- 
mission to examine Paul 
IIPs Inquisition bull, 4, 520. 
Jacobi, accuses Lessing of Spiu- 

ozism, 5, 372. 
Jacobson, Israel (1709-1S2S), 
procures the abolition of the 
poll-tax in Brunswick Liine- 
burg, 5, 467. 

character of, 5, 500-1. 

commemorates the emancipa- 
tion of the Jews, 5, 501. 

effects consistorial organiza- 
tion in Westphalia, 5, 501-2. 

president of the consistorj', 5, 
501, 502. 

foolhardiness of, 5, 502. 

desires reforms, 5, 502. 

influence of Heine on, 5, 546. 

the reforms of, 5, 561-2. 

private sj-nagogue of, in Ber- 
lin, 5, 562-3. 

delivers German sermons, 5, 
563. 

party of, 5, 568. 

aids the Hamburg Temple, 5, 
568. 



Jacobson, Israel (continued), en- 
lists the aid of Libermann, 
5, 568, 571. 
disciples of the school of, 5, 

578, 595. 
and Mannheimer, 5, 580. 
advises the Society for Cul- 
ture, 5, 583. 
Jacoby, Joel, author of the 
" Plaints of a Jew," 5, 631, 
632. 
Jacopo, Flavio, poet, 4, 610. 
Jaddua, high priest, and Alex- 
ander the Great, 1, 413. 
Jael, Kenite woman, murders 

Sisera, 1, 61. 
Jaen, home of Chasdai Ibn- 
Shaprut's ancestors, 3, 216. 
the Jews of, captives, 4, 126. 
Inquisition tribunals in, 4, 325. 
the Marranos of, flee, 4, 351. 
Jafa, Mordecai. Sec Mordecai 

Jafa. 
Jaffa, Marcus Schlesinger, only 
Jew permitted in Venice, 5, 
172. 
Jaffa. See Joppa. 
Jager, Johann. See Rubianus, 

Crotus. 
Jahaz, the Israelites victorious 

at, 1, 27. 
Jakim. Sec Alcimus. 
Jam.es (Jacob), brother of Je- 
sus, 2, 148. 
Itader of the Law-abiding Naz- 

arenes, 2, 169, 222. 
rebukes Peter, 2, 231. 
Jamnia (Jabne), conquered by 
Uzziah, 1, 231. 
occupied by Gorgias, 1, 47G. 
revenue from, given to Sa- 
lome, 2, 120. 
possession of the Roman em- 
perors, 2, 324. 
school established at, 2, 324-5, 

334-5. 
Simon II at, 2, 434. 



INDEX. 



349 



Jamnia, the Synhedrion of. Sec 
Synhedrioii, the, of Jamuia. 

Jampol, the blood accusation at, 
5, 279. 

Jannai, disciple of Judah I. on 
the relation between the 
Jews and Romans, 2, 469. 
permits the ciiltivatioji of the 
land in the Sabbatical year, 
2, 469. 
adds supplements to the Mish- 
na, 2, 470. 

Jannai, neo-Hebraic poet, intro- 
duces rhyme, 3, 116. 
poems of, versified Agadas, 3, 

116. 
disciple of, 3, 116. 

Janow, Hirsch (1750-1785), rab- 
bi of Posen, opposes Men- 
deissohn's Pentateuch trans- 
lation, 5, 330. 
acuteness and godliness of, 5, 
330-1. 

Japha (Japhia), taken by Ves- 
pasian, 2, 2S7. 

Japhet ben Ella, Talmudist, 3, 
427. 

Jarmuk, the, description of, 1, 
46. 

Jarmuth, king of, defeated by 
Joshua, 1, 34-5. 

Jaroslav, Aaron, assists in Men- 
delssohn's Pentateuch trans- 
lation, 5, 334. 

Jaroslaw, meeting place of the 
Polish Talmudists, 4, 640, 
644; 5, 3. 

Jason, brother and son of high 
priests, Hellenist, 1, 435. 
representative of Onias III, 1, 

439. 
buys the high priesthood, 1, 

444. 
introduces games and gymna- 
sia into Judaea, 1, 444-6. 
sends ambassadors to Ol^^m- 
pian games, 1, 446. 



Jason, brother and son of high 
priests (continued), deposed 
by Antiochus IV, 1, 446-7. 

takes refuge with Aretas, 1, 
447. 

enters Jerusalem with troops, 

1, 451. 

death of, 1, 4S0-1. 
Jason, son of Eleazar, Judsean 

envoy to Rome, 1, 486. 
Jatape, daughter of Samsigera- 

mus, wife of Aristobulus, 

2, 195. 

Jayme I, of Aragon, recom- 
mends Isaac Benveniste to 
the pope, 3, 515. 

exhorted not to employ Jews 
as diplomats, 3, 515. 

employ's a Jewish physician, 

3, 536. 

considers the Jews " servi 
cameras, " 3, 596-7. 

under the influence of Ray- 
mond de Penyaforte, 3, 597; 

4, 77, 

invites Nachmani to a dispu- 
tation, 3, 598. 
expresses admiration for 

Nachmani, 3, 601. 
appoints censors for the Tal- 
mud, 3, 602-3. 
tries Nachmani on the charge 

of blasphemy, 3, 604. 
reprimanded by Clement IV, 
3, 605. 
Jean d'Acre. See Accho. 
Jean de Vendieres. Sec John of 

Gorze. 
Jebile, the Jews of, in the 

twelfth century, 3, 426. 
Jebirol. See Solomon Ibn-Gebi- 

rol. 
Jebus. Sec Jerusalem. 
Jebusites, the, subdivision of 
the Canaanites, 1, 3. 
compact of, with Judah, 1, 38= 



350 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Jebusites, the (continued), hold 
territory in the center of 
Palestine, 1, 51. 
barrier between Ephraim and 

Judah, 1, 77. 
subdued by David, 1, 113-14. 
occupy Mount Moriah, 1, 119. 
suffer under David, 1, 131. 
declared bondmen b3^ Solo- 
mon, 1, 1G3. 
Jeconiah. See Jehoiachin. 
Jedidiah, name of Solomon, 1, 

133. 
Jeduthun, psalmist, 1, 79, 120-1. 
Jehoahaz, son of Jehu, king of 
Israel, at war with Sj'ria, 1, 
221. 
Jehoahaz (Shallum), son of Jo- 
siah, king of Judah, deposed 
by Necho, 1, 298-9. 
Jehoash, king of Judah. See 

Joash. 
Jehoash (Joash), son of Je- 
hoahaz, king of Israel, de- 
feats Ben-hadad III, 1, 221-2. 
shows respect for the Law, 1, 

223. 
reinstates the Shunamite. 1, 

223-4. 
takes Amaziah of Judah pris- 
oner, 1, 224-5. 
ransacks Jerusalem, 1, 225. 
death of, 1, 225. 
Jehoiachin (Jeconiah, Coniah), 
son of Jehoiakim, king of 
Judah, oi^poses Nebuchad- 
nezzar, 1, 306, 307. 
practices idolatry, 1, 306. 
exiled to Babylonia, 1, 307. 
distinguished by Evil-Mero- 

dach, 1, 331. 
son of, 1, 342. 
grandson of, 1, 351. 
Jehoiada, high priest, loyal to 
the house of David. 1, 214, 
215. 
anoints Joash king, 1, 215-16. 



Jehoiada (continurd). removes 
Baal-worship from Jerusa- 
lem, 1, 216-17. 

raises the position of the 
high priest, 1, 219-20. 

death of, 1, 220. 
Jehoiakim (Ellakim), son of Jo- 
siah, king of Judah, pays 
tribute to Necho, 1, 299. 

idolatry and immorality un- 
der, 1, 299-300. 

slays Uriah, the prophet, 1, 
301. 

refuses allegiance to Nebu- 
chadnezzar, 1, 304. 

orders Jeremiah to be killed, 
1, 305. 

vassal of Nebuchadnezzar, 1, 
306. 

rebels against Nebuchadnez- 
zar, 1, 306. 

death of, 1, 307. 
Jehoiakim, high priest, leader 
of the Judasan community 
after the exile, 1, 360, 362. 
Jehoram (Joram), son of Ahdb, 
king of Israel, accession of, 
1, 207. 

at war with IMoab, 1, 208-9. 

at war with Hazael of Damas- 
cus, 1, 210. 

killed by Jehu, 1, 210-11. 
Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat. 

f?ee Joram. 
Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, 
ally of Aliab, 1, 206. 

at war with Ben-hadad II, 1, 
206. 

at war with Mesa, 1, 209. 

death of, 1, 209. 
Jehoshebah, daughter of Joram 
of Judah, saves Joash from 
Athaliah, 1, 213. 

wife of Jehoiada, raises Joash 
in the Temple, 1, 215-16. 
Jehozabad, a noble of Judah, 
kills Joash, 1, 221. 



INDEX. 



351 



Jehu, king' of Israel, anointed, 

1, 210. 
kills Jehoram of Israel and 

Ahab's other descendants, 

1, 211-12. 
homag'e paid to, 1, 212. 
exterminates Baal-worship in 

Israel, 1, 212. 
loses territory, 1, 220-1. 
favorite character with the 

Puritans, 5, 2G. 
Jehuda bar Joseph. Ibn-Alfa- 

char, bears the title prince, 

3, 385. 

physician to Ferdinand III of 

Castile, 3, 537. 
anti-Maimunist, 3, 540-1. 
censured, 3, 544. 
Jehuda ben Asher I (1284- 

1349), Talmudist, piety of, 

4, 87-8. 

rabbi of Toledo, authority of, 

4, 90. 
disciple and successor of, 4, 145. 

Jehuda ben Asher II, great- 
grandson of Asheri, martyr, 
4, 170. 

Jehuda ben David Melun, at 
the disputation with Donin, 
3, 576, 578. 

Jehuda ben Elia Hadassi, Kara- 
ite writer. 3, 3r.2-3. 

Jehuda ben Isaac ben Sabbatai, 
satirist. 3, 559-60. 

Jehuda ben Isaac Ibn-Wakar, 
treasurer to the regent of 
Castile, 4, 52. 
piet3^ and severity of, 4, 53. 

Jehuda ben Meir (Leon, Leon- 
tin), founder of the scien- 
tific study of the Talmud, 3, 
242. 
teacher of Gershom ben Je- 
huda, 3, 242, 243. 

Jehuda ben Moses ben Daniel 
(Leone Eomano, 1292), Ital- 
ian Jewish scholar, 4, 60, 68-0. 



Jehuda ben Moses ben Daniel 
(co)iliiiuc(l), teacher of Rob- 
ert of Naples, 4, 68. 
as translator, 4, 69. 
Jehuda ben Nathan (Kiban), 
son-in-law of Rashi, Tossa- 
fist, 3, 345. 
Jehuda ben Shamua, petitions 

Turnus Rufus. 2, 432. 
Jehuda ben Samuel Halevi. Sec 

Jehuda Ilalevi. 
Jehuda ben Solomon Cohen Ibn- 
Matka (1247), Jewish scholar 
in correspondence with Fred- 
erick II, 3, 565-G. 
Jehuda Ibn-Abbas, poet, 3, 318, 
426. 
the son of, 3, 442. 
Jehuda Ibn-Balam (1070-1100), 

grammarian, 3, 290. 
Jehuda Ibn-Daud (Ibn-Zacha- 
riah Yachya Chayuj), de- 
fends Alenachem ben Saruk, 
3, 227. 
recognizes the triliteral root 

in Hebrew, 3, 237. 
teacher of Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, 

3, 255. 
compared with Ibn-Janach, 3, 

282. 
grammatical work of, trans- 
lated into Hebrew, 3, 371. 
Jehuda Ibn-Ezra, commander 
of Calatrava, protects the 
Jews against the Almohades, 
3, 361-2. 
steward of the imperial pal- 
ace, 3, 362. 
persecutes the Karaites, 3, 
362-3. 
Jehuda Alcharisi, on Abu Ayub, 
3, 312. 
on the Jews of Barceloiui, 3, 

387-8. 
on Samuel ben Abraham Ibn- 
Chasdai Halevi, 3, 388. 



352 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jehuda Alcharisi {co?itiniied), 
translates INIaimonides' Mish- 
na commentary, 3, 492; 4, CO. 

satirist, 3, 559. 

in Immanuel Romi's work, 4, 
67. 
Jehuda Halevi (Ahiilhassan Je- 
huda ben Samuel Halevi, 
1086-1142), writes an elegy 
on Isaac Alfassi, 3, 310, 323. 

elegy by, on Solomon Ibn- 
Farussal, 3, 313. 

eulogizes Joseph ben Meir 
Ibn-Migash, 3, 315, 322, 323. 

on Moses Ibn-Ezra, 3, 321. 

importance of, as a poet, 3, 
321-2; 4, 67; 5, 112. 

character of, 3, 322. 

student at Lucena, 3, 322. 

early poems of, 3, 322. 

friendshiiJ of, with Moses Ibn- 
Ezra, 3, 323. 

love poems by, 3, 323. 

attainments and occupations 
of, 3, 323-4. 

theory of, on poetry, 3, 324. 

nature descriptions by. 3, 325. 

religious poems by, 3, 325. 

the national poetry of, 3, 
325-6, 327-8. 

religious philosophical sj^stem 
of, 3, 326-7, 330-6. 

philosophical work bjs 3, 327- 
36. 

on philosophy, Islam, Christi- 
anity, and Judaism, 3, 328- 
31. 

characterizes Judaism in de- 
tail, 3, 331-6. 

compares Talmudic Judaism 
and Karaism, 3, 334. 

view of, on Israel's suffering, 
3, 335-6. 

view of, on the Holy Land, 3, 
336-7. 

longing of, for the Holy Land, 
3, 338. 



Jehuda Halevi (continued), sets 
out for Palestine, 3, 338-9. 
journey of, through Spain, 3, 

339. 
at sea, 3, 339. 
at Alexandria, 3, 339-40. 
at Cairo, 3, 340-1. 
in Jerusalem, 3, 342. 
at Tj^re and Damascus, 3, 342. 
death and epitaph of, 3, 342. 
and Abraham Ibn-Ezra, 3, 

367. 
philosophical work of, trans- 
lated into Hebrew, 3, 397. 
in Immanuel Romi's work, 4, 

67. 
compared with Luzzatto, 5, 

233-4. 
glorified by Heine, 5, 555. 
time of, described by Samuel 
David Luzzatto, 5, 625. 
Jehuda Leb Krysa. See Krysa. 
Jehuda. See also under Judah; 

Judas. 
Jehudai. See Judah the Blind. 
Jehudia, Ispahan, 2, 591. 
Jelal Addaulah, caliph of Bag- 
dad, executes the last Gaon 
and Exilarch, 3, 254. 
Jena, the theological faculty of, 
permits Jews to live in Ham- 
burg, 4, 687. 
battle of, 5, 495. 
Jenghis-Khan, the Jews of Ger- 
many accused of aiding, 3, 
5S0-1. 
Jephet Ibn-Ali Halevi (950- 
990), Karaite, controversial- 
ist, 3, 205-6. 
works, ability, and stj'le of, 3, 

206. 
poetry of, 3, 223. 
Jephthah, judge, defeats the 
Ammonites, 1, 64-5. 
humbles the Ephrainiites, 1, 

65. 
daughter of, 1, 66. 



INDEX. 



353 



Jeremiah, Palestinian Amora, 2, 

560. 
Jeremiah (()45 or 610-580 or 570), 

prophet, character of, 1, 

289-90. 
style of the prophecies of, 1, 

290-1. 
the first prophecy by, 1, 291. 
announces universal ruin, 1, 

29G. 
lamentation l)y, for Josiah, 1, 

297. 
l^rophecies of, under Jehoia- 

kim, 1, 301. 
dang-er of, 1, 302. 
saved by Ahikam, 1, 303. 
has his prophecy read in the 

Temple, 1, 304-5. 
ordered to be killed, 1, 305. 
protected by the princes, 1, 

306. 
counsels submission to Baby- 
lonian rule, 1, 310. 
role of, during the siege, 1, 

311-12. 
reproaches Zedekiah with per- 
jury, 1, 312. 
imprisoned, 1, 312-13. 
taken captive by the Chal- 

dseans, 1, 314. 
lamentations of, over Jerusa- 
lem, 1, 316. 
disciple of, 1, 319. 
considerately treated by Neb- 

uzaradan, 1, 319-20. 
joins Gedaliah at Mizpah, 1, 

320. 
taken captive by Ishmael, 1, 

322. 
rescued, 1, 323. 
advises against emigration to 

Egypt, 1, 324. 
goes to Egypt, 1, 325. 
rebukes the Egyptian Ju- 

dceans for idolatry, 1, 326-7. 
end of, 1, 327-8. 



Jeremiah {continued), writings 
of, studied by the Babylon- 
ian exiles, 1, 336. 

on the conduct of Jews in for- 
eign lands, 2, 520. 
Jericho, taken by Joshua, 1, 32, 
33. 

David passes, when fleeing 
from Absalom, 1, 142. 

fortified by liiel, 1, 201. 

an association of i^rophets at, 

1, 205, 234. 

visited by Elijah, 1, 208. 
llyrcanus II defeated at, 2, 58. 
a Synliedrion established at, 

2, 71. 

Aristobulus (III) murdered at, 
2, 92. 

district of, given to Cleoxjatra, 
2, 93. 

Herod attempts suicide in, 2, 
116. 

palace at, burnt, 2, 125. 

some Benu-Nadhir settle in, 3, 
79. 
Jeroboam I, emploj^ed by Solo- 
mon as superintendent of 
buildings, 1, 174. 

incites rebellion against Solo- 
mon, 1, 175-6. 

flees to Egypt, 1, 176. 

returns to Palestine, 1, ISO. 

leader of the Shechemite re- 
bellion, 1, 180-2. 

chosen king by the Ephraim- 
ites, 1, 182-3. 

allied with Shishak, 1, 184. 

fortifies Israelitish towns, 1, 
185. 

introduces calf -worship, 1, 
185-7. 

rebuked by Ahijah, 1, 188. 

death of, 1, 189. 

end of the hovise of, 1, 189. 
Jeroboam II, king of Israel, at 
war with the Aramaeans, 1, 
225. 



354 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jeroboam II {coutimicd), in 
friendly relations with Uz- 
ziah, 1, 231, 2:]2. 

conquests and luxunousness 
of, 1, 232. 

immorality and idolatry un- 
der, 1, 233-4. 

death of, 1, 234. 
Jerome (Ilieronymus, 331-420), 
Church Father, taught by 
Jewish teachers, 2, 623-4. 

translates the Scriptures into 
Latin, 3, C25. 

hates the Jews, 2, G25; 4, 552. 

on the Talmud, 3, 577. 

on a supposed Jewish formida 
of imprecation, 4, 83. 

exegetical works of, used by 
Isaac Abrabanel, 4, 342. 

pattern of Reuchlin, 4, 433, 
435. 
Jerome Bonaparte, king of West- 
phalia, and the emancipa- 
tion of the Jews, 5, 500, 501. 

reprimands Jacobson, 5, 562. 
Jerubbaal. See Gideon. 
Jerusalem, the site of, occupied 
bj' the Jebusites, 1, 3. 

king of, defeated by Joshua, 
1, 34-5. 

phj'sical features of, 1, 114-15. 

becomes the royal residence, 
1, 114. 

fortified and extended, 1, 118- 
19. 

center of religious life, 1, 119- 
20. 

prosperity and importance of, 
under Solomon, 1, lGS-9. 

religious center for the north- 
ern tribes, 1, 185. 

fortified by Rehoboam, 1, 185. 

Baal-worship at, under Atha- 
liah, 1, 212. 

Jehoiada ends Baal-worship in, 
1, 216-17. 

the first conquest of, 1, 225. 



Jerusalem {continued), deprived 
of fortifications, by Jehoash, 
1, 226. 

fortified by Uzziah, 1, 231. 

fortified by Jotham, 1, 249. 

besieged by Rezin and Pekah, 
1, 258, 259. 

fortified against Sennacherib, 
1, 271. 

celebration of the Passover at, 
under Josiah, 1, 295. 

the nation gathers in, to pray 
for help against Nebuchad- 
nezzar, 1, 304. 

besieged by generals of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, 1, 307. 

fortified by Zedekiah, 1, 311. 

besieged by Nebuchadnezzar, 
1, 311-12. 

siege of, raised, 1, 312. 

siege of, resumed, 1, 313. 

taken by the Chaldaeans, 1, 
313-14. 

destroyed by Nebuzaradan, 1, 
315. 

destruction of, mourned by 
the Babylonian Jew^s, 1, 
337-S. 

return of exiles to, under Ze- 
rubbabel, 1, 354-6. 

arrival of Ezra in, 1, 366. 

attacked by Sanballat, 1, 371. 

taken by Sanballat, 1, 372. 

Nehemiah rebuilds the forti- 
fications of, 1, 374-5. 

settlers invited to, by Nehe- 
miah, 1, 377-8. 

the Law read in, by Ezra, 1, 
378-80. 

the walls of, consecrated, 1, 
381-2. 

a religioiis school established 
in, 1, 306. 

suffering in, under Bagoas, 1, 
409-10. 

taken b}' Ptolemy T, 1, J 16. 



INDEX. 



355 



Jerusalem {continued), the for- 
tifications of, destroyed by 

Ptolemy I, 1, 417. 
improved by Simon tlie Just, 

1, 421. 
entered by Antiochus III, 1, 

432. 
taken by Scopas, 1, 432. 
atliletic contests introduced 

in, 1, 435. 
gymnasia introduced in, 1, 

445, 
occupied by Sostrates, 1, 447. 
occupied by Jason, 1, 451. 
taken by Antiochus Epipha- 

nes, 1, 451. 
entered by Apollonius, 1,453-4. 
entered by Judas Maccabseus, 

1, 471. 
desolate condition of, after 

the Syrian depredations, 1, 

471-2. 
besieged by Lysias, 1, 479-80. 
occupied by Alcimus, 1, 487. 
fortified by Jonathan Haphus, 

1, 494. 
fortified by the Hasmonfeans, 

1, 498. 
venerated by the Egyptian 

Judseans, 1, 509. 
celebrated by Philo the Elder, 

1, 517-18. 

besieged by Antiochus Sidetes, 

2, 3-4. 

taken by Aristobulus II, 2, 58. 
besieged by Aretas, 2, 60. 
siege of, raised at the order of 

Rome, 2, 62. 
besieged by Pompey, 2, 64-6. 
walls of, razed, 2, 67. 
taken by Alexander, son of 

Aristobulus II, 2, 70. 
a Synhedrion established in, 

2, 71. 
entered by Crassus, 2, 74. 
walls of, rebuilt by Caesar, 2, 

76, 



Jerusalemi (continued), besieged 

by the Parthians, 2, 82. 
besieged by Herod, 2, 87-8. 
Herod's buildings in, 2, 105. 
the people of, hate Herod, 2, 

107. 
in charge of Quintilius Varus. 

2, 122-3. 
Jesus in, 2, 161-2. 
fortified by Agrippa I, 2, 195. 
occupied by Cuspius Fadus, 2, 

197. 
foreign synagogues in, 2, 201. 
visited by Helen of Adiabene, 

2, 194, 218. 
famine in, 2, 218. 
mausoleum of Helen in, 2, 219. 
annual pilgrimages to, 2, 220. 
the Synhedrion removed from, 

2, 239. 
rebels against Cumanus, 2, 

244. 
Agrippa II resides in, 2, 247. 
the Passover celebration of 6G 

in, 2, 251. 
the upper city of, plundered, 

2, 2r)4. 
the insurrection against Rome 

begins in, 2, 255, 261. 
garrisoned with Roman troops, 

2, 255. 
conciliated by Agrippa II, 2, 

257-8. 
the Roman garrison of, sur- 
renders to the Zealots, 2, 

260. 
the walls of, strengthened, 2, 

268. 
rallying place of the patriots, 

2, 291-2. 
fortifications of, 2, 292. 
undisturbed by Vespasian for 

two years, 2, 297. 
parties in, 2, 301. 
besieged by Titus, 2, 301-10. 
summoned to surrender, 2, 

302. 



35^ 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jerusalem (continued), attacked 
from the north, 2, 303. 

famine in, 2, 304, 305-6. 

upper city of, taken, 2, 309. 

remnant in, after the Eoman 
sieg-e, 2, 311. 

the relig'ious center, 2, 322. 

replaced bj* Jamnia as a reli- 
gious center, 2, 32.5. 

rebuilt by Hadrian, 2, 407, 
421-2, 

in the hands of the Jews un- 
der Bar-Cochba, 2, 411. 

ploughed over, by Turnus Ru- 
fus, 2, 421. 

Jews forbidden to enter, 2, 
433, 5C4; 3, 23, 87. 

permission for Jews to pray 
at, obtained from ISIarcus 
Aurelius, 2, 457-8. 

Jews permitted by Alexander 
Severus to enter, 2, 482. 

a Christian city, 2, 5'J7; 3, 11. 

taken by Sharbarza, 3, 19. 

not g-iven to the Jews by the 
Persians, 3, 21. 

entered by Heraclius, 3, 22. 

Temple vessels removed to, by 
Justinian T, 3, 27. 

Arabian Jews pray towards, 
3, 58. 

turning- towards, in praj'er 
instituted by Mahomet, 3, 
73. 

taken by Omar, 3, 87. 

conflict in, between the Kara- 
ites and the Rabbanites, 3, 
135. 

asceticism of the Karaites in, 
3, 181-2. 

Jehuda Halevi at, 3, 342. 

Christian kingdom of, at- 
tacked by Nureddin, 3, 349. 

Christian pilgrims permitted 
by Saladin to enter, 3, 
405. 



Jerusalem (continued), return 
to, projected by David Alrui, 
3, 431. 

IMaimonides in, 3, 457. 

Jews allowed by Saladin to 
settle in, 3, 474. 

mourning in, for Maimonides, 
3, 492-3, 

rabbis of France and England 
emigrate to, 3, 505-6. 

notable for its illustrious 
dead, 3, 506, 

devastated by the Tartars, 3, 
605-6. 

Xachmani in, 3, 606. 

pilgrims to, in the fourteenth 
century, 4, 73-4. 

the Spanish exiles in, 4, 396-8, 

improved morally by the ex- 
iles, 4, 397, 398. 

ordinances for the govern- 
ment of, 4, 398. 

subordinated to Safet, 4, 533. 

rabbis of, support Jacob Be- 
rab, 4, 534. 

Sabbataii Zevi at, 5, 126-7. 

rnbbis of, threaten Sabbatai 
Zevi with excommunication, 
5, 132. 

replaced by Gaza as the Sab- 
batian Holy City, 5, 132. 

Chayim Malach in, 5, 213-14. 

rabbis of, excommunicate 
Chayon, 5, 216. 
Jerusalem, the Jews of, join an 
expedition against the Chris- 
tians of Tyre, 3, 20. 

burnt during the first crusade, 
3, 308. 

dyers in the twelfth centurj% 
3, 427. 

banished by Baldwin IV, 3, 
427. 

occupations of, 4, 74-5. 

wish to build a synagogue on 
Mount Zion, 4, 273-4. 



INDEX. 



357 



Jerusalem, the Jews of (con- 
tinued), oirended by Jacob 
Berab, 4, 532. 
suffer through the Cossack 

wars, 5, 16, 125, 127. 
Kabbalists, 5, 125-6. 
credulity of, 5, 126. 
appeal to Chelebi, 5, 127-8. 
adherents of Sabbata'i Zevi, 5, 

132. 
oppose Napoleon. 5, 450-60. 
Jerusalem, a Babylonian, Sec 

Nahardea. 
Jerusalem, the, of the Occident, 

4, 136. 
" Jerusalem," by Mendelssohn, 
on ecclesiastical power and 
Judaism, 5, 364-6. 
praised by Kant, 5, 365. 
effect of, on Michaelis, 5, 365-6. 
Jerusalem Talmud, the. See 

Talmud, the Jerusalem. 
Jesheboam, one of David's war- 
riors, 1, 116. 
Jeshurun, Isaac, falsely charged 

with child murder, 5, 42. 
Jesiba de los Pintos, Jewish 
school at Rotterdam, 4, 685. 
Jesirat-ul-Amar, the Jews of, 
well treated by Zenki, 3, 420. 
Jesse, father of David, 1, 96. 
Jesse, Henry, enthusiast for Is- 
rael's restoration, 5, 24, 35. 
Jessel, Sir George, Master of the 

Rolls, 5, 699. 
Jesuits, the, order of, author- 
ized by Paul III, 4, 524. 
welcomed in Portugal, 4, 525. 
influence of, 4, 650. 
instigate persecutions of the 

Jews in Poland, 5, 1. 
alienate the Cossacks, 5, 2. 
hold intercourse with Eibe- 
schiitz, 5, 250. 
Jesurun, David, poet, escapes 
from the Inquisition to Am- 
sterdam, 4, 669. 



Jesurun, Rohel (Paul de Pina), 
Marrano poet, leans towards 
Christianity, 4, 669, 

returns to Judaism, 4, 670. 

festival songs by, 4, 678-9. 
Jesus of Nazareth (Galilee), 
birthplace and family of, 2, 
148-0. 

moral purity of, 2, 149. 

religiousness of, 2, 149-50. 

Ilillel the model of, 2, 149-50. 

disciple of John the Baptist, 
2, 150. 

doctrines of, similar to Essen- 
ism, 2, 150-1. 

addresses himself to the low- 
est classes, 2, 152. 

unsuccessful in Nazareth, 2, 
153. 

disciples of, 2, 153, 157-8. 

teachings of, 2, 154-5. 

relation of, to Judaism, 2, 
155-6. 

merit of, 2, 156. 

miracles of, 2, 156-7. 

in the towns of Galilee, 2, 157. 

declares himself the Messiah, 
2, 15S. 

calls himself the " son of 
man," 2, 158-9. 

public sentiment against, 2, 
159-60. 

followers of, in Bethany, 2, 
160. 

in the Temple, 2, 161. 

reception of, in Jerusalem, 2, 
161-2. 

betrayed by Judas Iscariot, 2, 
163. 

trial of, 2, 163-6. 

declared guilty- of blasphemy 
by the Synhedrion, 2, 164. 

execution of, according to the 
Roman law, 2, 164-5. 

not mentioned by Judaean his- 
torians, 2, 166. 



\5^ 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jesus of Nazareth {con tinted). 
foUowei's of, after his deatli, 
2, 1G6, 

resurrection of, 2, 1G8. 

attitude of the disciples of, to 
Judaism, 2, 168. 

denied by Simon Peter, 2, 1G9. 

disciples of, claim miraculous 
power, 2, 169-70 

compared with I'hilo, 2, 214. 

the Messianic character of, 
held to have annulled the 
Law, 2, 221. 

followers of, who cling to the 
Law, not molested, 2, 222. 

the resurrection of, and the 
apostle Paul, 2, 225-C. 

according to Paul, sets aside 
the Law, 2, 230. 

appeals to the Jewish peas- 
ants, 2, 364. 

as regarded by the Jewish 
Christians, 2, 366, 367. 

as regarded by the Pagan 
Christians, 2, 367. 

gradually endowed with di- 
vine attributes by the Jew- 
ish Christians, 2, 370. 

said to have been cursed by 
the Jews three times daily, 
2, 380; 5, 185-6. 

denial of, demanded oi Chris- 
tians by Bar-Cochba, 2, 412. 

spread of the worship of, coun- 
teracted by the Synhedrion, 

2, 413. 

called " Lord," 2, 413. 

Julian the Apostate's opinion 

of, 2, 59G. 
as viewed by Anan ben David, 

3, 133-4. 

in the Talmud, 3, 574, 577, 578. 

Messianic character of, con- 
firmed by the Bible and Tal- 
mud according to Pablo 
Christiani. 3, 598, 599. 



Jesus of Nazareth (continued), 
in the biblical and rabbini- 
cal writings, according to 
Raj^mund Martin, 3, 622. 

the advent of, discussed by 
Chasdai Crescas, 4, 188. 

proved the Messiah from the 
Talmud by Joseph Lorqui, 
4, 207, 208-9, 211, 212. 

dogma of the divinity- of, 
found in the Kabbala, 4, 
292. 

said to be alluded to, in the 
Alenu prayer, 5, 185. 
Jesus ben Sapphia, Zealot lead- 
er in Tiberias, 2, 274. 

sets fire to a palace in Beth- 
maon, 2, 279. 

leader of discontented Gali- 
leans, 2, 280. 
Jesus, son of Pantheras, the 
Jesus of the Talmud, accord- 
ing to Yechiel of Paris, 3, 
577. 
Jesus Sirach (200-176), de- 
scribes Simon the Just in 
Ecclesiasticus, 1, 421-2. 

the book of proverbs by, 1, 
439-41. 

defends social pleasures, 1, 
439. 

recommends the employment 
of medical skill, 1, 439-40. 

condemns the Hellenists, 1, 
440-1. 

urges obedience to the Law, 
1, 440. 

reviews Jewish history, 1, 
440-1. 

the proverbs of, considered 
apocryphal, 2, 344. 

the book of, translated into 
Greek, 2, 359. 
Jethro, father-in-law of Moses., 

1, 26. 
Jew badges, decreed by Omar I, 
3, 88. 



INDEX. 



359 



Jew badges {cnnlinKcd), decreed 

by Jlaroun Alrashid, 3, 145. 
introduced by Al-Mutavakkil, 

3, 17G-7. 
ordained by Ilalvim, 3, 247-8. 
introduced by the Fourth 

Lateran Council, 3, 511- 

12. 
supposed to prevent intermar- 
riages, 3, 511. 
decreed by Almoliade princes, 

3, 511-12. 
the use of, spreads through 

Europe, 3, 512. 
effect of, on the wearers, 3, 

512-13. 
the Jews struggle against, 3, 

513. 
enforced in Spain, 3, 513. 
not enforced in southern 

France and Aragon, 3, 514- 

15. 
worn by the Jews of England, 

3, 515. 
decreed bj^ the Council of Ox- 
ford, 3, 516. 
introduced into Naj^les and 

Sicily, 3, 518. 
enforced by the Council of 

Narbonne, 3, 518. 
introduced into Hungary, 3, 

521. 
enforced by Frederick II in 

Sicily and Naples, 3, 569. 
enforced by the Council of 

Beziers, 3, 582. 
insisted on in England under 

Henry III, 3, 590. 
ordained in the code of Al- 
fonso X, 3, 595. 
enforced by the Council of 

Vienna, 3, 612. 
enforced by Louis IX of 

France, 3, 612. 
abrogated at the instance of 

the Jews of southern 

France, 3, 612. 



Jew badges (co^/i/iHed), re-intro- 
duced into France by Philip 
III, 3, 613. 

decreed by the Council of 
Buda, 3, 614. 

not used in Portugal, 3, 61S. 

decreed in England by the 
Statute of Judaism, 3, 642. 

insisted on in Montpellier, 4, 
54. 

in France under John ihe 
Good, 4, 131, 133. 

decreed for the Jews of Cas- 
tile under Henry II, 4, 139. 

not worn by the Vesoul fam- 
ily, 4, 150. 

insisted upon in Castile under 
Juan II, 4, 203. 

enjoined by Benedict XlII's 
bull, 4, 216. 

decreed by the Council of 
Basle, 4, 245. 

decreed by Eugenius IV, 4, 
250. 

enforced by Nicholas de Cusa, 
4, 255. 

enforced in Naples, 4, 258. 

decreed by Henry IV of Cas- 
tile, 4, 278. 

worn in Morocco, 4, 389. 

for the Portuguese Marranos 
under Joao III, 4, 519. 

ordered for the Jews of Bohe- 
mia, 4, 545. 

enforced by Paul IV, 4, 566. 

enforced by Pius V, 4, 590. 

worn by the Frankfort Jews, 
4, 695. 

Jews released from wearing, 
in Vienna, 4, 702. 

proposed by Riihs, 5, 517. 
Jew quarters. See Ghetto; Jew's 

quarter, the. 
" Jew-roaster," name assumed 
by German families, 3, 611. 
Jew streets, in Austria, 5, 523. 

See Jew's quarter, the. 



360 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jewish Christians, the, antago- 
nized by Tarphon of Lydda, 
2, 357, 

condemned by Samuel the 
Younger, 2, 35S. 

observe the Law, 2, 365-6. 

view of Jesus held by, 2, 366. 

called Ebionites, 2, 366. 

as propagandists, 2, 3G6. 

differ from Pagan Christians, 
2, 367. 

hate Paul, 2, 367, 368. 

views of, in the evangels, 2, 
369. 

hate Rome, 2, 369. 

relation of, to the Jews, 2, 
369-70. 

and the Tanaites, 2, 370. 

gradually endow Jesus with 
divine attributes, 2, 370. 

sects of, 2, 370. 

separate from the Jews, 2, 
370-2, 431. 

merge into the Pagan Chris- 
tians, 2, 373. 

accused of damaging the Jews 
with the Roman autliorities, 
2, 378. 

discussed by the Synhedrion, 
2, 379-80. 

inimically treated by Bar- 
Cochba, 2, 412. 

spy upon the Jews under Ha- 
drian, 2, 425. 

persecuted by Hadrian, 2, 
430-1. 

the Mishna not hostile to, 2, 
476. 

8ee also Ebionites, the; Ju- 

daean Christians, the; Naza- 

renes, the. 

Jewish Church, the German, 

the founding of, 5, 682, 686. 

and Sachs, 5, 091. 
Jewish converts. !?ee Apostates. 
" Jewish Curiosities," by 
Schudt, 5, 549. 



Jewish history. Her under His- 
tory. 

" Jewish Letters," to Voltaire, 
by a priest, 5, 346-7. 

Jewish Literature, See tinder 
Literature. 

Jewish state, the, restored un- 
der Bar-Cochba, 2, 412. 
the restoration of, conditioned 
on the appearance of the 
Messiah, 2, 600. 
Spinoza on, 5, 103-7. 

Jews, the, libeled by Manetho, 

1, 511. 

kindly treated by Vespasian 

and Titus, 2, 331, 
the solidarity of, 2, 367^8; 5, 

632-3. 
relation of, to the Jewish 

Christians, 2, 369-70, 
breach between, and the Jew- 
ish Christians, 2, 370-2. 
apostasy among, in the early 

Christian centuries, 2, 377, 
said to have cursed Jesus 

three times daily, 2, 380; 5, 

185-6. 
tamper with the Septuagint, 

2, 386. 

use Akylas' translation of 

Scripture, 2, 387. 
extermination of, decreed by 

Rome, 2, 387, 
and the Flavian house, 2, 3S8. 
suffering of, under Domitian, 

2, 388-9. 
hate Josephus, 2, 389, 391. 
kindly treated by Nerva, 2, 

391-2. 
oppose Trajan, 2, 393-4. 
in rebellion against Hadrian, 

2, 399-401. 
attempt the restoration of the 

Temple. 2, 401-3. 
peaceable disposition of, de- 
scribed by Hadrian, 2, 407 



INDEX. 



361 



Jews, the (continued), outraged 
by the rebuilding- of Jerusa- 
lem as a pagan city, 2, 407. 

prepare for a revolt against 
Hadrian, 2, 408. 

join the standard of Bar- 
Cochba, 2, 410. 

obtain possession of Jerusa- 
lem under Bar-Cochba, 2, 
411. 

the Romans kindly treated by, 
2, 411-12. 

heavily taxed bj' Hadrian, 2, 
420. 

spied upon by renegades and 
Jewish Christians, 2, 425-G. 

forbidden to enter Jerusalem, 
2, 433, 564; 3, 23, 87. 

persecuted under Antoninus 
Pius, 2, 446. 

persecuted under Verus Com- 
modus, 2, 447. 

enmity between, and the Sa- 
maritans, 2, 457-8, 534. 

unkindly treated by Marcus 
Aurelius, 2, 463. 

cruelly treated bj' Commodus 
and Niger, 2, 463-4. 

under Caracalla, 2, 468-9. 

under Elegabahis, 2, 469-70. 

kindly treated by Alexander 
Severus, 2, 481-2, 482-3. 

permitted to enter Jerusalem, 
2, 482. 

consulted by Origen on Bible 
exegesis, 2, 488. 

hostile to Zenobia, 2, 529-30. 

Diocletian tolerant to, 2, 533. 

weakened by hostilitj'^ to the 
Samaritans, 3, 535. 

included in Constantine's act 
of toleration, 2, 561. 

dignitaries of, exempt from 
onerous civic duties, 2, 561. 

aspersed by Church digni- 
taries under Constantine, 2, 
562. 



Jews, the {continued), forbidden 
to make converts, 2, 562, 
564. 

privileges of, abolished by 
Constantine, 2, 563. 

protected by Constantine 
against converts, 2, 564. 

hostility to, shown by Con- 
stantine, 2, 566-7. 

regarded as atheists under 
Constantine, 2, 572. 

rescued from oppression by 
Julian, 2, 572. 

oppressed by Shaljur II, 2, 
591. 

benevolence of, admired by 
Julian, 2, 596-7. 

not interested in the rebuild- 
ing of the Temple by Ju- 
lian, 2, 599-600. 

toleration of, under Valen- 
tinian I and Valens, 2, 603. 

antagonized by Ambrosius 
and Chrysostom, 2, 613-14. 

mock at the Christians, 2, 
620-1. 

forbidden to teach Christians 
Hebrew, 2, 624. 

superiority of, in Scripture 
studies, 2, 621. 

hated by Jerome and Augus- 
tine, 2, 625. 

preserved by the Talmiul, 2, 
635. 

competent witnesses only in 
their own cases under Jus- 
tinian I, 3, 12-13. 

treated kindly by the popes, 3, 
25. 

well treated in Arian coun- 
tries, 3, 26. 

and the fall of Borne, 3, 27-8. 

sufPer perseciition from the 
German tribes, 3, 2S. 

Isidore of Seville writes 
against, 3, 50. 



362 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jews, the {continued), antago- 
nized by Mahomet, 3, 75-G. 

Mahomet's revelations against, 
3, 75, 78. 

hostility to, in the Koran, 3, 
84. 

restrictions against, in the 
covenant of Omar, 3, 87-8. 

freer in Islam than in Chris- 
tian lands, 3, 88. 

reverence of, for Jewish Baby- 
lonia, 3, 100-1. 

of Mahometan countries speak 
Arabic, 3, 110-11. 

corrupt language of, in the 
seventh and eighth centu- 
ries, 3, 111. 

make scientific literature ac- 
cessible to the Arabs, 3, 
111. 

in the eighth century control 
commerce, 3, 142-3. 

under the Merovingian kings, 
3, 143. 

considered the wards of the 
emperor by Louis the Pious, 
3, 170. 

persecutions of, in the elev- 
enth century, 3, 245-8. 

not permitted to hold office in 
Christian countries, 3, 293- 
4. 

during the first crusade, 3, 
298-305. 

Jehuda Halevi's view of the 
suffering of, 3, 335-G. 

superiority of, in the twelftli 
century, 3, 347. 

treatment of, in Christian and 
Mahometan countries, 3, 
348. 

persecutions of, increase in 
the twelfth century, 3, 
348-9. 

forbidden by a rabbinical syn- 
od to purchase Church ap- 
purtcTiances, 3, 377. 



Jews, the {continued), the morai- 
ity of, described by Joseph 
Kimchi, 3, 393. 

forbidden to keep Christian 
domestics, 3, 400. 

banished from the Isle de 
France, 3, 402-:;. 

debts owing to, repudiated 
during the third crusade, 3, 
405. 

not allowed to live in Mecca 
and Medinah, 3, 43C. 

allowed by Saladin to settle in 
Jerusalem, 3, 474. 

the position of, affected by the 
death of Maimonides and 
the ascendancy of the pa- 
pacy, 3, 494. 

protected against the crusad- 
ers bj^ Innocent III, 3, 49G- 

denounced by Innocent III, 3, 
498-501. 

decrees against, by the Fourth 
Lateran Council, 3, 510-11. 

isolated in speech and man- 
ners by the Jew badge, 3, 
512-13. 

mission of, in the Kabbalistic 
s^-stem, 3, 553. 

persecutions of, after the thir- 
teenth century, 3, 5G3-4, 610- 
11. 

scholarliness of, 3, 565. 

absorbed in the study of the 
Talmud in the thirteenth 
century, 3, 571-2. 

banished from the hereditary 
dominions of Louis IX, 3, 
585-6. 

exonerated from the blood 
accusation by Innocent IV, 
3, 635. 

protected against forced bap- 
tism by Gregory X, 3, 635. 

banished from England, 3, 
645. 



INDEX. 



363 



Jews, the {continued), permitted 
in Palestine under the Egyp- 
tian Sultans, 4, 73. 

charged with causing the 
Black Death, 4, 101. 

desolation of, after the Black 
Death, 4, 127. 

indispensable to the Chris- 
tians in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, 4, 127-8. 

restrictions laid upon, by Ben- 
edict XIII's bull, 4, 215-16. 

and the Hussite war, 4, 222. 

accused of supphing Hussites 
with money, 4, 222. 

appeal to Martin V, 4, 226. 

feared by the papacy in the 
fifteenth century, 4, 254. 

well received in Italy in the 
fifteenth century, 4, 286. 

jeopardized by the blood accu- 
sation against the Jews of 
Trent, 4, 299. 

suffering of, attributed to her- 
esy, 4, 343. 

divided into German speaking 
and Spanish speaking Jews, 
4, 421. 

rights of, advocated bj^ Eeuch- 
lin, 4, 443-4, 

indictment of, proposed by 
Hoogstraten, 4, 444. 

intercourse with, defended by 
Reuchlin, 4, 447-8. 

in the " Letters of Obscurant- 
ists," 4, 461. 

Luther on, 4, 470. 

affected by the Protestant 
Reformation, 4, 471. 

morality of, in the Middle 
Ages, 4, 477. 

lack spirituality, 4, 477-8. 

split up into national groups, 
4, 478. 

narrow-mindedness of, in the 
Middle Ages, 4, 479. 



Jews, the (continued), suffer 
through the Reformation, 4, 
540. 

hatred of, fed by the Unita- 
rian tendencies of the Refor- 
mation, 4, 542. 

attacked by Eck and Luther, 

4, 546-52. 

restrictions against, under 
Pius V, 4, 590. 

persecution of, during the 
Catholic reaction, 4, 652. 

prospects of the re-settlement 
of, in England, 4, 18-19. See 
England. 

prejudices against, in Eng- 
land, 5, 19. 

favorably regarded by Chris- 
tian visionaries, 5, 23. 

enthusiasts for the restora- 
tion of, 5, 24-5. 

favorably regarded by the Pu- 
ritans, 5, 27. 

defended bj^ Richard Simon, 5, 
181. 

attacked by Christian Hebra- 
ists, 5, 184. 

defended b}^ Surenhuj^sius, 5, 
194. 

degradation of, in the seven- 
teenth century, 5, 199-200, 
204-5. 

poverty of, 5, 205-6. 

speak a jargon in the eigh- 
teenth century, 5, 300. 

artificial studies of, 5, 300-1. 

neglect the Bible, 5, 328. 

slandered by Voltaire, 5, 340. 

condition of, described by 
Dohm, 5, 353. 

emancipated in the wake of 
French victories, 5, 459. See 
Emancipation. 

prejudices of Goethe against, 

5, 461. 

Fichte on, 5, 461-3. 

and Napoleon, 5, 474, 481. 



364 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jews, the {continued), maligned 

by Bonald, 5, 4TS. 
the emancipation of, depend- 
ent on that of the French 

Jews, 5, 480. 
in the French wars, 5, 511. 
excluded from Tyrol, 5, 523. 
Heine on, 5, 547-8, 553-5. 
debt of, to Borne and Heine, 

5, 556. 
rapid advance of, 5, 557. 
historical mission of, 5, 570, 

718-19. 
self-respect of, 5, 590. 
effect of the July revolution 

on, 5, 596-8. 
criticised by Riesser, 5, 599- 

600. 
contrasted with the Greeks, 5, 

706-8. 
the religion of, 5, 709. 
faults of, 5, 713-14. 
literature of, 5, 714. 
See also Israelites, the; Ju- 

daeans, the; and under the 

various countries, cities, etc. 
" Jews, The," by Lessing, 5, 

297, 320, 300. 
" Jews, The, and their Just 

Claims on the Christian 

States," by August Kramer, 

5, 522. 
Jews, the, conversion of. Str 

under Conver.sion. 
Jews, the, emancipation of. Sec 

binder Emancipation. 
Jew's quarter, the, in Rome, 2, 

68. 
in Constantinople, 3, 20, 425. 
in Speyer, 3, 298. 
at Palermo, 3, 567. 
in Seville, 3, 593. 
of Toledo, 4, 118. 
of Seville, mobbed, 4, 169. 
in Palina, 4, 171. 
Castilian Jews forced into, 4, 

203. 



Jew's quarter, the (continued), 
decreed by the Council of 
Basle, 4, 245. 

decreed by Eugenius IV, 4, 
250. 

decreed by Henry IV of Cas- 
tile, 4, 278. 

enforced by the cortes of To- 
ledo, 4, 335. 

first, in Italy, 4, 408. 

enforced by Paul IV, 4, 566. 

in Vienna, 4, 702; 5, 172. 

in Alsace and Metz, 5, 348. 

of Frankfort destroyed, 5, 
503-4. 

Roman Jews return to, 5, 618. 

See also Ghetto; Jew street, 
the; Juderia. 
Jews, secret. See Christians, 

Judaizing; IMarranos, the. 
Jezaniah, Juda^an emigrant to 

Egypt, 1, 324. 
Jezdijird (400-420), Sassanian 
king, friendly to the Jews, 
2, 609-10. 
Jezdijird III (440-457), Sassa- 
nian king, persecutes the 
Jews, 2, 027-8. 
Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, 
marries Ahab, 1, 194. 

character of, 1, 197. 

builds a temi^le to Baal, 1, 
197. 

persecutes Elijah's disciples, 
1, 201. 

has Naboth killed, 1, 202. 

threatens Elijah, 1, 204. 

end of, 1, 211. 
Jezreel, son of Hosea, 1, 240. 
Jezreel, the plain of, in Canaan, 
1, 30. 

description of, 1, 44. 

Philistines encamp in, 1, 102. 

Ahab's winter palace in, 1, 
201-2. 

towns in, restored to Judsea, 2) 
76. 



INDEX. 



365 



Jikatilla. See Joseph ben Abra- 
ham Jikatilla. 
Joab, warrior, joins David, 1, 
100. 

jealous of Abner, 1, 109. 

ends the civil war, 1, 110. 

kills Abner, 1, 111. 

receives a house at Jerusalem, 
1, 119. 

field officer under David, 1, 
122. 

conducts the Ammonite war, 
1, 12C-7, 128-9. 

captures the Water-Town of 
Rabbath Ammon, 1, 128. 

faith of, 1, 130. 

ordered to expose Uriah the 
Hittite, 1, 132. 

partisan of Absalom, 1, 135. 

employs the woman of Te- 
koah to plead for Absalom, 
1, 135-6. 

takes up a military census, 1, 
137. 

faithful to David in the civil 
war with Absalom, 1, 141. 

commander against Absalom 
at Mahanaim, 1, 144. 

reproaches David for long 
mourning over Absalom, 1, 
145. 

replaced by Amasa, 1, 148. 

victorious over Sheba, 1, 149- 
50. 

supporter of Adonijah, 1, 152. 

killed by Benaiah, 1, 160. 

family of, forms a league in 
Babylon, 1, 330. 

favorite character of the Pu- 
ritans, 5, 26. 
Joachim I, elector of Branden- 
burg, has thirty Jews burnt, 

4, 440. 

Joachim II, elector of Branden- 
burg, alleged t^ have been 
poisoned by a Jew, 4, 652; 

5, 188. 



Joah, chancellor, under Josiah, 

1, 292. 
Joan, pope, satire on, 3, 169. 
Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand 
and Isabella, proposed as 
wife to Manoel of Portugal, 
4, 373. 
Joanna, queen of Naples, ap- 
points John of Capistrano 
inquisitor of the Jews, 4, 
258. 
Joao I, of Portugal, Grand Mas- 
ter of Avis, rival of Leonora. 
4, 160. 

regent of Portugal, 4, 161. 

popularity of, as king, 4, 173. 

promotes conquests o the 
coast of Africa, 4, 217-18. 

refuses assistance to Vincent 
Ferrer, 4, 218. 
Joao II (1481-1495), of Portugal, 
character of, 4, 340. 

executes the Duke of Bra- 
ganza, 4, 341. 

confiscates the property of 
Isaac Abrabanel, 4, 341. 

negotiations with, for the set- 
tlement of the Spanish Jews 
in Portugal, 4, 352. 

baptizes the son of Judah 
Leon Abrabanel, 4, 361. 

permits Spanish exiles to set- 
tle in Portugal, 4, 365-6. 

summons an astronomical 
congress, 4, 367. 

delivers INfarranos to the In- 
quisition, 4, 368. 

insists upon the Spanish ex- 
iles' leaving Portugal at the 
appointed time, 4, 368-9. 

sells Spanish exiles as slaves, 
4, 370-1. 

sends the children of Spanish 
exiles to San Thomas, 4, 
371. 

death of, 4, 371. 



366 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



J«ao II {cont'niucd), cause of the 

misfortunes of, 4, 373. 
Joaa III (1522-1557), of Portu- 
gal, hostile to the Marranos, 
4, 488-90. 

resolves to introduce the In- 
quisition, 4, 490. 

gives up the plan of estab- 
lishing the Inquisition, 4, 
490-1. 

receives David Eeubeni, 4, 
493, 498. 

treats the Marranos more 
kindly, 4, 493-4. 

withdraws his favor from Da- 
vid Eeubeni, 4, 498-9. 

urged to introduce the Inqui- 
sition, 4, 499-500. 

cupidity of, censured by Pucci, 
4, 505. 

chooses Duarte de Paz for a 
secret mission, 4, 512. 

tries to influence Paul III in 
favor of the Inquisition, 4, 
515. 

disobeys the papal injunction 
to absolve the Marranos. 4, 
516. 

rigor of, towards the Marra- 
nos, 4, 518-19. 

enforces the rules of the In- 
quisition, 4, 521. 

forbids emigration, 4, 524. 

requested by the pope to treat 
the Marranos mildly, 4, 
527. 

tries to make good Catholics 
of the Marranos, 4, 528. 
leaser, coadjutor of Joseph us 

in Galilee, 2, 278, 279. 
Joaser, son of Simon b. Boethus, 
high priest, the deposition 
of, demanded, 2, 121. 

deposed, 2, 127. 

again installed, 2, 127. 

defends the Roman census, 2, 
134. 



Joaser (continued), deposed by 

Quirinius, 2, 135. 
Joash, king of Israel. See Je- 

hoash. 
Joash, king of Judah, escapes 

the slaughter of Athaliah, 

1, 213. 

raised in the Temple, 1, 215- 

IG. 
anointed king, 1, 21G. 
repairs the Temple, 1, 218-19. 
stones the high priest Zacha- 

riah, 1, 220. 
yields to Hazael, 1, 221. 
killed, 1, 221. 
" Job," poem by Jacob Israel 

Belmonte, 4, 665. 
Job, the Book of, composed dur- 
ing the captivity, 1, 341-2. 
expounded by Simon ben La- 

kish, 2, 496-7. 
commentary on, by Rashi, 3, 

346. 
paraphrased by Zarak Barfat, 

4, 140. 
Joceus, a wealthy Jew of York, 

takes refuge in the citadel, 

3, 413. 
end of, 3, 415. 
Joceus, chief rabbi of England, 

3, 588. 
Jochai, a friend of the Romans, 

2, 440, 

Jochanan, secretary to Gama- 
liel I, 2, 192. 
Jochanan of Alexandria, the 
sandal maker, disciple of 
Akiba, 2, 433. 
Jochanan bar Moryah, Amora, 

2, COO. 

Jochanan bar Napacha (I'JO- 

279), chief of the Amoraim. 

2, 479. 

and Judah II, 2, 485, 493, 494. 

description of the beauty of, 

2, 492-3. 
method of, 2, 493. 



INDIiX. 



367 



Fochanan bar Napacha (con- 
tinued), at Tiberias, 2, 493-4. 

leniency of, 2, 49f. 

explains the prophecy of Dan- 
iel, 2, 494-5. 

morality of, 2, 495. 

misfortunes of, 2, 495. 

opponent of, 2, 495, 497. 

restores order in southern 
Judaja, 2, 498. 

on Abba Areka, 2, 514. 

decisions of, 2, 515. 

and Mar-Samuel, 2, 522-3. 

alarm of, on account of the 
Babylonian Jews, 2, 525. 

feeling of, against Palmyra, 
2, 529, 530. 

disciples of, 2, 531. 

decision of, with regard to the 
new-moon, 2, 532. 

view of, on the Samaritans, 2, 
534. 

permits Jewish women to ac- 
quire Greek culture, 2, 537. 

quoted by Abbahu, 2, 537. 
Jochanan ben Gudgada, member 
of the Jamnia Synhedrion, 
2, 357. 
Jochanan ben Mattathiah Pro- 
venci, elected chief rabbi of 
France, 4, 152. 

relieved of his office by Isaiah 
ben Abba-Mari, 4, 152, 1G2. 

appeals to Spanish authorities, 
4, 153. 
Jochanan ben Nuri, member of 
the Jamnia Synhedrion, 2, 
357. 

upholds the ordinances of 
Gamaliel 11, 2, 405. 
Jochanan ben Torta, opposes 
Akiba's Messianic hopes, 2, 
410. 
Jochanan ben Zakkai, disciple 
of Hillel, 2, 131. 

abolishes the ritual for cases 
of suspected adultery, 2,238. 



Jochanan ben Zakkai (con- 
tinued), abrogates the sin 
ofl"ering for murders, 2, 239. 

leader of the faithful Ju- 
dasans, 2, 240. 

vice-president of the Synhe- 
drion, 2, 240. 

importance of, 2, 322-3. 

member of the Peace party, 2, 
323. 

takes refuge in the camp of 
Titus, 2, 323-4. 

receives permission to estab- 
lish a school at Jamnia, 2, 
324. 

mourns for the Temple, 2, 324. 

forms a Synhedrion at Jam- 
nia, 2, 325. 

changes made by, 2, 326. 

disciples of, 2, 326. 

proficient in the oral Law, 2, 
328. 

lectures by, 2, 328-9. 

on the advantages of peace, 2, 
329. 

intercourse of, with pagans, 
2, 329, 331. 

gentle character of, 2, 331-2. 

description of Israel in 
mourning by, 2, 332. 

compared with Jeremiah and 
Zerubbabel, 2, 333. 

death of, 2, 333. 

maxim of, with regard to the 
study of the Law, 2, 338-9. 

on Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, 2, 
346. 
Jochanan Aleman. See Aleman. 
Jochanan. See also Johanan: 

John; Jonathan. 
Joel, prophet, exhortations of, 
under Uzziah, 1, 230. 

under Jeroboam II, 1, 237-40. 
Joel, son of Samuel, acts as 

judge in Beersheba, 1, 79. 
Joel, Emanuel, founder of the 
Breslau seminary, 5, 700. 



368 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Johanan, father of }*Iattathias, 

the Hasmonsean, 1, 459. 
Johanan, son of Joiada, high 
priest, slays his brotlier in 
the Temple, 1, 409. 
Johanan, son of Kareah, chief 
of the Jiidaeans in Palestine 
after the fall of Jerusalem, 
1, 318. 
submits to Gedaliah, 1, 321. 
informs Gedaliah of Ishniael's 

treachery, 1, 322. 
pursues Ishmael, 1, 322-3. 
Johanan, son of Simon Tharsi. 

fice Hj^rcanus I, John. 
Johanan Gadi, son of Matta- 
thias, the Ilasmonaean, 1, 
459. 
leader of the Hasmonsean 

party, 1, 489. 
killed by the Bene Amri, 1, 
491. 
Johanan. f>ee also Jochanan; 

John; Jonathan. 
Johannsen, bishop of Speyer, 
protects the Jews during' the 
first crusade, 3, 300-1. 
John XXII, pope, opposes a 
crusade, 4, 35. 
sister of, hostile to the Jews, 
4, Gl. 
John XXIII, pope, vices of, 4, 

201. 
John II, of Aragon. F^rc Juan 

IT, of Aragon. 
John H, of Brabant, protects 
the Jews of Brussels, 4, 112. 
John, of England, the Jews un- 
der, 3, 41G, 504-5. 
pretends friendship for the 

Jews, 3, 504. 
appoints Jacob of London 

chief rabbi, 3, 504. 
protects the Jews of London, 

3, 505. 
imprisons the English Jews, 
3, 505. 



John, the Good, of France, cap- 
tivity of, 4, 128-9. 

permits the Jews to return to 
France, 4, 129. 

curtails the i^rivileges of the 
Jews, 4, 131. 
John, author of the Apocalypse, 

hates Rome, 2, 3G9. 
John, the Baptist, Essene, be- 
liefs of, 2, 145-6. 

i n fluence of, on the Judsean poor 
and the aristocracj', 2, 146-7. 

imprisoned and beheaded, 2,147. 

Jesus the disciple of, 2, 150. 

the w^ork of, continued by Je- 
sus, 2, 151. 

identified with Elijah, 2, 158. 
John, Judsean envoj' to emperor 

Claudius, 2, 197-8. 
John, leader of the Idumaeans, 

helps the Zealots, 2, 295. 
John of Capistrano, Franciscan, 
hostile to the Jews, 4, 249, 
258-63. 

executes Nicholas V's anti- 
Jewish bull, 4, 253. 

characteristics of, 4, 257. 

used by the popes to restore 
their authoritj^ 4, 257-8. 

inquisitor of the Jews, 4, 258. 

in Germany, 4, 25S-G0. 

in Bavaria, 4, 258-9. 

in Franconia, 4, 259-60. 

in Silesia, 4,.2G0-3. 

in Poland, 4, 263, 265-6, 418. 

jiroaches a crusade against 
the Turks, 4, 268. 

advocates the baptism of Jew- 
ish cliildren, 4, 277. 

exalted by Bernardinus of 
Feltre. 4, 296. 
John of Gischala. See John ben 

Levi. 
John of Gorze (Jean de Ven- 
dieres), ambassador from 
Otho I to Abdul-Kahman III, 
3, 219. 



INDEX. 



369 



John of Valladolid, apostate, in 
religious disputations with 
Jews, 4, 140, 141, 209. 
John ben Levi, of Gischala, 
leader of the insurrection 
in Upper Galilee, 2, 273. 

troops of, 2, 273. 

repug-nant to Josephus, 2, 
279-81. 

accuses Josejihus before the 
Synhedrion, 2, 281. 

escapes to Jerusalem, 2, 290. 

helps the Zealots of Jerusa- 
lem, 2, 295. 

heroism of, 2, 296-7. 

leader of the Galilean Zealots 
in Jerusalem, 2, 301. 

destroys Roman works, 2, 304. 

hopefulness of, 2, 305. 

refuses to lay down arms, 2, 
309. 

in Titus' triumph, 2, 313. 

in a Roman dungeon, 2, 314. 
John, son of Zebedee, disciple of 
Jesus, 2, 153. 

leader of the early Christians, 
2, 169, 222. 
John. See also Jochanan; Jo- 

hanan; Jonathan; Juan. 
John Albert of Poland, hostile 

to the Jews, 4, 419. 
John Casimir, of Poland, per- 
mits forced converts to re- 
turn to Judaism, 5, 13. 

guards the rights of Jews in 
making a treaty, 5, 14. 
John Chrysostom, bishop of An- 
tioch, preaches against Jew- 
ish institutions, 2, 613-14. 
John George, elector of Bran- 
denburg, accuses Lippold of 
poisoning Joachim II, 4, 
652. 

expulsion of the Jews by, 5, 
173. 
John Hyrcanus. See Hyrcanus 
I, John, 



John Maurice, of Nassau, stadt- 
holder of Brazil, assisted by 
Marranos, 4, 693. 

John Sobieski, of Poland, scat- 
ters the Karaites, 5, 182. 

Joiada, high priest, under Nehe- 
miah, 1, 386. 
sons of, 1, 409. 

Joigny, represented at the first 
rabbinical synod, 3, 377. 

Jokthel, name of Petra changed 
into, 1, 223. 

Jollivet, French government 
commissioner, protests a- 
gainst the imposition of a 
poll-tax on French Jews in 
Germany, 5, 465. 

Jonadab, son of Rechab, a Naza- 
rite, 1, 200; 3, 55. 
helps Jehu to exterminate 
Baal-worship, 1, 212. 

Jonah, fisherman, sons of, disci- 
ples of Jesus, 2, 153. 

Jonah II, Palestinian Amora, 2, 
560. 
member of the last Synhe- 
drion, 2, 567. 
permits bread baking on the 
Sabbath for the Roman ar- 
my, 2, 568. 

Jonah, prophet, encourages war 
with the Aramreans, 1, 225. 

Jonah, rabbi of Vienna, coun- 
sels self-destruction to es- 
cape the Black Death perse- 
cutions, 4, 110. 

Jonah ben Abraham Gerundi 
the Elder, excommunicates 
the ISIaimunists, 3, 529. 
excommunicated, 3, 530, 536-7. 
aided by Nachmani, 3, 536. 
refers the Maimunist contro- 
versy to the Dominicans, 3, 
542-3. 
repents of his persecution of 
jNIaimonides' works, 3, 579- 
80, 624. 



370 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jonah ben Abraham Gerundi 
(continued), makes public 
confession, 3, 580. 
author of Talmudical works, 

3, 580. 
disciple of, a Maimunist, 3, 
629. 
Jonah Marinus (Abul valid Mer- 
van Ibn-Janach, 995-1050), 
grammarian, 3, 2G1-4. 
teachers of, 3, 2G1. 
as a poet, 3, 261-2. 
studies medicine, 3, 261, 262. 
hostile to Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, 

3, 262, 313. 
creator of Hebrew sjmtax, 3, 

263. 
works of, 3, 263. 
calmness and clearness of, 3, 

263-4. 
and Ibn-Gebirol, 3, 264. 
adversely criticised by Abra- 
ham Ibn-Ezra, 3, 371. 
works of, translated into He- 
brew, 3, 397. 
Jonathan, keeper of the lists, 

jailer of Jeremiah, 1, 313. 
Jonathan, nephew of David, Is- 
raelite champion, 1, 117. 
Jonathan, priest, messenger 
from Hushai to David, 1, 143. 
Jonathan, Sadducee leader, 
friend of John Hyrcanus, 2, 
31. 
estranges Hj'rcanus from the 
Pharisees, 2, 33. 
Jonathan, tax-gatherer, deputy 
of the Judfeans of CjBsarea, 
2, 253. 
Jonathan, teacher of the Law, 
in the south of Judaea, 2, 
442. 
Jonathan, Zealot leader, accuses 
Josephus of disloyalty to 
TJome, 2, 318. 
Jonathan ben Absalom, general 
under Simon Tharsi, 1, 500. 



Jonathan ben Amram, disciple 
of Judah I, rebukes him, 2, 
451. 
Jonathan ben Anan, high priest, 
appointed by Vitellius, 2, 
172. 

former high priest, envoy to 
Eome, 2, 244. 

seeks the appointment of Fe- 
lix as procurator of Judaea, 
3, 245. 

assassinated, 2, 246. 

Jonathan ben Nachman (Archi- 

nas), teacher of the Law at 

the fall of Jerusalem, 2, 330. 

Jonathan ben Uziel, disciple of 

Ilillel, 2, l.n. 
Jonathan, son of Saul, qualities 
of, 1, 84. 

destroys the Philistine garri- 
son at Gibeah, 1, 85. 

defeats the Philistines at Mich- 
mash, 1, 86-8. 

condemned to death by Saul, 
1, 88-9. 

friendship of, with David, 1, 
97, 98. 

death of, 1, 103. 

bodj^ of, dishonored, 1, 104. 

remains of, buried, 1, 124. 
Jonathan, son of Simon Tharsi. 

See Hyrcanus I, John. 
Jonathan Cohen, of Liinel, 
writes a commentary on Al- 
fassi's Talmudical work, 3, 
397. 

advocates the study of science 
by Jews, 3, 397. 

reverence of, for Maimonides, 
3, 489, 526. 

emigrates to Jerusalem, 3, 505, 
506. 
Jonathan Eibeschlitz. See Eibe- 

scliiitz, Jonathan. 
Jonathan Haphus, son of Mat- 
tathias. the llasmonaean, 1, 
4.59. 



INDEX. 



371 



Jonathan Haphus (continued), 
in connuand beyond the Jor- 
dan, 1, 475. 

leader of the Hasmontean par- 
ty, 1, 489. 

made the leader of the people, 
1, 490. 

weakness of the forces of, 1, 
491. 

streng-thens his defences, 1, 
492-3. 

authority of, 1, 493. 

defends Bethhagla, 1, 493. 

makes a truce with Bacchides, 

I, 493-4. 

friendship of, sued for by De- 
metrius I and Alexander 
Balas, 1, 494-5. 

officiates as high priest on the 
Feast of Tabernacles, 1, 495. 

ally of Alexander Balas, 1, 
494, 496. 

entertained by Ptolemy VI 
and Alexander Balas, 1, 496. 

loyal to Alexander Balas, 1, 
496. 

receives Ekron, 1, 496. 

besieges the Acra, 1, 496. 

compact of, with Demetrius 

II, 1, 497. 

espouses the cause of Antio- 

chus VI, 1, 497-8, 499. 
distingiiished by Diodotus 

Tryphon, 1, 498. 
taken prisoner, 1, 499. 
executed, 1, 501. 
burial of, at Modin, 1, 501. 
achievements of, 1, 501-2. 
ancestor of Flavins Josephus, 

1, 502. 
state of Judaea after the death 

of, 1, 501-2, 519-20. 
Jonathan Levi Zion, advocate of 

the Jews before Maximilian 

I, 4, 436-7. 
Jonathan. See also Jochanan; 

John; Jonathan. 



Jonghe, Isaac de, zealous for 
the emancipation of the 
Jews, 5, 455. 
Jonghe, Lublink de, objects to 
the emancipation of the 
Jew.s, 5, 455-6. 
Joppa (Jaffa), fortifications of, 
destroyed by I'tolemy I, 1, 
417. 
taken by Jonathan Haphus, 1, 

496. 
Simon Tharsi sends a detach- 
ment to, 1, 500. 
taken by Simon Tharsi, 1, 524. 
claimed by Antiochus Sidetes, 

1, 529. 
in the possession of Antiochus 

Sidetes, 2, 4-5. 
in the possession of Antiochus 

IX, 2, 9. 
taken by Vespasian, 2, 288. 
Joram, son of Ahab. See Jeho- 

ram. 
Joram (Jehoram), son of Je- 
hoshaphat, marries Atha- 
liah, 1, 206. 
king of Judah, introduces idol- 
atry, 1, 209. 
death of, 1, 211. 
Joram, son of Toi, king of Ha- 
math, congratulates David 
on his victories, 1, 127. 
Jordan, the, Israelites cross, 1, 
29, 32. 
description of, 1, 42, 46. 
Jose (471-520), Amora, principal 
of the Pumbeditha school, 
completes the Bab.ylonian 
Talmud, 2, 630-1. 
Jose, brother of Jesus, 2, 148. 
Jose, the Galilean, member of 
the Jamnia Synhedrion, 2, 
357. 
at Lydda, 2, 423. 
Jose', Palestinian Amora, 2, 560. 
member of the last Synhe- 
drion, 2, 567. 



Z7^ 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jose (continued), permits bread 
baking on the Sabbath for 
the Roman army, 2, 568. 
on the second day of the fes- 
tivals, 2, 573. 

Jose of Phaeno, servant of Ju- 
dah I, 2, 4G6. 

Jose bar Jose Hayathom, the 
first poetan, poems of, 3, 
114-15. 
artificiality of the works of, 

3, 115. 

founder of neo-Hebraic poetry, 

4, 67. 

Jose' ben Chalafta, disciple of 
Akiba, 2, 433. 
on Meir, 2, 437. 
artisan, 2, 442. 
historian, 2, 442. 
on Meir and Nathan, 2, 44C. 
on the Romans, 2, 448. 
banished to Laodicea, 2, 448. 
son of, in Rome, 2, 449. 
Jose, son of Joezer, opponent of 
the Hellenists, 1, 43G. 
probable end of, 1, 483. 
Jose, son of Johanan, opponent 

of the Hellenists, 1, 436. 
Jose Barnabas of Cj-prus, pros- 
elytizes among the heathen, 
2, 219. 
disciple of the apostle Paul, 2, 

227. 
observes the dietary laws, 2, 
231. 
Jose. Sec also under Joseph. 
Joseph I, emperor, refuses to 
remove the ban from "' Ju- 
daism Unmasked," 5, 193. 
Joseph n, emperor, improves 
the condition of the Jews, 5, 
357-8. 
forbids the circulation of an 

anti-Jewish work, &, 359. 
hymn to, by Wessely, 5, 
368. 



Joseph II (continued), reforms 
of, opposed by the pious, 5, 
369. 

reforms of, welcomed by the 
cultured, 5, 370. 

reforms of, resisted in Galicia, 
5, 394. 

abolishes the poll-tax on Jews, 
5, 415, 464. 

the Jewish regulations of, dis- 
regarded by Francis I, 5, 
523. 
Joseph, Jewish king of the Cha- 
zars, addressed by Chasdai 
Ibn-Shaprut, 3, 220-1, 222. 

residence of, 3, 221. 

answers Chasdai Ibn-Shaprut, 
3, 221-2. 
Joseph, duke of Mantua, ban- 
ishes rabbis, 4, 295. 
Joseph, the tribes of, claim the 
central lands of Canaan, 1, 
35-6. 
Joseph, apostate under Constan- 
tine, persecutes the Pales- 
tinian Jews, 2, 564-5. 

made comes, 2, 565. 

builds churches in Galilee, 2, 
565. 

defames Hillel II, 2, 566. 

possible connection of, with 
Constantine's persecution of 
the Jews, 2, 567. 
Joseph, brother of Herod, guar- 
dian of Mariamne, 2, S3. 

besieged in Masada, 2, 87. 
Joseph, brother-in-law of Herod, 
ordered to murder Mariam- 
ne in case of his death, 2, 
93. 

calumniated by his wife, 2, 93. 

beheaded, 2, 94. 
Joseph, Karaite, permits lights 

on the Sabbath, 4, 269. 
Joseph, of the house of Camyth, 
high priest under Herod II, 
2, 198. 



INDEX. 



373 



Joseph of Arimathea, disciple of 

Jesus, 2, KiO. 
Joseph of Arli, Kabbalist, hopes 
in the Messiah as announced 
by Molcho, 4, 511-12. 
Joseph de Avila, discovers the 
Zohar to be a forgery, 4, 
20-1. 
Joseph of Ecija. Sec Joseph ben 
Ephraiin Ibn-Benveniste Ha- 
levi. 
Joseph of Gamala, Zealot leader, 
2, 289. 
death of, 2, 290. 
Joseph of Nazareth, father of 

Jesus, 2, 148. 
Joseph de Vesoul, apostate, 4, 

150. 
Joseph bar Abba (814), mystic, 
principal of the Pumbeditlia 
academj', 3, 154. 
Joseph ben Abraham Jikatilla, 
Kabbalist, 4, 3, G. 
writings of, 4, 10. 
^vorks of, used by Reuchlin, 4, 
4 or,. 
Joseph ben Chasdai, a Cordova 
poet, eulogizes Samuel Ibii- 
Nagrela, 3, 273. 
son of, 3, 274, 280. 
Joseph ben Chiya (270-333), re- 
fuses the Pumbeditlia prin- 
cipalship, 2, 577-8. 
superstition of, 2, 578. 
flees from Pumbeditlia, 2, 5S0. 
principal of the Pumbeditlia 

academy, 2, 581. 
characteristics of, 2, 581. 
method of, 2, 581. 
devotes himself to the Tar- 
gum, 2, 581-2. 
severity of, 2, 582. 
death of, 2, 583. 
Joseph ben Chiya (S28-S33), 
principal of the Pumbeditha 
academy, 3, 155. 
resigns, 3, 156. 



Joseph ben Chiya {coniimud), 

re-installed, 3, 15G. 
Joseph ben Ephraim Ibn-Ben- 
veniste Halevi, of Ecija, 
Ijroniinent at the court of 
Alfonso XI of Castile, 4, 7G, 
79. 

attack on, in Valladolid, 4, 
79. 

jealous of Samuel Ibn-Wakar, 
4, 80, 81. 

patron of Gonzalo Martinez, 4, 
83. 

end of, 4, 84. 
Joseph ben Gershom Loans 
(Joslin, Josselman of Ros- 
heim, 1480-1555), representa- 
tive of the German Jews, 4, 
414. 

warns Molcho and Reuben i 
against petitioning Charles 
V, 4, 510. 
Joseph ben Gorion, a moderate 

zealot, 2, 271. 
" Joseph ben Gorion." ^ee Jo- 

sippon. 
Joseph ben Isaac Ibn-Abitur 
(Ibn-Satanas or Santas), 
candidate for the Cordova 
rabbinate, 3, 229-30, 238. 

liturgical poetry of, 3, 236. 

translates the Mishna into 
Arabic, 3, 237. 

excommunicated, 3, 238. 

appeals to Alhakem, 3, 238. 

refuses the Cordova rabbinate, 
3, 240. 
Joseph ben Isaac Kimchi (1150- 
1170), introduces Sjjanish cul- 
ture into southern France, 

3, 392. 

polemical work bjs against 
Christianity, 3, 392-3. 
Joseph ben Israel, father of 
Manasseh, Marrano, emi- 
grates to the Netherlands, 

4, 671. 



374 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Joseph ben Jacob Ibn-Sahal 
(1070-1124), rabbi of Cordo- 
va, poetry of, 3, 314. 
Joseph, ben Joshua Cohen (14'J6- 
1575), historian and physi- 
cian, dazzled bj- Molcho, 4, 
511. 

expelled from Genoa, 4, 544, 
555. 

historical works by, 4, 555-6, 
560, 590, 608. 

style of, 4, 556, 557. 
Joseph ben Kisma, member of 
the Jamnia Synhedrion, 2, 
357. 

counsels subservience to Ha- 
drian's decrees, 2, 426-7. 
Joseph ben Matthias (Flavius 
Josephus, 38-95), historian, 
descendant of Jonathan Ha- 
phus, 1, 502. 

does not mention Jesus in his 
vrorks, 2, 166. 

a moderate Zealot, 2, 271. 

governor of Galilee, 2, 272, 
275-6. 

education of, 2, 276. 

at Rome in his youth, 2, 276-7. 

secretly a Roman partisan, 2, 
277-8. 

relation of, to Agrippa II, 2, 
278. 

administration of, 2, 278-9. 

opposed by Jesus ben Sapphia, 
2, 279. 

relation of, to John of Gis- 
chala, 2, 279-81. 

duplicity of, 2, 280-1. 

deposed by the Synhedrion, 2, 
281. 

deceives the envoys of the 
Synhedrion, 2, 282. 

wins credulous Galileans to 
his side, 2, 282-3. 

re-instated, 2, 283. 

breaks the strength of Galilee, 
2, 283-4. 



Joseph ben Matthias {co)itinued), 
defeated by Vespasian, 2, 
285. 

appeals to the Synhedrion for 
aid, 2, 286. 

at Jotapata, 2, 287-8. 

gives himself up to the Ro- 
mans, 2, 288. 

execrated by the Judaeans, 2, 
293, 389, 391. 

made commander of Titus' 
body-guard, 2, 302. 

tries to persuade Jerusalem 
to surrender, 2, 304. 

witness of Titus' triumph in 
Rome, 2, 314. 

rewarded by Vespasian and 
Titus, 2, 317. 

given the name Flavius Jose- 
phus, 2, 317. 

as an historian, 2, 319. 

on Jewish customs observed 
by pagans, 2, 384. 

considers circumcision op- 
tional with proseh'tes, 2, 385. 

favorite of Domitian, 2, 389. 

and Flavius Clemens, 2, 389, 
391. 

completes his Jewish history, 
2, 389-90. 

vindicates himself against the 
attacks of Justus of Tibe- 
rias. 2, 390. 

vindicates his race against 
.\pion, 2, 390. 

prosecuted bj'' Domitian, 2, 
391. 

death of, 2, 301. 

immoitalizes the war of the 
Zealots, 2, 415. 

works of, read at the court of 
Louis the Pious. 3, 162. 

history- of, the basis of Josip- 
pon, 3, 180. 

the work of, against Apion, 
translated, 4, 608. 



INDEX. 



375 



Joseph ben Matthias (contimtcd), 
the works of, connected with 
the Talmud by Azarya dei 
Rossi, 4, 014. 

a work of, translated by Arias, 
5, 113. 

the history of, continued by 
Basnag^e, 5, 195. 

the works of, studied by Fran- 
kel, 5, 684. 
Joseph ben Me'ir Ibn-Migash 
Halevi (1077-1144), Talmud- 
ist, eulogized bj^ Jehuda Ha- 
levi, 3, :U,'), 322, 323. 

successor to Alfassi, 3, 315-lG, 
323. 

respect for, 3, 316. 

condemns a traitor to be 
stoned, 3, 317. 

son and disciples of, 3, 317, 
447. 
Joseph ben Pilat, Talmudist in 

Damascus, 3, 426. 
Joseph ben Sahara, satirist and 

physician, 3, 559. 
Joseph ben Satia, Gaon of Sora, 

3, 190. 

successor to Saadiah, 3, 202. 

abandons the academy of So- 
ra, 3, 202. 
Joseph ben Shem Tob Ibn-Shem 
Tob (1400-14G0), philosopher 
and preacher, dignitary at 
the Castilian court, 4, 228-9. 

polemic works of, 4, 235. 

opposed to his father's views, 

4, 243. 
religio-philosophical sj^stem of, 

4, 244. 
Joseph ben Solomon Ibn- 
Shoshan (1135-1204-5), fav- 
orite of Alfonso VIII of Cas- 
tile, 3, 384. 

erects a synagogue in Toledo, 
3, 384. 

encourages the study of the 
Talmud, 3, 384, 385-6. 



Joseph ben Solomon Ibn-Sho- 
shan (continued), poem on, 
3, 388. 
Joseph ben Solomon Kolon 
(1460-1490), rabbi of Man- 
tua, wanderings of, 4, 294. 

authority of, 4, 294-5. 

controversies of, 4, 295. 

rabbi of Pavia, 4, 295. 
Joseph ben Todros Abulafia, 

Kabbalist, 4, 2. 
Joseph Ibn-Aknin, disciple of 
Maimonides, attacked by 
Mar-Sacharya, 3, 477. 

"The Guide of the Per- 
plexed " addressed to, 3, 
478. 

cautioned by Maimonides 
against letting his book fall 
into the hands of the Ma- 
hometans, 3, 486. 

finds Maimonides' system in- 
consistent with Judaism, 3, 
487. 

urges the excommunication of 
Daniel ben Saadiah, 3, 526. 
Joseph Ibn-Alfual, translator 
of Maimonides' Mishna com- 
mentary, 4, 60. 
Joseph Ibn-Jau, supports Jo- 
seph Ibn-Abitur, 3, 238, 239. 
Joseph Ibn-Migash, supports 
Balkin, 3, 258. 

leaves Granada, 3, 258. 

occupies a high office in Se- 
ville, 3, 280. 
Joseph Ibn-Nagrela (1031-1066), 
eulogized by Joseph ben 
Chasdai, 3, 273. 

vizir and Nagid, 3, 274, 275. 

secretary to Balkin, 3, 274. 

wife of, 3, 274. 

protects the sons of the last 
Gaon. 3, 275. 

as Talmudist, 3, 275. 

accused of poisoning Balkin, 
3, 275. 



376 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Joseph Ibn-Nagrela {cmitinned) , 
opposes the massacre of the 
Granada Arabs, 3, 276-7. 

loses the favor of Badis, 3, 277. 

accused of treason, 3, 278. 

killed, 3, 27S. 

wife and son of, flee to Lu- 
cena, 3, 279. 

library of, 3, 279. 

eleg-y on, 3, 279. 

patron of Isaac Ibn-Albalia, 3, 
283. 

patron of Isaac Ibn-Giat,3,284. 
Joseph Ibn-Verga, historian, 4, 
555. 

ancestors of, 4, 55G. 

historical work of, 4, 557. 

style of, 4, 557. 

arraignment of the Jews by, 
4, 557. 
Joseph Ibn-Yachya, at the dis- 
putation of Tortosa, 4, 208. 
Joseph Ibn-Yachya, pleads with 
the Portug-uese Jews for the 
Spanish exiles, 4, 366. 
Joseph, son of Tobiah, leader of 
the Juda_^ans, 1, 423-4. 

flatters the Egyptian ambassa- 
dor, 1, 424. 

at the court of Ptolemy III, 1, 
424-5. 

tax-gatherer of Coelesyria and 
Phoenicia, 1, 425. 

favorite of Ptolemy IV, 1, 
425-0. 

wealth of, enriches Jud?ea, 1, 
42G-7. 

introduces Dionysian festivals 
into Judaja, 1, 428. 

son of, his representative, 1, 
429-30. 

death of, 1, 431. 

descendants of, called To- 
biades, 1, 432. 
Joseph, son of Zachariah, gen- 
eral of Judas Maccabseus, 1, 
476. 



Joseph Albo (1380-1444), at the 
disputation of Tortosa, 4, 
208, 233, 

holds the Agada to be authori- 
tative, 4, 214. 

refuses to accept baptism, 4, 
215. 

writes an account of a reli- 
gious controversy, 4, 234. 

jihj'sician and philosopher, 4, 
239. 

on freedom of inquiry, 4, 
240. 

on the articles of the creed, 4, 
240. 

style of, 4, 240. 

religio-philosophical sj'stem of, 
4, 240-3. 

on salvation of the soul, 4, 
240, 243, 
Joseph Al-Kabri persecutes the 

Karaites in Spain, 3, 362. 
Joseph Amarkala Halevi, prince 
of the Jews about Nishabur, 
3, 433. 
Joseph Barihan Alfalach, rep- 
resentative of the INIosul con- 
gregation, and David Alrui, 
3, 433. 
Joseph Caiaphas, high priest, 
president of the tribunal 
that tried Jesus, 2, 163, 164. 

removed from office, 2, 172. 
Joseph Ezobi ben Chanan (1230- 
1250), poet, works of, trans- 
lated, 3, 501. 

advice of, to his son, 3, 501. 
Joseph Hamon. Sec Ilamon, Jo- 
seph. 
Joseph Jaabez, attributes the 
suffering of the Jews to 
their heresy, 4, 343, 479. 
Joseph Kara, Bible exegete, 3, 
345-6. 

writes commentaries on the 
Prophets and the Hagio- 
grapha, 3, 346. 



INDEX. 



377 



Joseph. Karo (1488-1575), in- 
fected with Messianic entliu- 

siasm by Molclio, 4, 49G-7, 

537. 
longing of, for mart^yrdoni, 4, 

511. 
ordained by Jacob Berab, 4, 

53G, 538, 
learning and wandei'ings of, 4, 

537. 
elaborates Jacob Asheri's 

code, 4, 537, 539. 
visions of, 4, 537-8. 
among the Kabbalists, 4, 538. 
Messianic dreams of, 4, 538-9. 
code by, intended to bring 

about religious unity, 4, 

539, 612. 
chief rabbi of Safet, 4, 540. 
appealed to on the question of 

trade with Ancona, 4, 580. 
excommunicates Daud, 4, 599. 
publishes the " Shulchan 

Aruch," 4, 612. 
Spanish tendencies of the code 

of, 4, 613. 
orders Azarya dei Kossi's 

works to be burned, 4, 616. 
code of, commented upon by 

Moses Isserles, 4, 637. 
the highest Jewish authority 

in the seventeenth century, 

5, 51. 
See also Shulchan Aruch, the. 
Joseph Kaspi, philosopher, 4, 

87, 91. 
Joseph Orabuena, physician, 

chief rabbi of Navarre, 4, 

184-5. 
Joseph Pichon, receiver general 

of taxes under Henry II of 

Castile, 4, 138. 
denounced by Jewish cour- 
tiers, 4, 156. 
condemned as a traitor, 4, 

156. 
beheaded by the Jews, 4, 156. 



Joseph Pichon {continued), the 
execution of, arouses excite- 
luent against the Jews, 4, 
157-8, 167. 
Joseph Rabban, leader of the 
Jews in India, 2, 629-:;o. 
special rights conferred on, 2, 
630. 
Joseph Saragossi, Kabbalist, 
disciple of, 4, 393. 
reforms life in Safet, 4, 399. 
introduces the Kabbala into 
Safet, 4, 399. 
Joseph Tob-EIem, writes a com- 
mentary on Abraham Ibn- 
Ezra's Pentateuch commen- 
tary, 4, 144. 
Joseph Zapateiro de Lamego, 
traveler, employed by Joao 
II of Portugal, 4, 368. 
Joseph Zevi, brother of Sabba- 

tai Zevi, 5, 145. 
Josephus, Flavius. See Joseph 

ben ]\ratthias. 
Josephus, pseudo-. See Josippon. 
Joshua, father of Narboni, 4, 94. 
Joshua, leader of the Israelites, 
1, 31, 32-3. 
victory of, at Gibeon, 1, 34-5. 
contest of, with the tribes of 

Joseph, 1, 36. 
defeats Jabin, 1, 37. 
dwells among the Ephraim- 

ites, 1, 41. 
declining years of, 1, 50. 
death of, 1, 52. 

Israelites under, settle in Ara- 
bia, 3, 54. 
Joshua, of the family of Phabi, 

made high priest, 2, 107. 
Joshua, of the family of Sic, 

made high priest, 2, 127. 
Joshua dei Cantori, defames the 

Talmud, 4, 5S3. 
Joshua ben Chananya, teacher 
of the Law, disciple of Joch- 
anan ben Zakkai, 2, 324, 326. 



378 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Joshua ben Chananya {con- 
tinued), contemporary of Ga- 
maliel II, 2, 335. 

opposes decisions by the Bath- 
Kol, 2, 337. 

dispute of, with Gamaliel II, 
2, 340-2. 

on the admission of prose- 
lytes, 2, 343, 384. 

reconciled with Gamaliel II, 
2, 344-5. 

artisan, 2, 344, 348, 442, 

character of, 2, 348. 

popularity and homeliness of, 
2, 349. 

astronomical knowledg-e of, 2, 
349. 

condemns Shammai's rules, 2, 
349-50. 

conciliatory intercourse of, 
with the Roman rulers, 2, 
350. 

removes the ban from Eliezer 
ben Hyrcanus, 2, 350. 

obtains lucrative jDOsts for 
poor scholars, 2, 345, 357. 

nephew of, 2, 370, 443. 

and Akylas, 2, 385, 

journey of, to Rome, 2, 387. 

and Flavius Clemens, 2, 387, 
389, 391. 

influence of, on Nerva, 2, 392. 

advises against the rebellion 
af^ainst Hadrian, 2, 403-4. 

leader of the people under Ha- 
drian, 2, 404. 

mourns for Gamaliel II, 2, 404. 

president of the Synhedrion, 
2, 404, 

and Hadrian, 2, 406-7. 

tries to induce Hadrian not to 
rebuild .Terusalem. 2, 407-8. 

death of, 2, 408. 

disciples of, di.scard the Jewish 
garb, 2, 424. 

praises the Halachic knowl- 
edge of P.rnria. '^ 436. 



Joshua ben Damnai, high priest, 

2, 249. 
Joshua ben Gamala, high priest, 
obtains his office through 
bribery, 2, 249. 

improves the educational sys- 
tem of Juda?a, 2, 249. 

procures the governorship of 
Galilee for Josephus, 2, 
277-8. 

suspected of Roman proclivi- 
ties, 2, 294. 

executed by the Zealots, 2, 296. 
Joshua ben Joseph Ibn-Vives 
Allorqui (Geronimo de San- 
ta Fe), epistle of, attacking 
Christian dogmas, 4, 186-7. 

physician to Benedict XIII, 4, 
200. 

instrument for the conversion 
of the Jews of Spain, 4, 206, 
231-2. 

champion of Christianity at 
the disputation of Tortosa, 
4, 207. 

proves the Messiahship of Je- 
sus from the Talmud, 4, 208- 
9, 211, 212. 

accuses the Talmud of blas- 
phemy, 4, 213-14. 

end of, unknown, 4, 217. 

charges of, refuted, 4, 232, 238, 

leaves the Marranos uncon- 
vinced, 4, 256. 
Joshua ben Karcha, denounses 

Eleazar ben Simon, 2, 465. 
Joshua ben Levi, teacher of the 
Law, collects the Patriarch's 
tax in Rome, 2, 486, 498. 

accompanies Chanina bar Cha- 
ma to Caesarea, 2, 491. 

prays for rain, 2, 492. 

reputation of, 2, 497, 

restores order in southern Ju- 
daea, 2, 49S. 

legends about, 2, 498, 

and Ulla bar Ko<-hor. 2. 530. 



INDEX. 



379 



Joshua, son of Jehozedek, high 
priest, leader of the exiles 
returning- under Cyrus, 1, 
352. 

erects an altar on the site of 
the Temple, 1, iioG. 

urges the completion of the 
second Temple, 1, 359. 

sole leader of the Judsean 
community, 1, 2C>0. 
Joshua, son of Joiada, slain by 

his brother, 1, 109. 
Joshua, son of Perachia, Phari- 
see leader, maxim of, 2, 20. 
Joshua Falk Cohen. See Cohen, 

Josliua Falk. 
Joshua Lorqui. See Joshua ben 

Joseph Ibn-Vives AUorqui. 
Joshua Sirach. Sec Jesus Sirach. 
Josiah, .son of Amon (638-608), 
king- of Judah, minority of, 
1, 286. 

averts the capture of Jerusa- 
lem by the Scythians, 1, 
288. 

fears to suppress idolatry, 1, 
2SS. 

repairs the Temple, 1, 2SS-9. 

under the influence of Jere- 
miah, 1, 289. 

receives the Book of the Law 
found in the Temple, 1, 292, 
293. 

has the Book of the Law read 
to the people, 1, 294. 

uproots idolatry, 1, 294-5. 

desecrates the idolatrous altar 
at Bethel, 1, 295. 

summons the nation to cele- 
brate Passover at Jerusalem, 
1, 295, 

social conditions under, 1, 296. 

mortally wounded at ISIegiddo, 
1, 297. 

sons of, 1, 298. 
Josiah, teacher of the Law, in 
the south of Judaea, 2, 442. 



Josiah Hassan, api)ointed Exil- 
arch by Saadiah, 3, 195, 196. 
banished to Khorasan, 3, 190. 
Josippon (" Joseph ben Gorion," 
pseudo-Josephus), history of 
the Jews between the des- 
truction of the first and the 
second Teinple, 3, 179-80. 
Joslin of Rosheim. See Joseph 

ben Gershoni Loans. 
Josselman Rosheim. See Joseph 

ben Gershom Loans. 
Jost, Isaac Marcus (1793-1860), 
historian, basis of the his- 
tory by, 5, 594-5. 
service rendered by, 5, 595. 
objections to the work of, 5, 

595-6. 
limitations of, 5, G09, 610. 
comi^ared with Rapoport, 5, 
619. 
Jotapata, resistance of, to Ves- 
pasian, 2, 285-6, 286-7. 
fall of, 2, 287. 
Jotham, son of Uzziah, regent 
of Judah, 1, 246. 
king, allj^ of Pekah and Eezin, 

1, 248. 
state of the kingdom under, 1, 

248-50. 
death of, 1, 257. 
Jotham, brother ot Abimelech, 

parable of, 1, 63. 
Jourdan, French general, frees 
the Jews from the Frank- 
fort Ghetto, 5, 503-4. 
Journals, Jewish, list of: 

Ha-Meassof, 5, 399-400. 

.Journal for the Science of .Turlaism, 

5, 585. 
Kerem Choraed, 5. 621, 625. 
Orient, The. 5.693. 
Scientific .Tournal, The, 5. 625. 
Zion, 5, 693. 

Jovianus, emperor, concludes 
peace with Shabur II, 2, 602. 
religious toleration under, 2, 
602. 



38o 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jozachar, a noble of Jiidah, 

kills Joash, 1, 221. 
Juan I, of Aragon, Jews under, 

4, 145, 170. 
Chasdai Crescas at the court 

of, 4, 146, 
Juan II, of Aragon, the Jews 

under, 4, 274, 275. 
Juan I, of Castile, coronation 

of, 4, 156. 
punishes Pernan Martin, 4, 

157. 
deprives the Jews of criminal 

jurisdiction, 4, 157. 
confirms anti-Jewish restric- 
tions, 4, 158. 
possible heir to Portugal, 4, 

158. 
regent of Portugal, 4, KJO-l. 
makes David Negro chief rabbi 

of Castile, 4, 161. 
gives up Portugal, 4, 1C2. 
death of, 4, 167. 
Juan II, of Castile, Jews under, 

during his minoritj', 4, 193- 

4. 
anti-Jewish edict issued in the 

name of, 4, 203-4. 
issues a second edict concern- 
ing the Jews, 4, 205-6. 
admits Jews to state affairs, 

4, 228-9. 
confirms the law of Avila, 4, 

OOf) 

refuses consent to anti-Jewish 

bulls, 4, 251. 
protects the Jews, 4, 251-2. 
weakness of, 4, 252-3. 
complains of the backsliding 

Marranos, 4, 256. 
Juan de Abadia, Marrano, tries 

to suppress the Inquisition, 

4, 329. 
hires an assassin to kill Pedro 

Arbues, 4, 329-30. 
suicide of, 4, 331. 



Juan de Espana (the Old), apos- 
tate, Christian propagand- 
ist, 4, 233. 

Juan de Lucena, minister to 
Aragon, urges the expulsion 
of the Jews, 4, 348-9. 
brother of, persecuted by the 
Marranos, 4, 355. 

Juan de Sevilla. Sec Samuel 
Abrabanel. 

Juan de Seville, intercedes for 
the Marranos, 4, 322-3. 
circulates Sixtus IV's bull 
against the Inquisition, 4, 
323. 

Juan Alfonso, governor of Se- 
ville, threatened by a mob, 
4, 168. 

Juan Alfonso de Albuquerque, 
minister to Pedro the Cruel, 
recommends a Jew as min- 
ister of finance, 4, 115-16. 
falls into disgrace, 4, 117. 

Juan Arias, bishop of Avila, de- 
livers up the Jews of Seiiul- 
veda to butchery, 4, 279. 

Juan Emanuel, regent for Al- 
fonso XI of Castile, the 
Jews under, 4, 52-3. 

Juba, king of Numidia, marries 
Glaphyra, 2, 128. 

Jubilee, the year of, ceases to 
exist as a year of release, 1, 
393. 

Judaea, under Gedaliah, 1, 319- 
23. 
depopulated by Nebuchadnez- 
zar, 1, 325. 
becomes a Persian deiien- 

dency, 1, 351. 
part of Coelesyria under Mace- 
donian rule, 1, 414. 
conquered bj^ Ptolemy I, 1, 416. 
falls to Ptolemy I after the 

battle of Ipsus, 1, 418. 
revolts from Ptolemy II, 1, 
423. 



INDEX. 



381 



Judsea (continued), Dionysian 

festivals introduced into, 1, 

428. 
at peace under Joseph, son of 

Tobiah, 1, 430. 
under Seleucidsean kings, 1, 

432. 
ravaged by the Syrians, 1, 

433. 
invaded by Gorgias, 1, 467. 
invaded by Lysias, 1, 469. 
reduced by Bacchides, 1, 491. 
the army of, under Jonathan 

Haphus, 1, 498. 
after the death of Jonathan 

Haphus, 1, 501-2, 519-20.. 
independent under Simon 

Tharsi, 1, 520. 
independence of, acknowl- 

edged by Demetrius II, 1, 

521. 
the Judseans in Egypt ap- 

pri.sed of the independence 

of, 1, 522-3, 
allied with Eome, 1, 526. 
a monarchy under Simon 

Tharsi, 1, 526. 
under John Hyrcanus, 2, 1, 

11-12. 
extent of, under Alexander 

JannfBus, 2, 46. 
prosperity of, under Salome 

Alexandra, 2, 48. 
one of the conquered prov- 
inces of Rome, 2, 67. 
divided into five provinces, 2, 

71. 
burdens of, lessened by Caesar, 

2, 76. 
forced to pay a money contri- 
bution to Cassius Longinus, 

2, 80. 
free from foreign soldiery un- 
der Antigonus, 2, 83. 
pays a tax to Rome, 2, 87. 
mvaded by Sosius, 2, 88. 
extent of, under Herod, 2, 103. 



Judsea (continued), extent of, 
under the Herodians, 2, 118. 

towns of, adorned with Greek 
art, 2, 118. 

given to Archelaus by Herod's 
will, 2, 119. 

made an ethnarchy by Augus- 
tus, 2, 127. 

wholly subject to Rome, 2, 
128. 

ruled by procurators, 2, 137. 

compared with Galilee, 2, 148. 

given to Agrippa I by Claud- 
ius, 2, 190. 

the kingdom of, at its great- 
ect extent, 2, 190. 

prosperity of, iinder Agrijjpa 
I, 2, 191. 

a Roman province on Agrippa 
I's death, 2, 197. 

the governor of, independent 
of the governor of Syria, 2, 
197. 

Roman dominion oppressive 
in, 2, 233. 

aristocracy of, immoral, 2, 
234. 

severity of the Roman gover- 
nors of, 2, 241. 

under Cumanus, 2, 242. 

under Felix, 2, 245-7. 

turbulent state of, under Ges- 
sius Florus, 2, 250-1. 

aroused against Rome, 2, 262. 

aided against Rome by foreign 
Juda?ans, 2, 264. 

the property of Vespasian, 2, 
312. 

triumph over, celebrated at 
Rome, 2, 314-15. 

fortresses of, in arms, 2, 315. 

after the destruction of Jeru- 
salem by Titus, 2, 321. 

under Roman governors, 2, 
333. 

in rebellion against Trajan, 2, 
394-5. 



382 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Judaea {cuntiiuml), in rebellion 
against Hadrian, 2, 399-400, 
403, 408. 

visit of Hadrian to, 2, 406. 

desolate condition of, under 
Hadrian, 2, 431. 

revolution in, under Antoni- 
nus Pius, 2, 447. 

sanctity of, 2, 458. 

Hebrew spoken in, 2, 4G1-2. 

Marcus Aurelins in, 2, 463. 

under Commodus, 2, 463. 

falls into the background, 2, 
503, 531. 

compared with Babylonia, 2, 
505. 

educational institutions of, 
investigated hx Judah III, 
2, 532. 

youths of, go to Babylonia for 
study, 2, 537. 

Babylonia indejiendent of, 2, 
548. 

burials in, 2, 54S. 

scene of the coming of the 
Messiah, 2, 548-9. 

decline of, 2, 557, 560. 

teachers of the Law banished 
from, 2, 566-7. 

dialectics unknown in, 2, 591. 

the head of the Jewish com- 
munities in the Roman em- 
pire, 2, 611. 

last Halachic authorities of, 
2, 612. 

Biblical studies in, under The- 
odosius II, 2, 623-5. 

See also Canaan; Israel, thc 
kingdom of; Judah; Pales- 
tine. 
Judaea, the Homan governors 
of, list of: 

Bassus, Hufus, Tinnius 

Quietus, Lucius Silva. 

See also Procurators, the, of 
Judaea; Syria, the Roman 
governors of. 



JudEean Christians, the, the 
early Christians, 2, 168. 

customs of, 2, 168. 

displeaseu with Paul, 2, 230, 
231 

declare the Law binding, 2, 
231. 

differences between, and pa- 
gart Christians, 2, 232. 

See also Ebionites, the; Jew- 
ish Christians, the; Naza- 
renes, the. 
Judaeans, the, deported to Bab- 
ylonia, 1, 307. 

banished, urge war against 
Xebuchadnezzar, 1, 309. 

flee to Egypt, 1, 317, 318. 

fugitive, molested after the 
fall of Jerusalem, 1, 318. 

remain in Judah, 1, 318-19, 321. 

return to Jerusalem from the 
countries about, 1, 356. 

moral degeneracy of, under 
Zerubbabel, 1, 358. 

accused of disloyalty to Per- 
sia, 1, 361. 

intermarry with the Samari- 
tans, 1, 361-3. 

neglect the Law, 1, 366. 

receive Ezra with respect, 1, 
367. 

repudiate their heathen wives. 
1, 368-9. 

in part opposed to Ezra's se- 
verity, 1, 370. 

appeal to Nehemiah for aid, 
1, 372. 

intrigue with Tobiah against 
Nehemiah, 1, 376. 

swear not to enslave the poor, 
1, 377. 

listen to Ezra's reading of the 
Law, 1, 378-80. 

repudiate their heathen wives, 
1, 380. 

swear to observe the Law, 1, 
380-1. 



INDEX. 



383 



Judseans, the {cu)itinufd), conse- 
crate the walls of Jerusa- 
lem, 1, 381-2. 

(lisi'egard Nehemiah's injunc- 
tions, 1, 383-4. 

dissensions amon<^, 1, 384. 

reforms among, introduced by 
Xehemiah on his second 
visit, 1, 385-8. 

hostility of, to the Samari- 
tans, 1, 392. 

influence of the Samaritan 
sect on, 1, 392-3. 

cultivate the Law, 1, 393-7. 

cruelly treated under Arta- 
xerxes II and III, 1, 408-9. 

taxed by Bagoas, 1, 409-10. 

hostility of the Samaritans to, 
1, 410. 

legends about, and Alexander 
the Great, 1, 412-13. 

taxed by the Macedonians, 1, 
413. 

favored by Alexander the 
Great, 1, 414-15. 

refuse to help in rebuilding 
the temple to Bel, 1, 415. 

taken captive by Ptolemy I, 
1, 416. 

pay tribute to the Egypto- 
Macedonian court, 1, 418. 

settle in Alexandria, 1, 418. 

settle in Antioch, 1, 419. 

colonies of, in the Grseco- 
Macedonian countries, 1, 
418-19. 

dispersed in the lands of the 
Ptolemies and Seleucidae, 1, 
420-1. 

choose Joseph as their leader, 
1, 424. 

under Greek influence, 1, 420, 
427-9. 

well treated by Antiochus III. 
1, 433. 

hated by surrounding nations, 
1, 434-5. 



Judseans, the {coiitiuuvd), split 

up into Hellenists and Chas- 

sidim, 1, 435-6. 
trained in Greek athletics, 1, 

445-6. 
at the Olympian games at 

Tyre, 1, 446. 
dissatistied with Menelaus as 

high priest, 1, 447. 
kill Lysimachus, 1, 449. 
accused of partisanship for 

Egypt, 1, 449. 
national party of, favored at 

the Egyptian court, 1, 451. 
cruelly treated by Antiochua 

Epiphanes, 1, 453. 
commanded to sacrifice to tht; 

Greek gods, 1, 454-5. 
persecuted by the overseers 

of Antiochus IV, 1, 456-7. 
extermination of, planned by 

Antiochus IV, 1, 463-4. 
defended by Ptolemy Macron, 

1, 476-7, 478, 
granted religious freedom by 

Antiochus V, 1, 480, 488. 
split up into parties, 1, 489. 
alliance with, sought by De- 
metrius I, 1, 495. 
exempted froiu taxation, 1,497. 
destroy a portion of Antioch, 

1, 497. 
defeat Diodotus Tryphon, 1, 

499. 
regret the existence of the 

Temple of Onias, 1, 509. 
object to the Greek transla- 
tion of the Law, 1, 512. 
count from the date of Simon 

Tharsi's accession, 1, 522. 
in the army of Antiochus Si. 

detes celebrate the Sabbath 

and the holidays, 2, 5. 
permitted to ship goods duty 

free from their ports, 2, 9. 
development of, under John 

Hyrcanus, 2, 13-15. 



384 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Judeeans, the {C())i tinned), Greek 
art among, 2, 14. 

cultivate the Hebrew lan- 
guage, 2, 14-15. 

literature of, under the Has- 
monaeans, 2, 15-16. 

religion of, divided into sects, 
2, lG-31. 

make the half-Shekel collec- 
tions in spring, 2, 52. 

flee to Egypt during the siege 
of Jerusalem by Aretas, 2, 
CO. 

with republican views appeal 
to Pompey, 2, 63-4. 

oppose Ceesar, 2, 77. 

present their grievances to 
Archelaus, 2, 120-1. 

appeal to Augustus to make 
Judaja a Roman province, 2, 
126-7. 

petition for the removal of ob- 
noxious emblems from the 
Roman standard, 2, l')9. 

influenced by John the Bap- 
tist, 2, 14G-7. 

morality of the middle class 
of, 2, 151. 

com]ilain of Pontius Pilate's 
cruelty, 2, 172, 

leniently treated under Tibe- 
rius, 2, 172-3. 

object to the images of the 
emperors on the Roman 
standards, 2, 173. 

dispersed in the Roman and 
Parthian empires, 2, 200-3. 

of the dispersion visit the 
Temple, 2, 201. 

as regarded by the heathen, 2, 
203. 

view held by, of paganism, 2, 
204. 

manifest proselytizing tenden- 
cies, 2, 215-19. 

in Greek cities proselytized by 
Nazarenes, 2, 222. 



Judasans, the {contmued), dis- 
pleased with the apostle 
Paul, 2, 229, 230. 

hindered by Rome, in the free 
exercise of religion, 2, 234. 

immorality of, under the Ro- 
man dominion, 2, 237-S. 

resent the presence of a Ro- 
man cohort in the Temple, 
2, 242. 

hated by the Greek and Ro- 
man inhabitants of Judaea, 
2, 246-7. 

deprived by Nero of civil 
rights in Ctesarea, 2, 247. 

well treated by Nero and 
Poppea Sabina, 2, 248. 

number of, in Jerusalem at 
Passover 66, 2, 251. 

quarrel with the heathen in 
Csesarea, 2, 252-3. 

parties among, 2, 256. 

aroused by the treatment of 
the Ca^sareans, 2, 262. 

loyaltjr of, defended before 
Nero, 2, 268. 

joined by the Samaritans 
against Rome, 2, 268. 

massacre of, bj^ the heathen 
2, 269. 

forbidden to buy articles of 
food from the heathen. 2.270, 

after the destruction of Jeru- 
salem, 2, 311-12, 321-2. 

friendly to Rome, rewarded by 
Vespasian, 2, 316-17. 

See also Israelites, the; Jews, 
the; Judffians, the, of various 
cHies and countries. 
Judaeo-Alexandrian school, the, 
of Allegorists, 2, 208-9, 329. 

combat paganism, 2, 214-15. 
Judaso-Greek literature, among 
the Juda-ans in Egypt, 1, 
515-16; 2, 204-8. 
Judaeo-Greek writers, spread 
Judaean doctrines. 2, 204-8. 



INDEX. 



385 



Judali, the house of, renounces 

allegiance to David, 1, 140. 
Judah, the kingdom of, first 

indications of, 1, 109. 
dislike of, to Israel, under 

Solomon, 1, 174. 
founded, 1, ISIi. 
religious conditions in, under 

Rehoboam, 1, 1S8-9. 
subjects of, sold as slaves un- 
der Uzziah, 1, 227. 
weakness of, at the beginning 

of Uzziah's reign, 1, 237. 
licentiousness of the princes 

of, under Jotham, 1, 249-50. 
Assyrian idols introduced into,, 

1, 260-1. 
degradation of the nobles of, 

under Ahaz, 1, 261. 
freed from idolatry by Heze- 

kiah, 1, 268. 
fortified towns of, taken by 

Sennacherib, 1, 272. 
golden age of, under Hezekiah, 

1, 279. 
idolatry in, under Manasseh, 

1, 282-3. 
ravaged by the Scythians, 1, 

287. 
end of, 1, 305. 
taken by Nebuchadnezzar's 

army, 1, 307. 
importance of, 1, 308. 
power of the nobles of, 1, 

308-9. 
Judah, the kings of, list of: 

Abijiun, Jehoiakim (Elia- 
Ahaziah, kim), 

A.maziah, Jehoshaphat, 

Amon, Joash, 

Asa, Jorara (Jehoram), 

Jehoahaz (Shal- Josiah, 

lum), Manasseh, 

Jeholachin (Jeco- Itehoboam, 

niah), TJzziah, 
Zedokiah (Mattanlah). 

Judah, the tribe of, successful 
warriors in the desert, 1, 26. 



Judah, the tribe of {continued), 
war of, for territory, 1, 38. 

description of the land of, 1, 
45. 

isolation of, 1, 51, 76-7, 109. 

delivered by Othniel, 1, 60. 

attacked by the Ammonites 
and Philistines, 1, 64. 

enters national life, 1, 77. 

virtues of, 1, 77. 

chooses David as king, 1, 107. 

hesitates to recall David after 
Absaloin's revolt, 1, 146. 

sends an enabassy to meet Da- 
vid, 1, 146-7. 

(juarrels with the northern 
tribes, 1, 148. 

loyal to Rehoboam, 1, 182. 

members of, return under Ze- 

rubbabel, 1, 352. 

Judah, brother of Jesus, 2, 148. 

Judah, chief rabbi of Portugal 

and minister of finance, 3, 

618. 

Judah, coadjutor of Josephus in 

Galilee, 2, 278, 279. 
Judah, Essene seer, 2, 38. 
Judah, father of Solomon Ibn- 

Gebirol, 3, 2(55. 
Judah, favorite of Charles the 

Bald, 3, 170. 
Judah I (ha-Nassi, Rabbi), Pa- 
triarch, son of Simon III. 
closes the activity of the 
Tanaites, 2, 450. 

talents of, 2, 450-1. 

teachers of, 2, 4.51, 

made Patriarch, 2, 451. 

generosity of, 2, 451-2. 

invests the Patriarchate with 
autocratic power, 2, 452-4. 

lives at Sepphoris, 2, 452! 

called Rabbi, 2, 453. 

disciples of, 2, 454-7, 511. 

severity of, towards his disci- 
ples, 2, 454-6. 

punishes Chiya, 2, 455. 



386 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Judah I {(viitinued), refuses to 

authorize Simon bar Kap- 

para to teacli, 2, 456. 
cured by Samuel, 2, 456. 
offended by Judah and Chiski- 

ya, 2, 457. 
admits the testimony of a Sa- 
maritan, 2, 457. 
moderates tlie laws of tithes, 

2, 458-9. 
contemplates the abolition of 

the j-ear of release, 2, 459-60. 
completes the Mishna, 2, 460-1. 
revises his own code, 2, 461. 
prefers Hebrew, 2, 461. 
gives tradition a settled form, 

2, 462. 
the last of the Tanaites, 2, 

462. 
rebuked by the widow of 

Eleazar ben Simon, 2, 465. 
death of, 2, 465-7. 
appoints his sons to offices, 2, 

466. 
dj'ing' wishes of, 2, 466. 
announcement of the death of, 

2, 4G(3-7. 
funeral of, 2, 467. 
called " the Hol3%" 2, 467. 
maxims of, 2, 472. 
work of, completed b3' iVshi, 2, 

609. 
Judah II (Ilabbi, liabbenu, 228). 

Patriarch, son of Gamaliel 

III, 2, 479. 
censured for irreligiousness, 

2, 480. 
in favor with Alexander Seve- 

rus, 2, 480-3. 
royal authority of, 2, 481-2. 
Roman dress of, 2, 483. 
leniency of, 2, 483-5. 
permits the purchase of arti- 
cles of food from the 

heiithen, 2, 483-4. 
alleviations proposed by, 2, 

484-5. 



Judah II {continued), Sbitacks on, 
2, 485-6. 

covetousness of, 2, 4S6. 

draws a revenue from the Jew- 
ish communities, 2, 486-7. 

reverence for, 2, 487. 

death of, 2, 487. 

Jochanan bar Napacha the 
companion of, 2, 493. 

questions Levi bar Sissi on the 
neo-Persians, 2, 525. 
Judah III (280-300), Patriarch, 
has scant knowledge of the 
Law, 2, 532. 

determines the new-moon, 2, 
532. 

investigates the educational 
institutions of Judjea, 2, 
532. 

accused of disloj^alty, 2, 533-4. 

levies a tax for the Patriarch- 
ate, 2, 536. 

accused of Christian leanings, 
2, 565. 
Judah IV, Patriarch, son of Ga- 
maliel V, 2, 612. 
Judah, proselyte, informs 
against Simon ben Yochai, 

2, 448. 

Judah, treasurer of Ferdinand I 
of Portugal, 4, 159. 
removed from office, 4, 160. 
proposed as chief rabbi of 

Castile, 4, 161, 162. 
imprisoned, 4, 161. 
Judah (Laudadeus) de Blanis, 
physician and Kabbalist, 4, 
411. 
Judah the Blind (Jehudai, 759- 
762), Gaon of Sora, opposed 
to Anan ben David, 3, 129. 
author of Halachoth Ketuoth, 

3, 136. 

work of, supplemented, 3, 179. 
Avorlc of, superseded, 3, 286. 
Judah ben Baba, member of the 
Jamnia Synhedrion, 2, 357. 



INDEX. 



387 



Judah ben Baba {ruiitiiiucd), or- 
dains Akiba's disciples, 2, 
429; 4, 53(). 
•suiTers martyrdom, 2, 429. 
Judah ben Batliyra, teacher of 
the Law in Aisibis, 2, ,')58,44;^. 
effects the dissolution of the 
Synhedrion at Nahar-l'akod, 
2, 444. 
Judah ben Chiya, otlends Judah 
I ha-Nassi, 2, 457. 
adds supplements to the Mish- 

na, 2, 470. 
Babylonian disciple of Judah 

1. 2, 511. 

Judah ben Ezekiel, Babylonian 
Amora, founds the academy 
of Pumbeditha, 2, 545, 549. 

descent of, 2, 549. 

dialectic system of, 2, 550. 

and his brother, 2, 550-1. 

severity of, with regard to 
pnrity of race, 2, 551-2. 

excommunicates a Xahardeau, 

2, 551-2. 

principal of the Sora Metibta, 
2, 552. 

method of, used bj' Chasda, 2, 
55.3. 

acuteness of the disciples of, 
2, 575. 

objects to emigration, 2, 576. 
Judah ben Ilai, disciple of Aki- 
ba, returns to Judiea, 2, 433. 

receives the members of the 
Synhedrion of Usha, 2, 433-4. 

diplomacy of, 2, 442. 

artisan, 2, 442. 

praises Rome, 2, 448 

rewarded by Rome, 2, 448. 
Judah ben Jacob Chayyat, Kab- 
balist, descrilies the suffer- 
ing of the Spanish exiles, 4, 
369-70, 481. 
Judah ben Joseph Ibn-Alfa- 
char. See Jehuda bar Jo- 
seph Ibn-Alfachar. 



Judah ben Moses Cohen, pliysi- 

cian to Alfonso X, 3, 59:;. 
Judah ben Moses Ibn-Tibbon, 
chief of the Tlbbonide par- 
ty. 4, 32. 
Judah ben Saul Ibn-Tibbon 
(1120-1190), physician and 
translator, pedantry of, 3, 
397. 

works translated by, 3, 397. 

Hebrew style of, 3, 398. 
Judah ben Tabbai, Nassi of the 
Great Council, re-organizes 
it, 2, 49. 

called " Restorer of the Law," 
2, 49. 

rigorous in administering the 
Law, 2, 53-4. 

maxim of, 2, 54. 

disciples of, 2, 72. 
Judah ben Yechiel (Messer 
Leon, 1450-1490), rabbi and 
])h3'sician in INIantua, 4, 289. 

author of books on grammar, 
logic, and rhetoric, 4, 289- 
90. 

as a classical scholar, 4, 289- 
90. 

hostility to, 4, 293. 

controversy of, with Joseph 
Kolon, 4, 295. 

banished from IMantua, 4, 295. 
Judah ben Zippori, Pharisee, in- 
stigates an uprising against 
Herod, 2, 115. 

burnt alive, 2, 115. 

death of, avenged, 2, 121. 
Judah Ibn-Giat, poet, 3, 318. 
Judah Ibn-Verga, Kabbalist and 
astronomer, teaches Marra- 
nos, 4, 335. 

martyrdom of, 4, 336. 

as a chronicler, 4, 556. 

consulted by P.asnage, 5, 196. 
Judah Ibn-Yachya-Negro, pre- 
vents the forced baptism of 
the Jews of Portugal, 4, 218. 



388 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Judah, son of David ben Zacca'i, 
quarrels with Saadiah, 3, 
195. 

appointed Exilarch, 3, 201. 

son of, 3, 201-2. 
Judah, son of Simon Tharsi, 1, 
520. 

general, 1, 529. 

assassinated, 1, 530. 
Judah Benveniste, leader of the 
Spanish exiles in Salonica, 
4, 405. 
Judah Chassid, leader of a Sab- 
batian sect in Poland, ex- 
horts to penance, 5, 212. 

emigrates, 5, 212. 

effect of preaching of, 5, 212- 
18. 

death of, 5, 21?,. 

nephews of, 5, 213. 
Judah Del Medigo. See Del 

Aledigo. 
Judah Judghan (800), of Hama- 
dan, imparts a Mutazilistic 
tendency to Judaism, 3, 149- 
50. 

asceticism of, 3, 150. 

founder of a sect, 3, 150. 
Judah Leon Abrabanel (Ile- 
brajus, Medigo, 1470-1530), 
treasurer to a Portuguese 
prince, 4, 3;'>7. 

describes his father, 4, 339. 

referred to, 4, 340. 

property of, confie^cated by 
Alfonso V of Portugal, 4, 
341. 

forbidden to leave Toledo, 4, 
3G0. 

flees to Naples, 4, 360. 

son of, forcibly baptized, 4, 
361. 

at Genoa, 4, 384. 

pursuits of, 4, 384. 

physician to Gonsalvo de Cor- 
dova, 4, 384-5. 

in Venice, 4, 385. 



Judah Leon Abrabanel {con- 
tinued), without iutiuence in 

Italy, 4, 409. 
as philosopher, 4, 480-1. 
Italian style of, 4, 480. 
Hebrew verses of, addressed 

to his son, 4, 480. 
esteemed by Italians, 4, 481. 
Judah Menz (1408-1509), rabbi 

in Padua, Talmudist, 4, 294 
controversy of, with Elias del 

Medigo, 4, 295. 
narrowness of, 4, 295. 
disciples of, 4, 400. 
as a teacher, 4, 410. 
Judah Siciliano, Italian man of 

letters, 4, GO. 
poet, praised by Immanuel 

Romi, 4, 68. 
Judah Sir Leon ben Isaac (1166- 

1224), Tossafist, 3, 408. 
writes the " Book of the 

Pious," 3, 408-9. 
disciples of, 3, 409, 539. 
Judah. See also under Jehuda, 

Judas. 
" Judah's Kod of Correction, ' 

history by Joseph Ibn-Ver 

ga, 4, 557. 
Judaism, a religious convictior 

after the formation of the 

Samaritan sect, 1, 393. 
Magian influence on, 1, 402-5. 
incompatible with Greek 

games, 1, 445. 
calumniated by Menelaus, the 

Benjamite, 1, 449-50. 
calumniated by Antiochus 

Epiphanes, 1, 452. 
becomes known through the 

Greek version of the Penta- 
teuch, 1, 512-13. 
misrepresented by the Greek 

translation of the Law, 1, 

513-14. 
development of, under the 

TIasmonaeans, 2, 16-17. 



INDEX. 



389 



Judaism {continued), sects of, 2, 
i6-;ji. 

leaning of llomans towards, 2, 
136. 

Roman proselytes to, under 
Tiberius, 2, l.'iG-7. 

universality of, 2, 1-11. 

how introduced to the heath- 
en, 2, 142. 

attitude of Jesus to, 2, 155-0. 

as viewed by the heathen, 2, 
203. 

allegorized to suit Greek no- 
tions. 2, 20S-0. 

apostasj'' from, among the Al- 
exandrians, 2, 209. 

humanitarian laws of, as ex- 
pounded by Philo, 2, 211-12, 
213-14. 

embraced by the heathen, 2, 
215-19. 

leanings towards, taken ad- 
vantage of by the Naza- 
renes, 2, 219. 

taught by Paul as an intro- 
duction to Christimiity, 2, 
228, 229. 

relation of, to Cliristianity ac- 
cording to Paul, 2, 229-30. 

hampered by Eome, 2, 234. 

dangers to, after the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem, 2, 322. 

dis.sociated from the Temple 
by Jochanan ben Zakkai, 2, 
324-5. 

reviled bj^ the Nazarenes, 2, 
371-2. 

consolidation of, after the fall 
of the second Temple, 2, 373. 

as viewed by the Gnostics, 2, 
377. 

influence ot the Minagans on, 
deprecated, 2, 378. 

Gnostic or semi-Christian ideas 
in, 2, 380-1. 

saved from Gnostic influences 
by Akiba, 2, 382. 



Judaism {eontinued) , influence 
of, upon the pagan world, 2, 
382-3. 

conversions to, from pagan- 
ism, 2, 383-5. 

Tacitus on the conversions to, 
2, 384. 

mocked at by Hadrian, 2, 407- 
8 

laws against, decreed by Ha- 
drian, 2, 421. 

Hadrian attempts to graft pa 
ganism on, 2, 422. 

persecuted by Hadrian, 2, 
423-6. 

independence of Christianity 
of, demonstrated to Ha- 
drian, 2, 431. 

laws against, promulgated by 
Severus, 2, 464. 

legal character of, due to the 
Mishna, 2, 471. 

admired hj Alexander Seve- 
rus, 2, 481. 

Greek civilization equal to, ac- 
cording to Jochanan bar Na- 
pacha, 2, 494. 

in foreign lands, 2, 520.. 

oppressed by Christianity, 2, 
535. 

placed on an equality with 
Christianity, 2, 501. 

aspersed by Church dignita- 
ries under Constantine, 2, 
562. 

conversions to, forbidden by 
Constantine, 2, 562, 564. 

separated from Christianity at 
the Council of Nice, 2, 563. 

interest of Julian the Apos- 
tate in, 2, 596. 

protected by Theodosius the 
Great, 2, 614-15. 

preserved by the Talmud, 2, 
635. 

among the Arabian Jews in 
the sixth century, 3, 58-9. 



390 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Judaism (continued), inspires 
I\[ahomet, 3, 71-2. 

taught the Chazars by fugi- 
tive Greek Jews, 3, 139. 

account of the conversion of 
the Chazars to, 3, 139-40. 

influence of, on the Chazars, 3, 
141. 

rationalistic tendencj^ impart- 
ed to, 3, 149-50. 

orthodox adherents of, oppose 
the rationalists, 3, 152-3. 

mysticism in, 3, 153-5. 

Karaite interpretation of, va- 
riable, 3, 157. 

revered by the Empress Ju- 
dith, 3, 162. 

revered by the Christians of 
the Prankish empire, 3, 163. 

promotes science during the 
ISIiddle Ages, 3, 187. 

assumes a European character 
in the tenth century, 3, 188. 

Christian and Islam objections 
to, answered by Saadiah, 3, 
199. 

leadership of, lost by Asia, 3, 
207. 

the center of, in Spain, 3, 229. 

gloomy character of, in Ger- 
many, 3, 309. 

as expounded by Jehuda Ha- 
levi, 3, 330, 331-6. 

as characterized by Abraham 
Ibn-Daud, 3, 364-5. 

in Asia in the twelfth century, 
3, 440-2. 

as presented by ISIaimonides 
in his Mishne-Torah, 3, 467. 

and philosophy in Maimonides' 
" Guide of the Perplexed," 
3, 478-9. 

loses by Maimonides' philo- 
sophical sj'stem, 3, 487. 

condition of, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 446-7. 



Judaism {continued), the creed 
of, drawn up by Maimonides, 
3, 459-60, 

divided by the Maimunist con- 
troversy, 3, 546-7. 

as interpreted bj'^ Nachmani, 

3, 533-5. 

Albo on the possibility of 
changing, 4, 242. 

effect of the Protestant Refor- 
mation on, 4, 471. 

influence of the Shulchan 
Aruch on, 4, 613. 

influence of Lurya's Kabbala 
on, 4, 625-7. 

attacked by Martin Czechowic, 

4, 648. 

influence of the Cossack perse- 
cutions on, 5, 16-17. 

condition of, in the seven- 
teenth century, 5, 51-2. 

reform of, proposed by Leo 
Modena, 5, 73-4. 

defended by Simone Luzzatto, 

5, 81-4. 

antagonized by Spinoza, 5, 
97-8, 101-3. 

discredited bj' the Kabbala, 5, 
166. 

glorified by Spinoza, 5, 167. 

attracts Christians, 5, 176. 

influenced by Lessing, 5, 298. 

Mendelssohn's earl}' attitude 
towards, 5, 310. 

human additions to, according 
to Mendelssohn, 5, 311, 317. 

binding only upon Jews, 5, 312. 

Mendelssohn's glorification of, 
5, 314-15. 

as defined by Mendelssohn, 5, 
364. 

consequences of the renais- 
sance of, 5, 374-5. 

view of, taken by Schleier- 
macher, 5, 426-7. 

view of, held by Chateau- 
briand. 5, 427. 



INDEX. 



391 



Judaism {c<i)iiiiiiic<l), view of, 
held bj' Furtado, 5, 49G. 
characterized by Heine, 5, 

552. 
excrescences of, 5, 557-9. 
barbarous aspect of, under Po- 
lish influence, 5, 558. 
disfigurement of, among the 

Portuguese', 5, 559. 
reform of, suggested, 5, 559. 
See Peform, the, of Judaism, 
reconciliatiou of, with cul- 
ture, 5, 5f)0. 
as viewed by Bernays, 5, 575-G. 
journal f'^r- the science of, 5, 

5S5. 
love for, fostered by the So- 
ciety for Culture, 5, 588. 
the renaissance of, 5, 589-90, 

591-2, 607. 
defined by Steinheim, 5, GOl-G. 
the narrowing of, by the new 

school of scholars, 5, 627. 
view of, held by Holdheim, 5, 

680-1. 
the first to recognize the 

rights of man, 5, 709-10. 
the moral system of, 5, 710-11. 
free from asceticism, 5, 712. 
Judaism, the sects of, list of: 
Boethuseaiis, Karaites (and 

Chassidim, their sects). 

Donmah, Menachemists, 

Essenes, Pharisees, 

Frankists, Sabbatians, 

Isavitcs, Sadducees, 

Judgrhanites, Samaritans. 

Judaism, conversions to. See 
Conversions to Judaism. 

" Judaism, or the Jewish Doc- 
trine," attack by John Mil- 
ler, 4, 692. 

Judaism, Rabbinical. See Rab- 
binical Judaism. 

Judaism, Talmudical. See Tal- 
mudical Judaism. 

Judaism, the Reform of. See 
Reform, the, of Judaism. 



Judaism, the Statute of, passed 
by the House of Commons, 
3, 642. 
" Judaism Unmasked," by 
Eisennienger, full title of, 
5, 1S8. 

suppressed, 5, 189-90. 

cause of, supported by Fred- 
erick I of Prussia, 5, 192-3. 

under ban for forty years, 5, 
193. 
Judaizantes, sect called forth 
by the Protestant Reforma- 
tion, 4, 541. 
Judas the GaHlean, clianipion 
against the Ronuius, 2, 125. 

SL'izes the arsenal of Sep- 
phoris, 2, 125. 

escapes from Quintilius Varus, 
2, 126. 

leader of the Zealots, 2, 133. 

resists the Roman census, 2, 
133-4, 

conception of the Messiah 
held by the disciples of, 2, 
144. 

morality of the followers of, 
2, 151. 

sons of, 2, 199. 

grandsons of, 2, 239. 
Judas ben Jair, killed by the 

Romans, 2, 315. 
Judas Aristobulus, Judroan of 
priestly lineage, teacher of 
the Egyptian king, 1, 519. 

petitioned to introduce the 
Chanukah celebration into 
Egypt, 2, 6-7. 
Judas Iscariot, follower of Je- 
sus, betra3's him, 2, 163. 
Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mat- 
tathias, the Hasmonaean, 1, 
459. 

chosen to succeed his father as 
commander, 1, 401. 

characterization of, 1, 401. 

defeats Apollonius, 1, 461-2. 



392 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Judas Maccabaeus {continmd), 

defeats Heron, 1, 462. 
joined by the half-Hellenized, 

1, 464. 
extorts his troo^js at Mizpah, 

1, 467. 
divides his army among his 

brothers, 1, 46S. 
dismisses all excused from 

military service by the Law, 

1, 468. 
defeats Gorgias, 1, 468-9, 476. 
defeats Lysias, 1, 469-70. 
consecrates the Temple, 1, 

471-3. 
fortifies the Temple mount, 1, 

473. 
defeats the Idumreans and 

Ammonites, 1, 474. 
appealed to by Judasans in 

the provinces, 1, 474-5. 
rescues the trans-Jordanic 

provinces, 1, 476. 
besieges the Acra, 1, 478. 
defeated at Beth-Zachariah, 1, 

479. 
besieged in Jerusalem, 1, 479- 

80. 
made high priest, 1, 481. 
hated by the Hellenists, 1, 

481. 
accused before Demetrius I, 1, 

482. 
retreats to the mountains, 1, 

482. 
gathers a new army to oppose 

Alcimus and Bacchides, 1, 

483. 
treats with Nicanor, 1, 484. 
defeats Nicanor, 1, 484, 485. 
negotiates with Rome, 1, 485-6. 
encamps at Eleasa, 1, 486. 
falls on the battlefield of 

Eleasa, 1, 487. 
achievements of, compared 

with his brother Jonathan's, 

1, 501-2. 



Judas Maccabaeus (continued), 

state of Judt-ea after the 

death of, 1, 501, 519-20. 
model of Cromwell, 5, 20. 
Judas. Sec also under Jehuda; 

Judah. 
Judenbreter, name assumed by 

(ierman families, 3, 611. 
Jlidenblihl, in Nuremberg, scene 

of tlie burning of the Jews, 

4, 110. 
Judenmeister, rabbis, appointed 

by order of Sigismund, 4, 

227. 
Judenstattigkeit, permissive res- 
idence of Jews in Frankfort, 

4, 695; 5, 503. 
indulgently interpreted, 4, 

696. 
abolished by Emperor Mat- 
thias, 4, 700. 
Juderia, the, of Seville, destroyed 

by a mob, 4, 169. See Jew's 

quarter, the. 
Judges, Jews forbidden to act 

as, by the Council of Macon, 

3, 39, 171. 
Judges, the warrior, deliver the 

Israelites from servitude, 1, 

59. 
activity of, characterized, 1, 

68-9. 
un-Jewish character of, 5, 

715. 
Judges, the, list of: 
Abdon, Gideon, 

Abimc'.cch, Ibzan, 

Barak, Jephthah, 

Deborah, Othniol, 

Ehud, Samson, 

Elon, Samuel, 

Shamfrar. 

Judghanites, a Jewish sect, 3, 
150. 

Judgment Chamber, in the 
House of the Forest of Leba- 
non, 1, 168-9. 



INDEX, 



393 



Judith, the Book of, ;ultnitte(l 
into the Canon by Chris- 
tians, 2, 488. 
Judith, wifi' of Lonis the Pions. 
friendly to Judaism, 3, 1(>2. 
calumniated by Bishop Ag-o- 

bard, 3, 164. 
rebellion incited ag-ainst, 3, 
100. 

conspiracy against, joined by 
Agobard, 3, IGS. 
Juglar, Gaspard, inquisitor ia 

Aragon, 4, 32G. 
Julian the Apostate, emperor, 
delivers tlie Jews from the 
oppression suffered under 
Constantine, 2, 572, 

character of, 2, 595. 

in possession of undivided 
power, 2, 595. 

plans of, 2, 595. 

opposes Christianity, 2, 596, 

interest of, in Judaism, 2, 596. 

admires the benevolence of 
the Jews, 2, 596-7. 

predilection of, for the sacri- 
ficial cult, 2, 597. 

favors the Jews of the Roman 
empire, 2, 597o 

letter of, to the Jewish com- 
munities, 2, 598. 

accuses the Christians of pre- 
venting the rebuilding of 
the Temple, 2, GOl. 

in the Persian war, 2, GOl-2. 

death of, 2, 602. 
Julian, jMetropcJitan of Toledo, 
presides over an anti-Jewish 
Council, 3, 107. 
Julian ben Sabar, Samaritan 

king, 3, 13, 16. 
Julianus, leader of the rebellion 
against Trajan in Judaea, 2, 
395. 

threatened by Lucius Quietus, 
2, 401. 



Julias, built by the tetrarch 

I'hilip, 2, l.iS. 
Jiilich, a Jew of, accused of 

ritual murder, 5, 642. 
Julius II, pope, friendly to the 
Jews, 4, 407. 
employs a Jewish physician, 
4, 4 OS. 
Julius III, pojje, petitioned for 
absolution for the Marra- 
nos, 4, 52S. 
the Talmud denounced before, 

4, 564. 
signs the decree against the 

Talmud, 4, 505. 
protects Hebrew writings ex- 
cept the Talmud, 4, 565. 
death of, 4, 566. 
confirms the privileges of the 
Marranos of Ancona, 4, 568. 
employs a Jewish physician, 
4, 569. 
Julius Archelaus, husband of 
Mariamne, daughter of 
Agrippa I, 2, 2;!5. 
Julius Capellus, partisan of 

Home in Tiberias, 2, 274. 
Jullos, name given to Ilillel II 

by Origen, 2, 487. 
July revolution, the, effect of, 
on Euroiie, 5, 590. 
on the Jews, 5, 596, 598, 600. 
" Junipers, the," origin of, 5, 

378. 
Juno, the Argive, statue of, 
raised by Herod in Cresarea, 
2, 100. 
Jupiter, statue of, placed in the 
Temple by Antiochus Epiph- 
anes, 1, 455< 
destroyed by Judas 'Mac- 
cabseus, 1, 472. 
Jupiter, temple of, adorned with 
a golden vine destined for 
the Temple at Jerusalem, 2, 
63. 
on Gerizim, 2, 422. 



394 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Jupiter Capitolinus, temple to, 

in Jerusalem, 2, 422. 
Jupiter, Olympian, statue of, 
raised by Herod iu Cajsarea, 
2, 106. 
Jurieu, Pierre, Huguenot, on the 

future of the Jews, 5, ITG. 
Jurisdiction, Jewish, autono- 
mous, withdrawn b^^ Verus, 
2, 447-8. 

restored by Alexander Sevcrus, 
2, 482. 

exercised by Raba in a crimi- 
nal suit, 2, 592. 

under the Patriarchs, 2, G13. 

under Arcadius, 2, GIG. 

forbidden in mixed suits, 2, 
617; 3, 28. 

in civil suits in Greece, south- 
ern Italy, etc., 3, 27, 28, 423. 

in Cologne, 3, 41. 

under the Exilarchs, 3, 89. 

in Speyer, 3, 297. 

under Henry IV, 3, 298. 

in Castile, etc., 4, 116, 155, 157, 
203. 

exercised by Ar-ltabbi Mor, 4, 
159. 

in Vienna, 4, 702. 

in Poland, 5, 3. 

See also Courts of Jnstice; 
Witnesses. 
Jussuf Pasha, governor of 
Rhodes, persecutes the Jews 
on the blood accusation, 5, 
640-1. 

dismissed from his post, 5, 
G47. 
Justi, court preacher, denounces 
Mendelssohn's review of 
Frederick II's poetry, 5, 302. 
Justin I, emperor of the East, 
enforces the anti-Jewish 
laws of Theodosius II, 3, 
10. 

appealed to, to make war upon 
Zorah Nowas, 3, GO. 



Justin II, emperor of the East, 
oppresses the Samaritans, 3, 
17-18. 

expels the Jews from their 
quarter in Constantinople, 
3, 26. 
Justinian I (483-565), emperor, 
closes the schools of philos- 
ophy in Greece, 3, 7. 

interferes with the religious 
liberty of the Jews, 3, 12-16. 

enacts that Jews are compe- 
tent witnesses only in their 
own cases, 3, 12-13. 

orders translations of the Law 
to be used by Jewish con- 
gregations, 3, 14-15. 

forbids the recital of the con- 
fession of faith, 3, 15. 

removes the Temple vessels 
from Constantinople to Je- 
rusalem, 3, 27. 

rule of, feared by the Jews of 
Italy, 3, 31. 

made exarch of Ravenna, 3, 
32. 

appealed to b^' Imrulkais Ibn 
Hojr, 3, 69. 
Justiniani, Augustin, bishop of 
Corsica, introduces the stiuly 
of Hebrew into France, 4, 
473, 474. 

has ]\roses Kimchi's grammar 
printed, 4, 474. 

has a Latin translation of the 
" Guide of the Perplexed " 
made, 4, 474. 
Justus of Tiberias, historian, 
does not mention Jesus, 2, 
166. 

leader of the Roman insurrec- 
tion in Tiberias, 2, 274. 

historian of the Roman war, 
2, 319. 

ambiguons conduct of, 2, 319- 
20. 

attacks Josephus, 2, 390. 



INDEy 



395 



Kaab, teacher of the Law, con- 
verts Abu-Kariba to Juda- 
ism, 3, 62-3. 

goes to Yemen to convert the 
people, 3, G3. 
Eaab Ibn-Asharaf, Jewish op- 

Ijonent of Mahomet, 3, 74. 
Eaab Ibn-Assad, chief of the 
Benu-Kuraiza, 3, 80. 

killed by Mahomet, 3, 81. 
Kaaba, the, the Square, the holy 
place of the Arabs. 3, GO. 

number of idols in, 3, 72. 

Moslem turn towards, in 
praj'er, 3, 75. 
Kaarat Kesef, by Joseph Ezobi, 

3, 561. 
Kabbala, tlie, Jacob ben Meshul- 
1am the first promoter of, 3, 
39G. 

as used by Nachmani, 3, 535. 

rise of, in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, 3, 547. 

earliest promoters of, 3, 547. 

reduced to a sj'stem, 3, 548. 

youth of, 3, 548. 

put into philosophical lan- 
guage, 3, 549. 

counterpoise to the Maimunist 
philosophy, 3, 529. 

compromise between faith and 
philosophy, 3, 549, G23. 

theosophy of, 3, 550. 

principles of, concerning God, 
3, 550-1. 

theory of emanation in, S, 
551-2= 

theory of creation in, 3, 552-:i. 

on the mission of Israel, 3, 
553. 

mystical importance of prayer 
in, 3, 553-4. 

on metempsychosis, 3, 554. 

on retribution, 3, 555. 

on the soul of the Messiah, 3, 
555. 



Kabbala, the (continued), great 
age fraudulently claimed 
for, 3, 55G. 

promoted by ISaehniani, 3, 
556-7. 

transplanted to Palestine by 
Nachmani, 3, 607. 

to be taught in secret, accord- 
ing to Solomon ben Adret, 

3, G19. 

progress of, in Spain, 4, 1-23. 
furtherance of, through the 

Zohar, 4, 22. 
studied in Palestine, 4, 74-5. 
in Spain in the fourteenth 

century, 4, 91. 
influence of, increases in 

Spain, 4, 19G. 
studied by Pico di ]\Iirandola, 

4, 291-2, 433, 443. 
Christian dogmas in, 4, 292. 
translated into Latin, 4, 292, 

443. 

denounced by Elias del Med- 
igo, 4, 292. 

introduced into Safet by Jo- 
seph Saragossi, 4, 399. 

in Salonica, 4, 405. 

defended by Keuchlin, 4, 442- 

3, 46G-7. 

admired by Egidio de Viterbo, 

4, 457. 

carried to Italy and Turkey by 

Spanish exiles, 4, 481. 
Christian scholars interested 

in, 4, 481. 
affects the liturgy, 4, 481. 
expectation of the Messiah tlie 

center of, 4, 482, 483. 
Safet center of, 4, 538. 
esteemed by the Church, 4, 583. 
infliience of, in Palestine iu 

the sixteenth centurj', 4, 617. 
spread ot, 4, 617. 
indnccs a Jewish " dark age," 

4, 617. 



396 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Kabbala, the (continued), inilu- 

cuce of, on Judaism, 4, 625-7. 
corrupting influence of, 4, 

626-7. 
influence of, on seventeenth 

century Judaism, 5, 51-2. 
as taught by Vital Calabrese, 

5, 52-3. 
spread b\' Israel Saruk, 5, 54. 
spread by Abraham de Herre- 

ra, 5, 54. 
identified with Neo-platonism, 

5, 54. 
beginnings of the criticism of, 

5, 55. 
attacked bj' Leo Modena, 5, 

67, 74. 
ridiculed by Josepli Delmedi- 

go, 5, 77. 
defended by Joseph Delmedi- 

go, 5, 78-9. 
Simone Luzzatto on, 5, 84. 
studied by Spinoza, 5, 88. 
influence of, on Sabbatai Zevi, 

5, 118-19. 
taught by Sabbatai Zevi, 5, 

119. 
Messianic sjieculation in, 5, 

120-1. 
at variance with Rabbinical 

Judaism, 5, 144, 277. 
brings discredit on Judaism, 

5, 166. 
opposed by Jehuda Leon 

Brieli, 5, 200. 
supposed to teach the Trinity, 

5, 216. 
unhealthy influences of, 5, 

232-3. 
Moses Chayim Luzzatto under 

the influence of, 5, 236. 
f.tudy of, forbidden to j-oung 

men, 5, 241, 277. 
generally opposed by the rab- 
bis, 5, 245. 
sways the minds of I'olish 

Jews, 5, 382. 



Kabbala, the (continued), views 
of, held by Elijah Wiliia, 5, 
390-1. 
supporters of, in Italy, 5, 488. 
disfigures Judaism, 5, 539. 
See also Zohar, the. 
Kabbala, the higher, of Abra- 
ham Abulalia, 4, 5-6. 
Kabbalistic terms: 
Adam Kadmon, Malka Kadisha, 

Diokna Kadisha, Matronita, 

En-Sof, Nizuz (Ni/.uzoth). 

Gematria, Notaricon, 

Ibbur, Olam ha-Tikkun, 

Kartiel, Parsophin (Par- 

Kelifa (Kelifoth), zuflra), 

Kewanotb, Scflroth, 

King-, Slicchnia, 

Tsiruf. 

Kabbalistic writings, on the 
Index expurgatorius, 4, 584. 
Kabbalists, the, o^iposed to the 
]\laimuuists in the interpre- 
tation of ceremonies, 3, 554. 
distort the Scriptures, 3, 556. 
opiDosed to Maimunists and 

Talmudists, 3, 558. 
of Accho, in the Maimunist 

controversy', 3, 631-3. 
and Solomon Molcho, 4, 496-7. 
at Safet, 4, 622-3. 
divorces frequent among, 4, 
627; 5, 210. 
Kabbalists, list of: 
Abraham of Gia- Cohen, Naphtali 



nada, 
Abraham ben 

David, 
Abraham ben 

Samuel Al)ula- 

lui, 
Abraham Levi, 
Abraham SaVja, 
Aleman, Jochan- 

an 
Azriel, 
Haruch of Renc- 

vento, 
Chananel Ibn-As- 

kara, 
Chayim Vital Cal- 
abrese, 



David Ibn-Abi 
Zimra, 

Elcazar ben Je- 
huda, 

Erg-as, Joseph 

Ezra, 

Frankfurter, 
Napbthali 

Hcrrera, Abra- 
ham de 

Hurwitz, Tsaiah 

Isaac of Accho, 

Isaac the Blind, 

Isaac l)cn Abra- 
ham Ibn-Latif. 

Isaac Cohen Sha- 
lal. 



INDEX. 



397 



Kabbalists, list 

Isaac Lurj-a Levi, 
Israel Saruk, 
Jacob of Segovia, 
Jacob ben Me- 

shullam, 
Jacob ben Shcshet 

Gcrundi, 
Joseph of Arli, 
Joseph ben Abra- 
ham Jiliatilla, 
Joseph ben To- 

dros Abuhifia, 
Joseph Karo, 
Joseph Saragossi, 
Judah de IJhinis, 
Judah ben Jacob 

Chayyat, 
Judah Ibn-Verg'a, 
Levi ben Todros 

Abuhifia, 
Luzzatto, Moses 

Chayim 
Mclr ben G abba i, 
Molcho, Solomon 
Moses dc Leon, 



of {conthuKiI): 

Moses ben Isaac 

Alashkar, 
Moses ben Nach- 

man, 
Moses Botarel, 
Moses Zacuto, 
Oppenheim, David 
Samuel of Medi- 

na-Celi, 
Samuel Franco, 
Shera-Tol) ben 
Abraham Ibii- 
Gaon, 
Shem-Tob ben Jo- 
seph Ibn-Shem 
Tob, 
Solomon of Mo- 
ravia, 
Solomon ben Ab- 
raham b. Ad ret, 
Solomon I'etit, 
Taytasak, Joseph 
Todros ben Jo- 
seph Halevi Al)- 
ulatia. 



Kabul. See Cabul. 

Kachtan, ancestor of the Arabs, 
3, 01, 62. 

Kacbtanites, the southern Ara- 
bians, 3, 61. 

Kadish, the Exilarch mentioned 
in, 3, 95. 

Kaffa (Theodosia), a Karaite 
community in, 3, 182. 

Kafnai, Exilarch, 3, 10. 

Kahal Kados, congreg-ation in 
Pernambuco, 4, 693. 

Kahana. ,SVe ISIar-Kahana. 

Kahana, Jacob, rabbi of Frank- 
fort, exposes Kamenker, 5, 
229. 
exacts a promise from Luzzat- 
to, 5, 241. 

Kahir, Caliph of the East, de- 
poses Saadiah, 3, 196, 200. 

Kahira. See Cairo. 

Kahiya, political representative 
of the Turkish Jews, 4, 
404. 



Kahtz, Christian, apostate, tries 
to create prejudice against 
the Jews, 5, 191. 
Kaila, Arab tribe, relations of, 

to the Jews, 3, 55. 
Kailan race, the. See Benu-Aus, 

the; Cliazraj, the. 
Kailil, brother of Rabba bar 

Xachmani, 2, 575-6, 583. 
Kaimakam, depntj' vizir, 5, 147. 
Kairuan (Maghreb), the Jewish 
community of, 3, 137. 
center of science in the ninth 

century, 3, 146, 180. 
the Exilarch Mar-Ukba at, 3, 

185, 210. 
new school fovinded in, by 

Chushiel, 3, 208, 210. 
chief town of the Fatimide 

Caliphate, 3, 210. 
study of the Talmud at, 3, 

210-11. 
the Jews of, confer the title 

Eosh on Chushiel, 3, 211. 
Joseph Ibn-Abitnr in, 3, 238. 
school at, presided over by 
Chananel and Nissim bar 
Jacob, 3, 248. 
the Jerusalem Talmud studied 

at the school of, 3, 249. 
decay of the school at, 3, 

249. 
the Jews of, false ]\Iahome- 
tans, 3, 360. 
Kala-Ibn-Hammad, birthplace 

of Alfassi, 3, 285. 
Kalam, Arabic philosophy of re- 
ligion, 3, 146-7. 
Kalba-Sabua, father-in-law of 

Akiba, 2, 351, 355. 
Kaliri. See Eleaaar ben Kalir. 
Kalish, the Jews of, massacred 
on the charge of well poi- 
soning. 4, 111. 
Kallahs, public lectures at the 
Babylonian academies, 2, 
515; 3, 5-6, 97. 



398 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Kaller, Alexander, promotes 
education anioug- the Gali- 
cian Jews, 5, 394. 

Kalmann, German immigrant 
in Turkey, 4, 271. 

Kalmann of Ratisbon, repent- 
ant apostate, condemned to 
the stake, 4, 288. 

Kalonymos, Italian Jew, attend- 
ant of Otto the Great, 3, 
24.''.. 

Kalonymos, the Prince, head of 
the Jewish community of 
Beaucaire, 3, 400. 

Kalonymos, scholar brought to 
IMaj'ence by Charlemagne, 

3, 143. 

Kalonymos, Talmudist, rabbi of 
AVorms, 3, 290. 

Kalonymos ben Kalonymos 
(1287-1337), scholar at the 
court of llobert of Naiiles, 

4, 61-2. 

writer on ethics and satirist, 

4, 62-3. 
praised by Immanuel Romi, 4, 
68. 
Kalonymos ben Todros, head of 
the community of Narbonne, 
3, 392. 
sides with Abba-]\Iari, 4, 34. 
asked to prepare the bau 
against the study of sci- 
ence, 4, 38. 
draws up the ban, 4, 39. 
Kam.a, friend of Samuel, meets 
Abba-Areka, 2, 512. 
appointed judge, 2, 512. 
rebukes the Exilarch, 2j 513o 
Kanaim. Sec Zealots, the. 
Kamenker, Moses Meir. See 

Moses Meir Kamenker. 
Kameotli (Kamea), amulets, 3, 
153. 
used by rabbis, 5, 201-2, 
distributed by Eibeschiitz, 5, 
257 



Kamerau, the, a noble family, 
claim the Jews of Eatisbon, 
4, 300. 
Kamieniec, disputation at, be- 
tween Frankists and Tal- 
mudists, 5, 280, 281. 

the Talmud burnt at, 5, 282. 
Kamus, fortress of the Chaibar 
Jews, 3, 55. 

holds out against Mahomet, 
<3, 82. 

fall of, 3, 83. 
Kandy. Sec Ceylon„ 
Kant, Immanuel, unsuccessful 
candidate for the prize of 
the Berlin Academy, 5, 303, 
304. 

on Mendelssohn's " Jerusa- 
lem," 5, 365. 

meeting of, with Mendels- 
sohn, 5, 398. 

distinguishes Marcus Herz, 5, 
405-6. 

llcrz lectures on the philoso- 
phy of, 5, 406. 

philosophy of, admired b3' 
Ben-David, 5, 409. 

Ben-David lectures on the 
philosophy of, 5, 410. 

philosophy of, studied by 
Krochmal, 5, 608. 
Kapsali. See Elias ben Elka- 
nah; Eliezer; Elkanah; ]\Io- 
ses Kapsali. 
Kara. See Avigedor Kara; Jo- 
seph Kara; Simon Kara. 
Karaim. See Karaites. 
Karaism, the religion of the 
sect founded by Anan ben 
David, 3, 130. 

original cliaracter of, obscure, 
3, 131. 

rigidity of, 3, 131-3. 

unsettled character of, 3, 
133. 

causes dissension among the 
Kabbanites, 3, 156-7. 



TNDEX. 



399 



Earaism {rdnllniu d). fiTcdoni in 
exegesis tlie j)i-iiu-i|)al dog- 
ma of, 3, 1S7. 

sects of, 3, l.")7-S. 

lack of union in, 3, 158. 

first signs of tlie decay of, 3, 
181. 

ascetic character of, in Jeru- 
salem, 3, 181-2. 

propaganda for, 3, 182. 

expounded by Solomon ben 
Yerucham, 3, 203. 

pi'opaganda for, by Abulsari 
Sahal ben Mazliach Kohen, 

3, 203-5. 

spread by Jephet Ibn-Ali Ila- 
levi, 3, 205-6. 

spreads during- the tenth cen- 
tury, 3, 206-7. 

attacked by Samuel ben Chof- 
ni, 3, 2-o3. 

inferiority of, to Talmudical 
Judaism proved by Jehuda 
Halevi, 3, 334. 

criticised by Shemarya Ikriti, 

4, 09-70. 

in the fourteenth century, 4, 

70. 
centers of, 4, 71. 
liturgy of, fixed, 4, 71. 
petrifaction of, illustrated, 4, 

269-70. 
not attractive to Richard Si- 
mon, 5, 180, 181. 
inquired into by Cliarles XI 

of Sweden, 5, 182. 
account of the origin of, by 

Samuel ben Aaron, 5, 183. 
account of, by Alordecai ben 

Nissan, 5, 183-4. 
inquired into by Charles XII 

of Sweden, 5, 184. 

Karaite sects, the, list of: 

Abu-Amranites (Tillisites), 

Akbarites, 

Makaryites, 

Moses of Baalbek, followers of 



Karaite writers, the, list of: 

Aaron boii Elia Nicomedi, 

Aaron ben Joseiih the Elder, 

Abulsari Sahal ben Mazliach Kolien 

Anau ben Davkl, 

liciijarain ben Moses of Xahaveiid, 

llm-.Sakviyah, 

Isaac ben Abraham Troki, 

.lehuda ben Elia lladassi, 

.Jephet Ibn-Ali Hale\i, 

Mordecai ben Nissan, 

Samuel ben Aaron, 

Solomon ben Yerucham. 

Karaites (Ananites), the, follow- 
ers of Anan ben l>avi(l, 3, 
134. 

excommunicated by the heads 
of the academies, 3, 134. 

renounce connection with the 
Rabbanites, 3, 134. 

acknowledge Anan ben David 
as the legitimate Exilarch, 
3, 135. 

hold a memorial service for 
Anan ben David, 3, 135. 

study the I5ible, 3, 136, 189. 

of Mutazilist tendency, 3, 149, 
150-1. 

adopt the ban, 3, 151. 

tradition among, 3, 159. 

marriage laws of, 3, 159. 

opposed by Natronai' II, 3, 178. 

opposed by Simon of Cairo, 3, 
179. 

scientific pursuits of, 3, ISO. 

shun the Rabbanites, 3', 182. 

spread of, in the East, 3, 182. 

attacked by Saadiah, 3, 189. 

calendar of, attacked b3' Saa- 
diah, 3, 190-1. 

defended by Solomon ben Ye- 
rucham, 3, 191. 

later works of Saadiah against, 
3, 192. 

fond of philosophical disputa- 
tions, 3, 197. 

lexicographical work of, su- 
perseded by Menachem ben 
Saruk's. 3, 225. 



400 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS- 



Karaites, the (coifinucd), expect 
the Messiah in the eleventh 
century, 3, 247. 

views of, occasionally en- 
dorsed by Samuel ben Meir, 
3, 346. 

persecuted in Spain in the 
eleventh centurj^ 3, 362. 

humbled by Jehuda Ibn-Ezra, 
3, 362-3. 

rise of, after the fall of Je- 
huda Ibn-Ezra, 3, 366. 

and Abraham Ibn-Ezra, 3, 366. 

regarded as idolaters by Sam- 
son ben Abraham, 3, 408. 

in Constantinople in the 
twelfth century, 3, 425. 

in Damascus, 3, 427. 

in Askalon, 3, 427. 

degeneracy of, in Asia in the 
twelfth century, 3, 443. 

of Cairo, governed by a Nassi, 
3, 444. 

of Alexandria, 3, 444. 

treatment of, by Maimonides, 

3, 465. 

disciples of Nachmani, 3, 607. 

the wajf for, paved by the re- 
ligious philosophers, 3, 625. 

inclined to a reconciliation 
with Rabbanites, 4, 71-2. 

institute pilgrim prayers, 4, 
73-4. 

in Poland under Casimir IV, 

4, 265. 

emigrate to Turkey, 4, 269. 

ignorance of, 4, 269. 

taught by Ilabbanite teach- 
ers, 4, 269. 

celebration of the Sabbath bj-, 
4, 269-70. 

efforts to reconcile, to Tal- 
mudic Judaism, 4, 270o 

protected by Elias Mizrachi 
in Constantinople, 4, 403-4. 

and Joseph Dehnedigo, 6, 76- 
7. 



Karaites, the {continncd) , Polish 
and Lithuanian, degradation 
of, 5, 182-3. 
scattered by order of John 

Sobiesld, 5, 182. 
invited to go to Sweden, 5, 183. 
accused of conspiring with 
Krochmal against the Tal- 
mud, 5, 608. 
treated of in the Scientific 

Journal, 5, 626. 
in Cairo reconciled with the 
Rabbanites by Munk, 5, 664. 
history of, cleared up by 

]\runk, 5, 666. 
rise of, 5, 727. 
Karben, Victor von (1442-1515), 
apostate, employed to write 
anti-Jewish pamphlets, 4, 
424-5. 
suggested as PfefBerkorn's 

coadjutor, 4, 432.. 
directs the confiscation of He- 
brew books, 4, 437, 441. 
decides that the Talmud 
ought to be burnt, 4, 444. 
Karl Ludwig, count-palatine, 
offers Spinoza a professor- 
ship, 5; 108. 
Karlinians, a branch of the 

Chassidim, 5, 3S8, 391. 
Karmisin, the Exilarch Mar- 

Ukba banished to, 3, 184. 
Karo, See Joseph Karo. 
Kartiel, name of a Sefira, 4;, 17 
Kaspi. See Joseph Kaspi. 
Kasser ben Aaron, reconciles 
Aaron Ibn-Sarjadu with 
Saadiah, 3, 200-1, 
Kasr, home of "David ben Zaccai, 

3, 186. 
Katzenellenbogen, Ezekiel, rab- 
bi of the " three communi- 
ties," excommunicates Ka- 
menker, 5, 238. 
forbids the study of Kabbala 
to 3'oung men, 5, 241 



INDEX. 



401 



Kazimierz, tlic Jews of, mim- 

bt'i- of, 4, 032. 
Kedeshim, the holy men of the 

Canaaiiites, 1, 51. 
Kedeshoth, Canaaiiite priest- 
esses, 1, 54. 
in Samaria, 1, 198. 
maintained in Jerusalem un- 
der Manasseh, 1, 283. 
Kedoshim (saints), martyrs of 
the first crusade, 3, 302. 
graves of, visited, 3, 309. 
Keeper of the lists (rolls), un- 
der David, 1, 122. 
manag-er of war, 1, 305, 313. 
beheaded by Nebuchadnezzar, 
1, 314. 
Kefar Nahum. See Capernaum. 
Kelifa (Kelifoth), Kabbalistic 
term for sin in the Zohar, 
4, 17, 620; 5, 120. 
Kenas. See Census. 
Kendites, the, an Arab tribe, 
adopt Judaism, 3, 63. 
chief of, protected by Samuel 
Ibn-Adiya, 3, 68-9. 
Keneseth ha-Gedolah. See Great 

Assembly, the. 
Kenites, the, Moses with, 1, 13- 
14. 
aid the Israelites in the 

desert, 1, 26. 
aid Judah, 1, 38. 
allies of the Israelites, 1, 01. 
Kephar Lekitaja, military sta- 
tion established by Hadrian, 
2, 419. 
Kephas, See Teter. • 
Kepler, and David Cans, 4, 63S. 
Kerbella, the battle of, the 
Ommiyyades defeated at, 3, 
125. 
Kerek. See Kir-^foab. 
Kerem Chemed, Hebrew jour- 
nal devoted to Jewish sci- 
ence, 5, 621, 093. 
contributors to, 5, 621-2. 



Kcrmanshah. Srr Knnnisin. 
Kartell, Jews of the Hy/.antine 
empire settle in, 3, 123. 
Karaites in, in the ninth cen- 
tury, 3, 182. 
capital of flic Crimea, 3, 222. 
Kether Malchuth, j)hilosophical 
l)oem by Ibn-Cebii-ol, 3, 270. 
Kewanoth, Kabbalistic term, 

devotion, 5, 121. 
Khataib, Sephardic synagogue 

at Damascus, 4, 400. 
Khemarim, idolatrous priests, 

under Manasseh, 1, 283. 
Khiva, the Jews of, in the 

twelfth century, 3, 435. 
Khorasan, under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Pumbeditha 
academy, 3, 98, 184. 
the Exilarch banished to, 3, 196. 
ambassadors from, bring news 
to Spain of the Jewish Cha- 
zar kingdom, 3, 220. 
under the jurisdiction of the 
Exilarch, 3, 428. 
Khorasan, the Jews of, believe 
themselves descendants of 
the Ten Tribes, 3, 433. 
occupations of, 3, 433. 
allied with the Ghuzz, 3, 434. 
aid Jenghis-Khan, 3, 581. 
Khozars, the. See Chazars, the. 
Kiddush, the, blessing over wine 
at the beginning of the Sab- 
bath, instituted, 1, 398. 
Kiera, Esther, court Jewess in 
Turkey, patroness of Jew- 
ish literature, 4, 608, 629. 
influence of, under !Murad III, 

4, 629. 
death of, 4, 629-30. 
Kiev, tributary to the Chazars, 
3, 138. 
the Jews banished from the 
district of, 5, 12. 
Kilavun, sultan of Egypt, and 
David Maimuni, 3, 620. 



402 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Kilavun (coiithiind), the Jewish 
subjects of, under the Da- 
mascus Exilarch, 3, G27. 

Kimchi family, the, at Nar- 
bonne, 3, 392; 4, 442. 
See David; Joseph ben Isaac; 
Moses Kimchi, 

Kinanah Ibn-ol-Babia, incites 
Arabian tribes to war against 
IMahomet, 3, 79. 
leader of the Jews of Chaibar, 

3, 82. 

death of, 3, S2-n. 
King, Kabbalistic term, 4, IS. 
Kingdom of God, the, predicted 
l)y a Juda-an poet in Egypt, 
2, 143. 
Kingdom of Heaven, the, hast- 
ening of, the object of Es- 
sene asceticism, 2, 145. 
brought by the second advent 

of Jesus, 2, 1G7. 
according to Paul, 2, 226. 
Kings, the Books of, commen- 
tary on, by Isaac Abrabanel, 

4, 359. 

Kinnereth. See Tiberias, lake. 
Kir-Haraseth. See Kir-Moab. 
Kir-Moab ( Kerek, Kir-IIaraseth) , 

Moabite fortress, 1, 209. 
Kiryath-Jearim, the Ark of the 

Covenant at, 1, 72. 
the Ark removed from, 1, 

119. 
Kiryath-Sepher (Debir), taken 

b}^ the tribe of Judah, 1, 

38. 
Kish, father of Saul, 1, 83. 
" Kitab Al-Assval," lexicon by 

Ibn-Janach, 3, 263. 
Klausner. See Abraham Klaus- 

ner. 
Kley transplants tlie Eeform 

movement to Hamburg, 5, 

563-4. 
inefficiency of, 5, 564. 
Heine on, 5, 577. 



Klonowicz, I'olish poet, assails 

the Jews, 4, 643. 
Kobad, king of the neo-Per- 
sians, tool of Mazdak, 3, 1. 

disciple of Mazdal'C, 3, 2. 

dethroned by the nobles, 3, 2. 

persecutes Jews and Chris- 
tians, 3, 3-4. 

death of, 3, 5. 
Koberger, Antonius, opponent 
of the Jews in Nuremberg, 
4, 415. 
Kodesli ha-Kodashim, by Ibn- 

Labi Ferrer, 4, 234. 
Kof rim, unbelievers, antagonists 
of the Sabbatians, 5, 144. 

Sabbatai Zevi proposes capital 
punishment for, 5, 150. 
Kohen. /See Abulsari Sahal; Na- 
than ben Isaac; Solomon Ko- 
hen. 
Kohen-Zedek II ben Joseph 
(917-936), Gaon of Pumbe- 
ditha, character of, 3, 183. 

causes dissension between So- 
ra and Pumbeditha, 3, 184. 

forces the Exilarch ISIar-Ukba 
to remove, 3, 184. 

has Mar-Ukba banished a sec- 
ond time, 3, 185. 

deposed by David ben Zaccai, 
3, 186. 

recognized as Gaon by the Ex- 
ilarch, 3, 186. 

proposes the closing of the 
Sora academy, 3, 192. 

jealous of Saadiah, 3, 194. 

espouses the side of David bei. 
Zaccai against Saadiah, 3, 
195. 

death of, 3, 200. 

son of, 3, 208. 
" Kol Sachal," by Leo ]\Iodena, 

5, 73. 
Kblbele, John Balthasar, v/rites 
a pamphlet against Mendels- 
sohn, 5, 316-17. 



INDEX. 



403 



Kolon, Joseph. See Joseph bon 

Solomon Kolon. 
Kompse bar Kompse, partisan 
of Rome in Tiberias, 2, 274. 
Koniecpolski, house of, controls 
Cossack colonization, 5, 3. 
emploj's Bogdan Chmielnicki, 
5, 7. 
Kciiiigsberg, a Jewish cemetery 
at, 5, 190. 
the University of, admits 

Jews, 5, 398-405. 
the Hamburg' reforms adojjted 
in, 5, 573. 
Konigsberg, the Jews of, burnt, 
5, 110-11. 
in Mendelssohn's time, 5, 397- 

8. 
join the " Society of Friends," 

5, 418. 
apostasy of, 5, 420. 
Konstantinov, the synod of, ex- 
commnnicates Frankists, 5, 
277. 
Koom, defeat of Judghanites 

at, 3, 150. 
Korachites. Sec Korah, the 

sons of. 
Korah, Samuel descended from, 
1, 73. 
honored by the Cainites, 2, 
375. 
Korah, the sons of, Samuel an- 
cestor of, 1, 79. 
psalmists, 1, 120. 
compose psalms on Sennache- 
rib's failure, 1, 278. 
compose a love-song in honor 
of Hezekiah's marriage, 1, 
279. 
Korahites. See Korah, the sons 

of. 
Koraishites, the, defeated by 
the i\[ahometans at Bedr, 3, 
76. 
induced to make war upon 
Mahomet, 3, 79. 



Koraishites, the (cuntiintcd), dis- 
trustful of their allies, 3, 80. 
Koran, the, and Jewish sources, 
3, 72. 

spread by the Jewish disci- 
ples of Mahomet, 3, 73. 

revelations against the Jews 
in, 3, 75, 78. 

war with the Nadhirites justi- 
fied in, 3, 79. 

on the slaughter of the Benu 
Kuraiza, 3, 81. 

accepted by the Moslem as 
the word of God, 3, 84. 

on the position of woman, 3, 
92. 

rationalistic expounders of, 3, 
147. 

violence done to the text of, 
3, 148. 

consulted by Hai Gaon for 
the explanation of Biblical 
words, 3, 251. 
Korban Mussaph, special Sab- 
bath and festival sacrifice, 
1, 101. 
Kosmann, defender of the Jews, 

5, 470. 
Kotzebue, assassination of, 5, 

528, 533. 
Kovad. See Kobad. 
Kramer, August, favors the 
emancipation of the Jews, 
5, 521-2. 
Krems, the Jews of, perish dur- 
ing the Black Death perse- 
cutions, 4, no. 
Krochmal, Nachman Cohen 
(1785-1S40), founder of the 
Galician school, 5, 607. 

Jewish and philosophical 
studies of, 5, 608. 

partially hostile to Talmud- 
ism, 5, 608. 

accused of conspiring with 
Karaites against the Tal- 
mud, 5, 608-9. 



404 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Krochmal, Nachman Colieii 
{continued), method of in- 
struction of, 5, 609. 

uses the Talmud in historical 
researches, 5, 609-10. 

admiration for, 5, 610. 

Rapoport disciple of, 5, 610, 
614, 617. 

influence of, on young Gali- 
cians, 5, 614. 

style of, 5, 617. 

influence of Rapoport on, 5, 
617-18. 

devotes himself to encyclo- 
paedic studies, 5, 618. 

the father of Jewish science, 
5, 619. 

contributor to the Kerem 
Cheraed, 5, 622. 

as exegete, 5, 695, 699. 
Krysa, Jeliuda Leb, Frankist 
rabbi, 5, 275. 

makes a Catholic confession of 
faith, 5, 285. 
Kryvonoss, Haidamak leader, 
5, 9. 



Kufa, given to Jewish exiles by 
Omar, 3, 85. 

residence of Ali, 3, 90. 

capital of eastern Islam, 3, 93. 

the Jews of, in the twelfth 
centurj', 3, 437. 

Ezekiel's grave near, 3, 440-1. 
Kunigunde, sister of Maximi- 
lian I, marries her father's 
enemy, 4, 428. 

becomes abbess of a Francis- 
can convent, 4, 428. 

gives Pfefferkorn a letter to 
Maximilian, 4, 428-9. 

influences Maximilian to issue 
mandates against the Jews, 

4, 437, 440-1. 

Kuraiza Place, the market place 

of Medina, 3, 81. 
Kuranda, Ignatz, founder of 

the " Israelitische Allianz," 

5, 703. 

Kuru-Gismu, Hebrew printing 

press at, 4, 628. 
Kusari. Sec Cliozari. 
Kussiel. See Yekutiel. 
Kypros. See Cypros. 



La Asumcao, Diogo de, Francis- 
can, professes Judaism, 4, 
668. 

martyr, 4, 669. 

influences Rohel Jesurun, 4, 
669, 070. 
Labienus, persuades the Par- 
thians to invade Sj'ria, 2, 
82. 
Lachish, king of, defeated by 
Joshua, 1, 34-5. 

Amaziah killed in, 1, 226. 

headquarters of Sennacherib, 
1, 273. 

offers opposition to Nebuchad- 
nezzar, 1, 311. 



Ladislaus II, of Bohemia and 

Hungary, appealed to by 

the Jews of Ratisbon, 4, 

303. 

and the Jews of Bohemia, 4, 417. 

Ladislaus IV, of Hungary, con- 
firms the anti-Jewish de- 
crees of the Coimcil of Buda, 

3, 015. 

Ladislaus V (Posthumus), of 
Hungary, and Capistrano, 

4, 262. 

sanctions the expulsion of 
Jews from Silesia, 4, 262-3. 
Laanas, Popillius, Roman dep- 
uty to Antioohus Epiphanes, 
1, 453. 



INDEX. 



405 



La Fare, bishop of Nancy, op- 
poses the euuuicipatioii of 
the Jews, 5, 441, 4(12. 

La Fuente, Juan de, inqiiisitov, 
cruelty of, 4, 184. 

Lagarto, Jacob, lirst Talmudical 
author in South America, 4, 
G93. 

Lagrange, huids a mathemati- 
cal work by Ensheini, 5, 
401. 

La Guardia, tlie Jews of, charged 
with the blood accusation, 

4, 343. 

Laguna, Lopez (Daniel Israel, 
lGGO-1720), Ahirrano jjoet in 
Jamaica, 5, 203. 

Lahmi, brother of Goliath, Phil- 
istine champion, 1, 117. 

Lamartine, and the Turkisli 
Jews, 5, G19. 

Lamentations, the, of Jeremiah, 
1, 316, 319. 

Lammlein, Aslier. See Ashcr 
Liimmlein. 

Lampo, ail Alexandrian hostile 
to the Judreans, 2, 181. 

Landau, Ezekiel (1720-1793), 
rabbi of Jampol, declares 
the Eibeschiitz amulets 
Sabbatian, 5, 205-6. 
distrusts Eibeschiitz, 5, 289. 
opposes Mendelssohn's Penta- 
teuch translation, 5, 330. 
objects to the study of the 

sciences, 5, 402. 
opponent of the Berlin move- 
ment, 5, 417. 
death of, 5, .560. 

Landfried, ambassador from 
Charlemagne to Haroun 
Alrashid, 3, 143. 

Landsberg, Jews settle in, 5, 
174. 

Landtag, the Prussian, Jews in, 

5, 697. 



Langton, Stephen, a r<'h bishop 
of Canterbury, hostile to the 
Jews, 3, 504. 
convenes a Church Council at 
Oxford, 3, 510. 
" Language of Truth, The," 
Xiamphlet in the Eibe.schiitz 
controversy, 5, 2(56. 
Languedoc, the Jews of, in the 
tenth century, 3, 242. 
in the twelfth century, 3, 389- 

91. 
and the ban against science, 

4, 40. 
protected by the governor, 4, 
132. 
Laniado, Joseph, accused of 
ritual murder, 5, G36. 
tortured, 5, G3G-7. 
dies under the torture, 5, 638. 
Lansac, de, French ambassador, 

4, 577. 
Laodicea (Leda), treasure house 
in, for the half-Shekel con- 
tributions to the Temple, 2, 
53. 
Herod at, 2, 93. 
Verus Commodus at, 2, 447. 
place of exile of Jose ben 

Chalafta, 2, 448. 
the Jews of, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 426. 
La Papa, Aaron de. Sec I'apa. 

Aaron de la. 
La Peyrere, Isaac, on Israel's 
restoration, 5, 24-5. 
in intercourse with Manasseh 
ben Israel, 5, 25. 
Laplace, lauds a mathematical 

work by Ensheim, 5, 401. 
Lara, de, noble Castilian familj', 

3, 363. 
Lara, David Coen de (1610- 
1674), preacher and philolo- 
gist, 5, 115. 
unalTected by Spinoza's attack 
upon Judaism, 5, 117. 



4o6 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Larta. Sec Arta. 

Laskorun, Frankists sm-prised 

at, 5, 275. 
Lateran Council, the third, for- 
bids Jews to keeiJ Christian 
nurses or domestics, 3, 400, 
41S, 421-2. 
forbids forcible baptism, 3, 421. 
the decrees of, disregarded by 
Philip Augustus, 3, 498-9. 
Lateran Council, the fourth, 
convoked by Innocent 111, 3, 
508-9. 
purposes of, 3, 509. 
Jewish delegates to, 3, 509. 
results of, 3, 509. 
Lateran Council, the fourth, 
anti-Jewish decrees of, 3, 
509-11. 
confirmed bj^ the Council of 

Narbonne, 3, 518. 
re-enacted by the Couucils of 

llouen and Tours, 3, 520. 
enforced in Hungary, 3, 521. 
executed by Frederick II, 3, 
569. 
Lateran Council, the fifth, the 
Reuchlin case submitted to, 
4, 4G4. 
declares for Reuchlin, 4, 4G5. 
Lathier, opponent of the Jews 

of Alsace, 5, 524-5. 
Latin translations of the Scrip- 
tures, ordered to be read in 
Jewish congregations, 3, 14- 
15. See also Vulgate, the. 
Latin words, in the Mishua, 2, 

461. 
Laurilla, Dutch consul, protects 
the Jews of Beyrout, 5, G41. 
Laurin, Austrian consul-general 
in Turkey, interferes in the 
Damascus affair, 5, 647. 
thanked by the London meet- 
ing, 5, G53. 
thanked by the Jews of Alex- 
andria, 5, 660. 



Lavater, John Caspar, attracted 
by Meiuleissuiiirs pliysiog- 
nom3', 5, ;'.0S-9. 

determines to convert Men- 
delssohn, 5, 309-10. 

letter addressed to, by Men- 
delssohn, 5, 311-13. 

impopularity of, 5, 313. 

apologizes to Mendelssohn, 5, 

;!14. 

anecdotes concerning, 5, 315. 
La Vega, de. See Penso, Joseph. 
Law (Torah, Pentateuch), the, 

carried to Bab^ion by the 

priests, 1, 334. 
observed by the Babylonians, 

1, 3G4. 
studied by Ezra, 1, 365. 
read to the people by Ezra, 1, 

378-80. 
the Juda^ans swear to observe, 

1, 380-1. 
displaces proj^hecy, 1, 385. 
.strict observance of, 1, 387. 
held sacred by the Samari- 
tans, 1, 392. 
the fundamental law of the 

commonwealth, 1, 393-4. 
study of, 1, 396. 
the " fence " about, 1, 397-8. 
unspiritual tendencj'^ of the 

laws of clean and unclean 

in, 1, 401-2. 
studied and observed by the 

Chassidim, 1, 436. 
the observance of, urged by 

Jesus Sirach, 1, 440-1. 
aspersed by Menelaus, 1, 449- 

50. 
translated into Greek, 1, 510- 

14. See Septuagint, the. 
study and observance of, un- 
der Salome Alexandra, 2, 

51. 
knowledge of, spread by the 

schools of Hillel and Sham- 

mai, 2, 149. 



INDEX. 



407 



Law, ihc {f<i)itiiiiii(l}, transgres- 
sors of, addressed by Jesus, 
2, 152. 

desertion from, among the 
Alexandrians, 2, 209. 

observance of, urged by Philo, 
2, 210-14. 

attempts to harmonize, with 
philosophy, 2, 212-13. 

attacked by Greek Judaians, 
2, 221-2. 

upheld by the apostle Paul, 2, 
221. 

to be abrogated for the con- 
version of the heathen, 2, 
225. 

abrogated, according to Paul, 
by the appearance of Jesus, 
2, 22G, 229-30. 

declared binding by certain 
apostles, 2, 231. 

adhered to, by Judasan Chris- 
tians, 2, 232. 

enforced by the Jamnia Syn- 
hedrion, 2, 363-4. 

declared unnecessary by Panl, 
2, 365. 

observed by the Jewish Chris- 
tians, 2, 365-6. 

disregarded b3^ the Pagan 
Christians, 2, 367. 

the observance of, forbidden 
by Hadrian, 2, 422. 

said to have been altered by 
the Samaritans, 2, 457. 

the instruction of women in, 
2, 474. 

classification of the commands 
in, 2, 499. 

observance of, in Samaria, 2, 
534. 

Chaldaic and Syriac transla- 
tions of, 2, 581-2. 

said to contain references to 
IMahomet, 3, 76. 

knowledge of, esteemed, 3, 
113. 



Law, the {roiiliiiurd), liold 1o be 
binding by A nan ben JJavid, 
3, 134. 

Tossafoth in explanation of, 
3, 345. 

analyzed in the " Guide of the 
Perplexed," 3, 484-5. 

abrogated according to Kay- 
mund Martin, 3, 622. 

Persian translation of, 4, 101. 

significance of, 5, 716-17, 721. 

Halachic development of, 5, 
723-4. 

See also IMislma, the; Scri[)- 
tures, the; Talmud, the. 
Law, the, the Book of (Deuter- 
onomy), found in the Tem- 
I)le, 1, 292-3. 

read to the people in Jerusa- 
lem, 1, 294. 

read by Ezra in Jerusalem, 1, 
37S-S0. 
Law, the, commentary on, by 
l>hilo, 2, 212. 

by Solomon ben Yerucham, 3, 
206. 

by Chananel ben Chushiel and 
Nissim bar Jacob, 3, 249. 

by Samuel ben Chofni, 3, 253. 

by Samuel ben Meir, 3, 34G. 

by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, 3, 371- 
') 

by Moses of Coucy, 3, 586. 

by Nachniani, 3, 607-8. 

See also Scriptures, the, com- 
mentary on. 
Law, the, the disciples of, mean- 
ing of, 2, 357. 
Law, the, the reading of, insti- 
tuted, 1, 396. 

at divine service intheSopheric 
age, 1, 399. 

the Exilarch the first called 
to, 3, 95. 
Law, the, the scroll of, burnt 
by Antiochus ICpiphanes, 1> 
455. 



4o8 



HISTORY OF THE 1E\VS. 



Law, the, the scroll of (cox- 
tinucd), burnt by the over- 
seers of Antiochus Epipha- 
nes, 1, 457. 

carried with the Judsean army 
under Judas Maccabaeus, 1, 
467. 

profaned by a Komau soldier, 

2, 243. 

burnt by Ursicinus, 2, 509. 
burnt in Nancy, 5, 451. 
Law, the, the teachers of, 

called Rabbis, 2, 335. 
disunited, 2, 335. 
forbid the study of Greek 

under Hadrian, 2, 400. 
meet at Lydda, 2, 423-4. 
artisans, 2, 441, 442, 575. 
demands upon, in the time of 

Judah I, 2, 453-4. 
displeased with Judah II, 2, 

485-6. 
severity of, to each other, 2, 547. 
banished from Judaja under 

Constantine, 2, 566-7. 
superstition of, 2, 578. 
luxurious habits of, 2, 588-9. 
a privileg'ed class, 2, 589. 
scorned, 2, 589-90. 
as compilers, 2, 605. 
persecuted by Kobad, 3, 4. 
persecuted by Ilormisdas, 3, 8. 
averse from the use of Latin 

and Greek in the sj'nagogue, 

3, 14. 

attack the Byzantine empire, 

3, 10. 
among the Arabian Jews, 3, 

59, 02. 
See also Amoraim; Geonim; 

Sabureans; Sopherim; Tana- 

ites. 
Law, the, translations of. See 

w/ider Pentateuch, the; Trans- 
lation. 
Law, the oral (Tradition), early 

origin of, 1, 390-7. 



Law, the oral (Tradition) {ron- 
tiiiucd), study of, under Sa- 
lome Alexandra, 2, 51. 

Pharisee study of, begins. 2, 
72. 

justified by Hillel, 2, 98-9. 

knowledge of, spread by the 
schools of Hillel and Shani- 
mai, 2, 149. 

the study of, encouraged by 
Jochanan ben Zakkai, 2, 320. 

systematized by Hillel, 2, 327- 
S. 

committed to memory, 2, 328. 

methods of establishing, 2, 
328. 

taught outside of Jamnia, 2, 
335. 

disinterested study of, 2, 338-9. 

the earliest code of, 2, 343. 

as deduced by Akiba, 2, 352-3. 

Akiba's code of, 2, 353-4. 

as deduced bj' Ishmael ben 
Elisha, 2, 355-0. 

the study of, outside of Ju- 
daea, 2, 358-9. 

unity of, established, 2, 405. 

the stud}' of, forbidden by Ha- 
drian, 2, 420. 

importance of the study of, 2, 
427, 473-4, 544. 

knowledge of, transplanted 
from Asia to Europe, 2, 443. 

codification of, completed, 2, 
400, 402. 

new development of, in Baby- 
lonia, 2, 511. 

neglected in Babjionia, 2, 
513-14. 

the study of, flourishes in 
Babjionia, 2, 574-5. 

the distinguishing feature of 
Judaism, 2, 008. 

See also Halacha, the; Mishna, 
the; Talmud, the: Taunites. 
La-Yesharim Tehilla, drama 
by Luzzatto, 5, 242-4. 



INDEX. 



409 



Lazarus, disciple of Jesus, 2, 

IC.O. 
Leather-arms, ^'(■t; Armleder. 
Leb Herz, Sabbatiiin, 5, 152. 
Lebanon, mountain range, de- 
scription of, 1, 42, 44. 
wood from, used for Solo- 
mon's Temple, 1, 1G4. 
Leblin, chamberlain of the 

Duke of Austria, 3, 5G7. 
Lecha Dodi, Sabbath song, 4, 

538. 
'* Lectures upon the Modern 
History of the Jews," bj- 
Lowisohn, 5, 594. 
Leda. See Laodicea. 
Lee, Johanna, founder of the 

Shakers, 5, 378. 
Lefrank, satirist, Jewish cham- 
pion, 5, 471-2. 
Leghorn, Elias IMontalto at, 4, 
673. 
the Sabbatian movement in, 

5, 149. 
Nathan Ghazati at, 5, 101. 
the Portuguese Jews of, 

wealthj-, 5, 205. 
rabbis of, espouse the eanse 

of Eibesc-hiitz, 5, 2G4. 
rabbi of, opposes the Eeforra 
Tuovement, 5, 571. 
Leghorn, the Jews of, care for 
the Polish Jewish fugitives, 
5, 16. 
excepted from Napoleon's re- 
strictive laws, 5, 499. 
show honor to the Jewish en- 
voys to Egypt, 5, 658. 
Lehren, Hirsch, interested in 
the Damascus affair, 5, 649. 
appeal to, from Damascus, 5, 

651. 
protests against the Bruns- 
wick rabbinical conference, 
5, 682. 
Leibzoll. See Poll-tax. 



Leipsic, Jews permitted to live 

in, 5, 50'.). 
a liefonn synagogue in, 5, 

573. 
Leipsic, the battle of, celebrated 

b3' Jewish preachers, 5, 528. 
consecration of the Hamburg 

Temple on the anniversary 

of, 5, 564. 
Lejbovicz. See Frank, Jacob. 
Lemberg, meeting place of the 

Polish Talmudists, 4, 640. 
the German population of, 5, :!. 
the Jews of, suffer through 

the Cossacks, 5, 11. 
Sabbatianism in, 5, 228. 
disputation at, between Frank- 

ists and Talmudists, 5, 285-7, 
Frankists baptized at, 5, 288. 
beginnings of culture among 

the Jews of, 5, 612. 
Lemberg (district), Jacob Frank 

the leader of the Sabbatians 

in, 5, 273-4. 
Lemon, Herz de, member of the 

Felix Libertate, 5, 453. 
zealous for the emancipation 

of the Dutch Jews, 5, 455. 
deputy to the National As- 

sembl3% 5, 458. 
Lemos, Henrietta de. See Herz, 

Henrietta. 
Lenaeus, guardian of Ptolemy 

Vs sons, 1, 450. 
Leo X, pope, friendly' to the 

Jews, 4, 407, 592. 
employ's a Jewish physician, 

4, 40S. 
appealed to by Reuchliu, 4, 

4 53, 454. 
worldly character of, 4, 453-4. 
orders the examination of 

Hoogstraten and Reuchlin, 

4, 454. 
appealed to by Hoogstraten, 

4, 455. 



4IO 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Leo X, pope (cnntiniird), appoinis 
Cardinal Grimani judg'e in 
Reuclilin's cause, 4, 458. 

yields to Hoog-straten, 4, -lu4. 

submits the Keuchlin affair to 
the fifth Lateran Council, 4, 
464. 

suspends the Eeuchlin suit, 4, 
465. 

Eeiichlin's work on the Kab- 
bala dedicated to, 4, 46G. 

encourages the printing of the 
Talmud, 4, 4GS, 5G5. 
Leo of Crema, a wealthy Italian 

Jew, 4, 287. 
Leo Hebrseus. Sec Judah Leon 

Abrabanel. 
Leo the Hebrew, Sec Levi ben 

Gerson. 
Leo the Isaui'ian, emperor, 
forces baptism upon the 
Jews of the Byzantine em- 
pire, 3, 122-3. 

forces Jews to emigrate, 3, 
139. 

oppresses the Jews, 3, 175. 
Leo Medigo. See Judah Leon 

Abrabanel. 
Leo the Philosopher, emperor 
of the B^'zantine empire, 
punishes backsliding Jewish 
converts, 3, 170. 
Leo (Judah) ben Isaac Modena 
(].J71-ir.41)), sceptic, 5, 5G. 

ancestry of, 5, 65. 

precocity of, 5, G5. 

varied attainments of, 5, 65-6. 

lacks genius and character, 5, 
66. 

scepticism of, 5, C3-7. 

on card plaj-ing, 5, 67. 

on the transmigration o." 
souls, 5, 67. 

member of the Venice rabbi- 
nate, 5, 67. 

and Sarah Sullam, 5, 70. 

teacher of Christians, 5, 71. 



Leo (Judah) ben Isaac Modens 

((■o)itiiui(il), publishes a work 

on Jewish customs, 5, 71-2,81. 
attacks the Kabbala, 5, 74. 
death of, 5, 74. 
teacher of Joseph Delmedigo, 

5, 75. 
fickleness of, 5, 84. 
criticism of the Kabbala by, 

attacked by Luzzatto, 5, 240. 
Leon, the Jews of, in the 

twelfth century, 3, 3S4. 
suffer from the forces of Cas- 
tile and Aragon, 3, 387. 
not compelled to wear Jew 

badges, 3, 513. 
letter to, denouncing Solomon 

of Montpellier, 3, 544. 
taxed under Sancho, 3,. 617. 
accept baptism under Vincent 

Ferrer, 4, 205. 
Leon. See Jehuda ben Me'ir; 

Judah ben Yechiel. 
Leon de Bagnols. See Levi ben 

Gerson. 
Leon of Filneck, character in 

" Nathan the Wise," 5, 324. 
Leon, Jacob Jehuda (Templo, 

1G03-1G71), supposed author 

of " Colloquium Middelbur- 

gense," 4, GDI. 
work of, on tlie Temple, 5, 

114-15. 
work of, translated, 5, 115. 
translator of 1he Psalms, 5, 

115. 
unaffected by Spinoza's attack 

on Judaism, 5, 117. 
Leone Romano. See Jehuda ben 

]\Ioses ben Daniel. 
Leonora, duchess of Tuscany, 

friend of Benvcnida Abraba- 
nel, 4, 410, 553, 544. 
Leonora, widow of Ferdinand I, 

regent of Portugal, 4, IGO. 
removes Jews from office, 4, 

160. 



INDEX. 



411 



Leonora (continncd) , renouncos 
tlie regency, 4, lOO-l. 
quarrels with .liiaii I of Cas- 
tile, 4, ic.l. 

Leonora de Guzman, mistress of 

AlfonsoXl of Castile, arouses 

his suspicions against Gon- 

zalo Martinez, 4, 85. 

Gons of, oppose Pedro the 

Cruel, 4, 113. 
causes the ill-treatment of Al- 
fonso's wife, 4, 114. 

Leonore d'Este, attachment of 
the Jews to, 4, 660. 

Leontin. See Jehuda ben Meir. 

Leontopolis, the Temple of 
Onias built at, 1, 508. 

Leopold I, emj)eror, decrees the 
banishment of the Jews, 5, 
170. 
refuses to revoke the decree 

of banishment, 5, 171-2. 
re-admits Jews into Vienna, 5, 

189. 
decrees the suppression of 
" Judaism Unmasked," 5, 
190. 
appealed to, in behalf of Eisen- 
menger's book, 5, 192-3. 

Leopold II, of Austria, imposes 
new restrictions on the 
Jews, 5, 508. 

Leopold, duke of Austria, Jew- 
ish treasurer of, 3, 418. 

Leopoldstadt, assigned to the 
Jew's of Vienna, 4, 702; 5, 
172. 

Lepanto, the Jews of, in the 
twelfth century, 3, 424. 

Lepers, the, at Bethany, 2, IGO. 
treatment of, in the Middle 
Ages, 4, 57. 

Lepidus, member of the second 
triumvirate, 2, 81. 

Lerida, resists the introduction 
of the Inquisition, 4, 332. 



Lerida, the Jews of, cxcoinmu- 
nicate the aiiti-Maimunists, 

3, 537. 

persecuted in 1391, 4, 172. 
converted by Vincent Ferrer, 

4, 214. 

Lerin, count of, receives the 

Spanish exiles, 4, 358. 
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, lib- 
erality of, 5, 296. 

becomes acquainted with Men- 
delssohn, 5, 297. 

attitude ©f, towards Jews, 5, 
297, 330. 

admiration of, for Mendels- 
sohn, 5, 298, 302. 

has Mendelssohn's first work 
printed, 5, 290. 

on the Luvater controversy, 5, 
319. 

becomes acquainted with the 
Eeimarus family, 5, 319-20. 

publishes the " Fragments of 
an Unknown," 5, 320-1. 

attacked on account of the 
" Fragments," 5, 322-3. 

writes his " Nathan the Wise," 

5, 323-7. 

aided by Mosea Wessely, 5, 326. 
loses caste through " Nathan 

the Wise," 5, 326. 
death of, 5, 326, 327. 
accused of Spinozism, 5, 372. 
influence of, on German Jews, 
5, 412. 
" Letter of Aristas," translated 
by Azarya dei Ilossi, 4, 615. 
" Letter " of Gaon Sherira, on 

Jewish history, 3, 232-3. 
" Letter of Warning, The," by 
Solomon Alami, quoted, 4, 
154-5. 
" Letter of Zeal," by Eibeschiitz, 

5, 261. 
Letters, the carrying of, regu- 
lated by Gershom ben Jehu- 
da, 3, 244-5. 



dI2 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



" Letters of Obscurantists, 
The," by Crutus Rubianus, 
a Reuchlinist work, 4, 461-2. 

on the Jews and the Talmud, 
4, 461. 

effect of, 4, 462. 

attributed to various authors, 
4, 462. 

compared with Perl's attacks 
on Chassidism, 5, 612. 
Levelers, the, Jewish spirit 
among-, 5, 28. See Puritans, 
the. 
Leven, Narcisse, founder of tlie 
Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle, 5, 701. 
Levi, the tribe of, learns from 
the Eg-j'ptians how to write, 
1, 8. 

free from Egyptian idolatrous 
practices, 1, 12. 

faithful to Moses, 1, 18. 

See Levites, the; Priests, the. 
Levi (Matthew), j)ublican, fol- 
lower of Jesus, 2, 153. 
Levi bar Sissi, teacher of the 
Law in Simonias, 2, 454. 

adds supplements to the Mish- 
na, 2, 470. 

son of, 2, 497. 

on the neo-Persians, 2, 525. 
Levi ben Abraham ben Chayim, 
of Villefrunche (1240-1315), 
allegorist, system of, 4, 24-5. 

at Perpig-nan, 4, 25. 

opposed by Abba-]\Iari, 4, 28. 

forced to leave Samuel Sula- 
mi's house, 4, 29. 

ancestor of Gersonides, 4, 91. 
Levi ben Gerson (Ralbag, Ger- 
sonides, Leon de Bagnols, 
Leo the Hebrew, 1288-1345), 
philosopher, 4, 87, 91. 

scientific education of, 4, 91. 

as astronomer, 4, 91-2. 

life of, 4, 92. 



Levi ben Gerson {eontimted) , Tc 
ligious philosophy of, 4, 92-3. 

fearlessness of, 4, 92. 

denounced as a heretic, 4, 93. 

astronomical treatise of, trans- 
lated into Latin, 4, 93, 103. 

predicts the beginning of the 
I\Iessianic period, 4, 120. 

aiithoritj^ of, questioned by 
Chasdai Crescas, 4, 146. 

Isaac ben Sheshet's view of, 4, 
147. 

accused of heresy by Shem 
Tob ben Joseph, 4, 197. 

adversely criticised by Isaac 
Abrabanel, 4, 342. 

exegesis of, praised by Reuch- 
lin, 4, 442. 

commentary of, published in 
the Bomberg Bible, 4, 470. 
Levi ben Jacob Chabib, rabbi of 
Jerusalem, Talmudist, forced 
baptism of, 4, 378, 532-3. 

attainments of, 4, 533. 

relation of, to Jacob Berab, 4, 
533-4. 

ordained by Jacob Berab, 4, 
534. 

antagonizes Jacob Berab, 4, 
534, 535, 536. 

confesses his forced baptism, 
4, 536. 
Levi ben Shem Tob, apostate, 
advises the baptism of Jew- 
ish children. 4, 37"). 
Levi ben Todros Abulafia, Kab- 

balist, 4, 2. 
Levi, Aaron. See Montezinos, 

Antonio de. 
Levi, Abraham. See Abraham 

Levi. 
Levi, Astruc. »Siee Astruc Levi. 
Levi, David (Ture Zahab), Tal- 
mudist, 5, 152. 
Levi, Elisha, Palestinian emis- 
sary, father of Nathan Gha- 
zati, 5, 130. 



INDEX. 



413 



Levi, Gedaliah. See Godaliah 

Levi. 
Levi, Isaac Lurya. See Isaac 

Lurya Levi. 
Levi, Isaiah, Salibatian, 5, 1")2. 
Levi, Nathan Benjamin. Sec 

Nathan Benjamin Levi. 
Levi, Raphael, charged with 
the blood accusation, 5, 
1~5-G. 
guilt of, believed in by Eisen- 
menger, 5, 188. 
Levi, Solomon. See Solomon 

Levi. 
Levi, Wolf, ajiostate, 5, 21.}. 
Levin (Varnhagen), Rachel, 
characteristics of, 5, 413. 
on the " hep, hep! " persecu- 
tion, 5, 534. 
influence of the salon of, on 
Heine, 5, 54G. 
Levirate marriage, the, regu- 
lated by the synod of May- 
ence, 3, 518. 
Levita, Elias. See Elias Levita. 
Levite, a, author of the books of 

Chronicles, 1, 411. 
Levites, the, punish the idola- 
trous Israelites in the des- 
ert, 1, 24. 
left without territory, 1, 40. 
reside at Shiloh, 1, 41, 69. 
opposed to intermarriages 

with the heathen, 1, 56. 
dispersed among the tribes, 1, 

57. 
reprove the people for idola- 
try, 1, 58. 
•scattered from Shiloh, 1, 72. 
join Samuel in a guild, 1, 76. 
assist Samuel, 1, 78. 
faithful to David in the civil 

war with Absalom, 1, 141. 
service of, in the Temple, 1, 

167-8. 
settle in Judah to escape idol 
worship, 1, 187, 



Levites, the {ronlinued), recalled 
to the Temijle under Josiah, 
1, 289. 

carry the Psalms into the 
Babylonian exile, 1, 334. 

return from the Captivity un- 
der Zerubbabel, 1, 352. 

leave Jerusalem, 1, 372. 

lack of, in Jerusalem under 
Nehemiah, 1, 377. 

explain the Law as read by 
Ezra, 1, 378-9. 

at the consecration of the 
walls of Jerusalem, 1, 381-2. 

tithes for, collected under 
Ezra, 1, 382. 

lose their income, 1, 383. 

return to the Temple, 1, 386. 

abandon the Temple under 
Apollonius, 1, 454. 

re-instated bj'^ the Maccabees, 
1, 473. 

officiate in the Temple of 
Onias, 1, 508. 

See also Levi, the tribe of; 
Priests, tlie. 
Levy, Maurice, acquaints Napo- 
leon with the anti-Jewish 
agitation, 5, 498. 
Lewin, Hirschel, rabbi of Ber- 
lin, and Mendelssohn, 5, 317. 
Lexicon, Hebrew (Aruch, Dic- 
tionarj^, Iggaron, iMachbe- 
reth), by Saadiah, 3, 190. 

by IMenachem ben Saruk, 3, 
225, 226. 

by Ibn-Janach, 3, 263. 

by Solomon ben Abraham Par- 
chon, 3, 423. 
Lexicon, Talmudical, b3' Mar- 
Zemach I ben I'altoi, 3, 
1T9. 

by Xachshon ben Zadok, 3, 
179. 

by Nathan ben Yechiel, 3, 290. 

by David de Pomis, 4, 657. 

See also Aruch. 



414 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Lexicons, Talmudical, revised, 

5, 11.'). 
Libauius, teacher of Julian the 

Apostate, 2, 595. 
Libermann, Eleazar, aids the 

Reform movement, 5, 5G8, 

569. 571- 
liibertini, the, sj-nagogues of, 2, 

103, 201. 
Libertinus, prefect of Sicily, 

razes a synagogue to the 

ground, 3, 34. 
" Library of the Fine Arts, 

The," Mendelssohn contrib- 
utes to, 5, 300. 
Liebmann, Jost, court jeweler, 

favorite of Frederick I of 

Prussia, 5, 190. 
wife of, 5, 190, 219. 
permitted to have a private 

synagogue, 5, 191. 
son-in-law of, 5, 219. 
Liegnitz, the Jews of, charged 

with host desecration, 4, 261. 
" Light of the Exile, The," Ger- 

shom ben Jehuda, 3, 243. 
" Light of the Eyes," by Azarya 

dei Rossi, 4, 615. 
declared heretical, 4, 616. 
fate of, among Jews and 

Christians, 4, 616-17. 
Lima, David de, builds the third 

synagogue at Hamburg, 4, 

691. 
Limpo, Balthasar, bishop, abuses 

Paul III before the Council 

of Trent, 4, 525-6. 
Lincoln, the Jews of, protected 

against the. crusaders, 3, 

413. 
Lindau, the Jews of, charged 

with well poisoning, 4, 105. 
burnt on the blood accusation, 

4. '5''7 

rr, «.. 1 . 

Lipmann (Tab-Yoini) of Miihl- 
hausen, defeuds the Alenu 
prayer, 4, 178. 



Lipmann, Solomon, temporary 

chairman of the Assembly 

of Jewish Notables, 5, 487. 
Lippe, Jews tolerated in, 4, 686. 
Lippe-Schaumburg, the Prince 

of, honors ISIendelssohn, 5, 

308. 
Lippold, physician., accused of 

poisoning Elector Joachim 

II, 4, 652. 
Lisbon, the Jews of, agitation 

against, 4, 160. 
ransom Jewish captives, 4, 339. 
port open to the Jews on their 

banishment from Portugal, 

4, 374, 376-7. 

exiles from, form a congrega- 
tion in Constantinoi^le, 4, 
402. 

earthquake at, 4, 505. 

tribunal of the Inquisition in, 

5, 508. 
autos-da-fe in, 5, 32, 91. 

Lisbon, the Marranos of, wor- 
ship at a sj-nagogue, 4, 485. 
massacre of, 4, 487. 
life of, inquired into, 4, 489. 
sj^ied upon by Henrique Nunes, 
4, 490. 
Lisbona, Samuel, father-in-law 

of Nathan Ghazati, 5, 130. 
Lissa, Jacob, leader of the or- 
thodox party, 5, 507. 
Lissa, Mendelssohn's Pentateuch 
translation forbidden in, 5, 
332. 
the Jews of, burn Wessely's 

letter, 5, 370. 
the rabbi of, opposes the Re- 
form movement, 5, 571. 
Literature, Jewish, in Hasmo- 
nsean times, 2, 15-16. 
becomes known to the 

heathen, 2, 502. 
Reuchlin on, 4, 441-3. 
attractive to Christians, 5, 
178, 179. 



INDEX. 



415 



Literature, Jewish, {continued). 

See under Hebrew literature; 

Judaeo-Greek literature; Ilab- 

biiiical literature; Poetry*. 
Literature, Jewish mediteval, 

treated by Sachs, 5, 693-4. 
by Zunz, 5, 694. 
Lithuania, a refuge for exiled 

Jews, 4, 418-19. 
rabbinical schools established 

in, 4, 420. 
united with Poland, 4, 031. 
the Protestant Eeformation in, 

4, 040-7. 
Karaites in, 5, 182-3. 
the Chassidim in, 5, 388. 
Lithuania, the Jews of, the 

blood accusation launched 

ag-ainst, 4, 642. 
represented in the Synod of 

the Four Countries, 4, 044. 
suffer from the Cossacks, 5, 

14. 
" Little Book about the Jews, 

The," disproves the blood 

accusation, 4, 545-0. 
Liturgical poetry, introduced, 

3, n:;-i4, 117-is. 
cultivated by the Jewish An- 

dalusian school, 3, 224. 
by minor poets, 3, 230, 259-00, 

367, 376, 419. 
by Simon ben Abun, 3, 245. 
by Mo.ses Ibn-Ezra, 3, 320. 
See under Xeo-Hebraic poetry; 

Piyutim; Poetanim; Poetry; 

Poets. 
Liturgy, the, arranged by the 

Sopherim, 1, 398-400. 
Gamaliel II introduces the 

Berachoth into, 2, 363. 
amplification of, by poetanic 

com])ositions, 3, 113-14, 117- 

18. 
of the Karaites, 3, 132; 4, 71, 

73-4. 



Liturgy, the (continued), of tlie 
European Jews, compiled l>y 
^far Amram ben Sheshna, 

3, 17S. 

arranged by Saadiah, 3, 190. 
Sephardic, adopted in nortli- 

ern Africa, 4, 198. 
German, compiled by Maharil, 

4, 225. 

affected by the Kabbala, 4, 481. 
of the Chassidim, 5, 380-7. 
Liturgy, the clianges in, made 
by jSIaimonides, 3, 466. 
made by Abi Zimra, 4, 395. 
in Amsterdiun, 5, 457. 
made bj' Jacobson, 5, 562. 
made by Kley, 5, 564. 
approved by some authorities, 

5, 569. 

in Vienna, 5, 580, 581-2. 
made by the Hamburg Tem- 
ple Reform Union, 5, 673. 
in IMecklenburg-Schwerin, 5, 
679. 
Livia, empress, heiress of Sa- 
lome, sister of Herod, 2, 128. 
Livia, See l?eth-lvamatha. 
Livorno. See Leghorn. 
Loans. See Jacob ben Yechiel; 

Joseph ben Gershom. 
Lobato, Diego Gomez, and Paul 

de Pina, 4, 069-70. 
Lbbele Prossnitz, Sabbatian, 
supporter of Chayon, 5, 219. 
denounced, 5, 229. 
in intercourse with Eibe- 
schiitz, 5, 248, 249. 
Lodi, the Jews of, number of, 
in the sixteenth century, 4, 
053. 
expelled, 4, 000. 
Lodomeria, the Jews of, pro- 
scribed by the Coiincil of 
Puda, 3, 6M. 
Logos, the, in Philo's philoso- 
phy, 2, 213. 
in the Church, 2, 500, 501. 



4i6 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Logrono, the Jews of, perse- 
cuted, 4, 170. 
Lombards, the, usury practicetl 

by, 3, 510. 
Lombardy, German Jewish im- 
migrants held up in, 3, 638. 
London, Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, 
3, 373-4. 
Jews secretly domiciled in, 5, 

38. 
excitement in, about the ad- 
mission of Jews, 5, 44. 
Jewish burial ground in, 5, 49. 
first synagog-ue in, 5, 50. 
the Sabbatian movement in, 

5, 141. 
the Mansion House meeting 

in, 5, 655-7. 
celebration of Montefiore's re- 
turn to, 5, 670. 
rabbinical college at, 5, 700. 
London, the Jews of, pros- 
perous imder Henry II, 3, 409. 
attacked by a mob at Richard 

I's coronation, 3, 410-11. 
protected by John, 3, 505. 
attacked, 3, 591-2, 643. 
protected by Henry III, 3, 592. 
hold a meeting on the Damas- 
cus aflPair, 5, 053-4. 
London, the Portuguese Jews 
of, wealthy. 5, 205. 
hold aloof from the Eibe- 
schiitz eontroversj% 5, 2()4. 
Longinus, rhetorician, at the 

court of Zenobia, 2, 529. 
Longobard code, the, no men- 
tion of Jews in, 3, 33. 
Lope de Vega, dramatist, 5, 112. 
Lopes de Almeida, Portuguese 
ambassador to Home, 4, 340. 
Lopes-Dubec, member of Males- 
lierbes' commission, 5, 432. 
deputy of the French Jews, 5, 
438. 
Lopez, Portuguese Marrano, pro- 
tected by Sixtus V, 4, 055. 



Lopez, Balthasar, Marrano, burnt 

at the stake, 5, 91-2. 
Lopez, Juan, del Barco, inquisi- 
tor appointed b^- Sixtus IV, 
4, 312. 
Lopez, Pedro, de Ayala, poet, on 
the Jews of Castile, 4, 121, 122. 
Lorch, the Jews of, the murder- 
ers of, punished, 3, 635. 
Lord Mayor, office of, held by 

Jews, 5, G9S. 
Lord's Supper, the. See Tran- 

substantiation. 
Lorqui. See Joshua ben Joseph 

Ibn-Vives. 

Lorraine, rabbis from, at the 

first rabbinical synod, 3, 377. 

Lorraine, the Jews of, petition 

for alleviation, 5, 431. 

representatives of, in ^lales- 

herbes' commission, 5, 431. 
number of, 5, 435. 
complain to the National As- 
sembly', 5, 436. 
send a delegate to the Nation- 
al Assembly, 5, 438. 
emancipation of, opposed by 
the Due de P)roglie, 5, 447. 
" Los Rumbos peligrosos," 
novels by Joseph I'en.so, 5, 
113. 
Lost Islands, the. See San 

Thomas. 
Louis the Pious (S11-S40), em- 
peror, the Jews under, 3, 
lGl-70. 
wife of, 3, 102. 

refuses to countenance Ago- 
bard's anti-Jewish proceed- 
ings, 3, 16.5-G. 
sons of, excited against his 

wnfe, 3, 106, IGS. 
heresy of, in protecting the 

Jews, 3, 167. 
letter addressed to, by the 
bishops assembled at Lyons, 
3, 167-8. 



INDEX. 



417 



Louis the Pious ((■(iiihiuicd), and 
the eoiiversion of Bishop 
Bodo, 3, 108-70. 

originates the theory that the 
Jews are the emperor's 
wards, 3, 170. 
Louis II (S55), emperor, decree.s 
the banishment of the Ital- 
ian Jews, 3, 17 1. 
Louis the German, kinj,' of Ger- 
many, Bible commentary 
dedicated to, 3, 1G3. 
Louis IV, the Bavarian, em- 
peror, imposes a tax on the 
Jews, 4, 9G-7. 

tries to protect the Jews dur- 
ing the Armleder persecu- 
tions, 4, 98. 

sons of, deliver the Jews to 
the mob, 4, 110. 
Louis VI, of France, the Jews 

prosperous under, 3, 343. 

Louis VII, of France, the Jews 

prosperous under, 3, 343. 

joins the second crusade, 3, 
349. 

roused against the Jews by 
Peter the Venerable, 3, 349- 
50. 

permits the repudiation of 
debts owing to Jews, 3, 351. 

friendly to Jews, 3, 400-1. 

resists the anti-Jewish decrees 
of the third Lateran Coun- 
cil, 3, 508. 
Louis IX, of France, has the 
Talmud burnt, 4, 460, 578-9. 

hostile to the Jews, 3, 519. 

encourages the conversion of 
Jew^s, 3, 570. 

fixes the rate of interest, 3, 571. 

orders a disputation on the 
Talmud, 3, 57G. 

brother of, 3, 583. 

confiscates the property of 
Jews to organize a crusade, 
3, 585, 



Louis IX, of rrancc (coiitinucd), 
taken pri.soner, 3, 585. 

banisiies the Jews from his 
hereditary doniiniuns, 3, 
585-(j. 

insists upon the Jew badge, 
3, (112. 
Louis X, of France, recalls the 

Jews, 4, 53-4. 
Louis XII, of France, influ- 
enced against Reuchlin, 4, 
459, 4G4. 

confessor of, patron of He- 
brew literature, 4, 473, 
Louis XIV, of France, cele- 
brated by Enriquez de Paz, 
5, 110. 

renews the privileges of the 
Jews of Metz, 5, 174. 

orders criminal charges 
against the Jews to be tried 
by the royal council, 5, 176. 

presents the Jews of Metz to 
the house of Braneas, 5, 348, 
446. 
Louis XV, of France, confirms 
the right of the Portuguese 
to expel German Jews from 
Bordeaux, 5, 342, 343. 
Louis XVI, of France, implored 
to expel the Jews from Al- 
sace, 5, 350. 

orders lawsuits against usui*- 
ers to be decided by the 
state councilor, 5, .'i50-l. 

abolishes the poll-tax on Jews, 
5, 415, 432. 

government of, helped by Cerf 
Berr, 5, 430. 

grants privileges to Cerf Berr, 
5, 431. 

disposed to ameliorate the 
condition of the Jews, 5, 
431. 

approves of the emancipation 
of the Portuguese Jews, 5, 
442. 



4i8 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Louis XVI, of France (coniiniicd), 
f^rants special protection to 
Alsatian Jews, 5, 44G. 
removes taxes from the Jews 

of Alsace, 5, 446. 
ratifies the Constitution, 5, 

447. 
confirms the emancipation of 
the Jews, 5, 448. 

Louis XVIII, of France, reac- 
tionary court of, 5, 512. 
government of, does not re- 
new the anti-Jewish restric- 
tions, 5, 524-5. 
the emancipation of the Jews 
under, 5, 596. 

Louis I, of Hungary and Po- 
land, banishes the Jews, 4, 
111. 

Louis, duke of Anjou, regent of 
France, confirms the privi- 
leges of the French Jews, 4, 
150. 
protects the Jews of Paris, 4, 
151, 152. 

Louis the Rich, duke of Bavaria, 
plunders and expels the 
Jews, 4, 253-4. 
under the influence of John of 
Capistrano, 4, 258. 

Louis, duke of Bavaria-Lands- 
hut, claims the Jews of 
Ratisbon, 4, 300. 
attempts to convert the Jews, 
4, 301. 

Louis of Brandenburg, orders 
the Jews of Konigsberg to 
be burnt, 4, 110-11. 

Louis, count of Darmstadt, pro- 
tects the Jewish exiles from 
Worms, 4, 099. 

Louis Philippe, of France, the ' 
emancipation of the Jews 
under, 5, 596-7. 
ratifies the law making rabbis 
state officers, 5, 597. 



Louis Philippe, of France {con. 
tinued), supports Mehmet 
Ali, 5, 633, 634. 
appealed to on the Damascus 

affair, 5, 645. 
struggle of, with Thiers, 5, 

648. 
deceives the hopes of the 

French Jews, 5, 651, 658. 
ambiguous attitude of, 5, 668. 
receives Montefiore, 5, 668. 
Louise, of Prussia, death of, 
mourned by the Berlin 
Jews, 5, 508. 
Louvain, the university of, sanc- 
tions the burning of the 
" Augenspiegel," 4, 452. 
Lowe, Joel, editor of the ^Meas- 
sef, 5, 400. 
mediocrity of, 5, 417. 
Lowisohn, Solomon (1789-1822), 

Jewish historian, 5, 594. 
Ldwy, Albert, founder of the 
" Anglo-Jewish Association," 
5, 703. 
Loyola, Ignatius, power of, 
over Paul III, 4, 525. 
efforts of, to re-establish tlie 
supremacy of the x^iiP'icy, 4, 
562. 
Ltibeck, objects to Jewish in- 
habitants, 5, 506. 
Jews admitted into, 5, 506. 
Liibeck, the Jews of, threatened 
witli banisliment, 5, 512. 
banished, 5, 520. 
Lubienski, Wratislaw, arch- 
bishop of Lemberg, Frank- 
ist petition to, 5, 284-5. 
Lublin, meeting place of the 
Polish Talmudists, 4, 610. 
meeting place of the Synod of 
the Four countries, 4, 644, 
645; 5, 3. 
the German population of, 5, 3. 
sj'nod of, relaxes the Jewish 
marriage laws, 5, 13. 



INDEX. 



419 



Lucca, home of the Kalonymos 
family, 3. li:;. 
Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, 3, :5~l-;i. 
tlie Jews of, in the twelfth 
century, 3, 424. 
Lucena (city), the Talmud 
school of, famous, 3, 236. 
refuge of the Jews of Granada, 

3, 279. 

a Jew of, threatens to betray 
his coreligionists, 3, 317. 

Jehnda Halevi studies at, 3, 
322, 323, 

the school of, closed by the 
Alniohades, 3, 361, 384. 

Jews disappear from, 4, 354. 
Lucena, the Jews of, corresiiond 
in Arabic with the Gaon of 
Sora, 3, 178. 

famous through Alfassi, 3, 
311. 

Islam forced on, 3, 311-12. 

pretend to accept Islam, 3, 
301. 
Lucena (district), early settle- 
ment of Jews in, 3, 43. 
Lucero, Diego Rodriguez, hang- 
man in Cordova, cruelty of, 

4, 484. 
disciple of, 4, 489. 

Lucilla, daughter of Marcus 
Aurelius, cured by Simon 
ben Yochai, 2, 449. 

Lucuas (Andreias), leader of 
the Jews of Gyrene against 
Trajan, 2, 395. 

Lucullus, Roman commander, 
attacks Tigranes, of Arme- 
nia, 2, 5G. 

Luna, Alvaro de, favorite of 
Juan II of Castile, invites 
the aid of Jews, 4, 228. 
protects the Jews, 4, 251-2. 
complains of the backsliding 

of the Marranos, 4, 256. 
confessor of, 4, 277. 



Luna, Pedro de. See Benedict 

Xlll. 
Lunel, Serach^a llalevi Gerund! 
at, 3, 389. 
letter to the wise men of, 03' 

Meir Abulafia, 3, 524. 
synagogue of, sold, 4, 48, 
Liinel, the Jews of, in the 
twelfth century, 3, 396-8, 
learning of, 3, 390. 
scientific tendency of, 3, 39 <. 
letter to, from Maimonides, 3, 

489. 
ask Maimonides to translate 
his " Guide of the Per- 
plexed " into Hebrew, 3, 
491-2. 
exhorted bj' Maimonides to 
study the Talmud scientific- 
ally, 3, 492. 
excommunicate Solomon of 

Montpellier, 3, 530. 
oppose the study of science, 4, 

33. 
accused of outraging the im- 
age of Jesus, 4, 55. 
Luneville, deputies from, to the 
National Assembly, aTul 
Isaac Berr, 5, 438. 
the peace of, 5, 464, 465, 
Lupus, governor of Alexandria, 
executes fugitive Zealots, 2, 
318. 
Lupus, Trajan's general in 

Egypt, 2, 395. 
Lurya. See Isaac Lurya Levi; 

Solomon. 
Lusitano, See Abraham Zacuto 

Lusitano. 
Lusitanus, Amatus. See Ama- 

tus Lusitanus. 
Luther, Martin, character of, 
4, 407. 
in the pantomime on the Prot- 
estant Eeformation, 4, 468, 
at the diet of Worms, 4, 469. 
on the Wartburg, 4, 469, 



420 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Luther, Martin (eo?i^(«»(>d), trans- 
lates the Bible, 4, 409. 

on the Jews, 4, 470-1, 547-52. 

learns Hebrew, 4, 473, 475. 

encourages the study of the 
Bible, 4, 474. 

pamphlet by, 4, 548. 

proves the Messiahship of Je- 
sus, 4, 548. 

reviews the suffering of the 
Jews, 4, 549. 

attacks the Talmud, 4, 549-50. 

treatment of Jews j)roposed 
by, 4, 550-1. 

advises the expulsion of the 
Jews, 4, 551-2. 
Lutherans, the, in Spain, perse- 
cuted by the Inquisition, 4, 
485. 

the meetings of, in Poland, 

the model of the Synod of 

the Four Countries, 4, 645. 

Luzk, the Karaites of, 4, 2G5; 5, 

1S2. 
Luzzatto, Moses Chayim (1707- 
1747), dramatic poet, 5, 20.1- 
4. 

a prey to Kabbalistic influen- 
ces, 5, 233. 

ancestry and early education 
of, 5, 233. 

poetic gifts of, 5, 233-4. 

studies in Hebrew meter by, 
5, 234. 

composes a drama on Samson, 
5, 234. 

style of, 5, 234. 

imitation of the psalter by, 5, 
234. 

a second drama by, 5, 235. 

imitates the style of the Zo- 
har, 5, 235. 

devoted to the Kabbala, 5, 
23G. 

writes a second Zohar, 5, 237. 

communicates his Kabbala to 
disciples, 5, 237-8. 



Luzzatto, Moses Chayim {con- 
ihntcd), opposed by Moses 
Chages, 5, 238. 

refuses to justify himself, 5, 
238, 

promises not to teach Kabbala 
in Europe, 5, 239. 

surrenders his writings to 
Bassan, 5, 239. 

publishes Kabbalistic writ- 
ings, 5, 239. 

offends the Venetian rabbi- 
nate, 5, 239-40. 

accusations against, 5, 240. 

excommunicated by the Vene- 
tian rabbinate, 5, 240, 242. 

promises to give up Kabbala, 
5, 241. 

received kindly at Amsterdam, 
5, 242. 

supports himself by polishing 
lenses, 5, 242. 

publishes a drama, 5, 242-4. 

influence of, on the modern 
time, 5, 244. 

goes to Safet, 5, 244. 

death of, 5, 244-5. 

model of Bresselau, 5, 398. 

disciple of, 5, 401. 
Luzzatto, Samuel David (ISOO- 
18G5), scholar, disinterested- 
ness and enthusiasm of, 5, 
622-23. 

gifts of, 5, 623. 

poetry of, 5, 623. 

devotes himself to Biblical ex- 
egesis, 5, 623. 

view held 1)3% of the Massora, 
5, 624. 

historical studies of, 5, 624-5. 

as exegete, 5, 695, 699. 
Luzzatto, Simone (Simcha, 1590- 
1663), on usur}', 5, 41. 

sceptic, 5, 56. 

member of the Venice rabbi- 
nate, 5, 67. 

attainments of, 5, 80. 



INDEX. 



421 



Luzzatto, Simone (continued), 

oil tlu' ri'lation of faith to 

science, 5, 80-1. 
sobriety of, 5, 81. 
on Jewish rites, 5, 81. 
defends Judaism and the 

Jews, 5, 81-4. 
on the Talmud and Kabbala, 

5, 84. 
moderation of, 5, 84. 
Lybia, the Jews of, rebel 

against Trajan, 2, 394, 390. 
Lydda (Diospolis), taken bj-^ the 

Samaritans, 1, 410. 
besieged by Alexander Jan- 

na^us, 2, 45. 
center for the teaching of the 

Law under Gamaliel II, 2, 

335, 346. 
restored to Judoea by Cajsar, 

2, 76. 

meeting i^lace of the teachers 

of the Law after the fall of 

Bethar, 2, 423. 
the inhabitants of, praised by 

Chanina bar Chama, 2, 492. 
seat of Joshua ben Levi's 

academy, 2, 497. 
birthplace of SimlaV, 2, 498. 
refuge of Ulla bar Kosher, 2, 

530. 
seat of a Jewish revolt against 

Rome, 2, 570. 
partially destroyed, 2, 570, 
the original text of the Bible 

studied at, 2, 623. 
Lydia. See Croesus. 
Lynn, the Jews of, massacre of, 

3, 411-12. 

Lyons, the Council of, to hum- 
ble the Jews, 3, 167-8. 
rabbi of, at the first rabbini- 
cal synod, 3, 377. 



Lyons (crmdnucd), Innocent IV 

at, 3, 5S4. 
Lyons, the Jews of, ill-treated 
by Agobard, 3, 164-5. 
under the protection of Louis 
the Pious, 3, 165-6. 
Lysanias, son of Ptolemy- of 
Chalcis, incites the Par- 
thians against Herod and 
Phasael, 2, 82. 
Lysias, Syrian commander, lieu- 
tenant of the country be- 
tween Egypt and the Eu- 
phrates, 1, 463. 
commissioned to march against 

Judaea, 1, 464. 
chooses his subaltern officers, 

1, 466-7. 
defeated by Judas Maccabaeus. 

1, 469-70. 
guardian of Antiochus V, 1, 

477. 
invades Judaea, 1, 478-80. 
takes Bethzur, 1, 479. 
forces Judas Maccabseus to re- 
treat, 1, 479. 
besieges the Temple, 1, 479. 
razes the fortifications of the 

Temple, 1, 480. 
executes Menelaus, 1, 480. 
disobeys Home, 1, 481. 
death of, 1, 482. 
Lysimachus, ally of Ptolemj^ I, 
at the battle of Ipsus, 1, 417. 
Lysimachus, the Benjamite, Hel- 
lenist, opposed to Onias III, 
1, 437. 
Jerusalem left in charge of, 

1, 448. 
spoils the Temj)le, 1, 448. 
killed, 1, 449. 
Lysimachus, Alexander. See Al- 
exander Lysimachus. 



422 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



M 



Maachah, wife of Eehoboam, 
worships Astarte, 1, 188-9. 
regent for Asa, 1, 189. 
idolatry of, hateful to the 
people of Judah, 1, 190. 
Maamad, public sittings of the 
rabbis of Amsterdam, 4, 
G84. 
Maase Efod, Hebrew grammar 

by Profiat Duran, 4, 191. 
Maasseiah, governor of Jerusa- 
lem, appointed over the 
Temple funds, 1, 292. 
Maccabaeus. See Judas Macca- 

bseus. 
Maccabean time, the, character- 
ized, 5, 722-3. 
" Maccabee, The," by ]\Iiguel 

Silveyra, 5, 111. 
Maccabees, the, father and live 
sons, 1, 458-9. 
re-consecrate the Temple, 1, 

472-3. 
See TIasmonfpans, the. 
Maccabees, the first Book of, 
originally wrilten in He- 
brew, 2, K). 
considered apocryphal, 2, 344. 
" Maccabees, the. History of," 

See Josippon. 
Macedonia, dissolution of the 
kingdom of, 1, 416. 
Paul estalilishes Greek-Chris- 
tian communities in, 2, 227. 
Macedonia, the Jews of, auton- 
omy of, 3, 27. 
in the twelfth centur3% 3, 424. 
Machaerus, Judaean fortress, 
built b\- Alexander JannjEUS, 
2, 4G. 
surrenders to the Romans, 2, 

73. 
surrenders to Bassus, 2, 315. 
Machault, Denys, ajiostate, dis- 
appearance of, 4, 175. 



Machbereth, Hebrew dictionary 

by Alenachem ben Saruk, 3, 

235. 

criticised by Uunash Ibn-La- 

brat, 3, 226. 

''Machbi," device on Molcho's 

banner, 4, 510. 
Machir, assists David in the war 

with Absalom, 1, 144. 
Machir, a learned Jew, head of 
the Narbonne congregation, 
3, 143. 
ancestor of Kalon^-mos ben 
Todros, 3, 392. 
Machpelah, cave of, acquired by 

Abraham, 1, 4. 
Machuza (Maoga-lMalka), a city 
of Babylonia, description of, 
2, 506-8. 
inhabited hy Jews, 2, 507. 
the Persian army stationed at, 

2, 591. 
destroyed by Julian the Apos- 
tate, 2, 602. 
capital of a Jewish state, 3, 4. 
Machuza, the academy of, un- 
der Kaba bar Joseph bar 
Chama, 2, 571, 584-5, 590. 
produces the Talmud, 2, 591. 
decline of, 2, 593. 
Machuza, the Jews of, de- 
scended from proselytes, 2, 
507, 586. 
luxurious habits of, 2, 507. 
peculiarities of, 2, 586. 
marriages of, 2, 586-7. 
made captives bj^ Kobad, 3, 4. 
put to death by Mebodes, 3, 9. 
Machuza, a district of Jewish 

Babylonia, 2, 505. 
Macon, the Council of, passes 
anti-Jewish resolutions, 3, 
:i9. 
Madaba. See Medaba. 
Madain, the Jews of, silence a 
Mahometan crier, 3, 428. 



INDEX. 



423 



Madrid, the Jews of, under 

Saiielu). 3, (117. 
Madrid, the cortes of, petition 
Alfonso XI concerning usu- 
ry, 4, 80. 
ask for anti-Jewisli laws, 4, 
80. 
Maella, the Jews of, converted 

by Vincent Ferrer, 4, 214. 
Maesa, grandmother of Elegaba- 

lus, 2, ■IC)'). 
Maestro Gayo. See Isaac ben 

^lordecai. 
Magdala (Tarichaea), Judtean 
troops surrender to the Ro- 
mans at, 2, 75. 
Jesus in, 2, 154, 157. 
rebels against Josephus, 2, 

280. 
Jewish stronghold in the Bar- 

Cochba revolt, 2, 414. 
fall of, 2, 416. 

dissatisfied with a decision by 
Simon ben Yochai, 2, 449. 
Magdeburg, Jews in, in the 
ninth century, 3, 144. 
a church at, granted the reve- 
nue derived from Jews, 3, 
243. 
Magdeburg, the Jews of, per- 
secuted in the thirteenth 
century, 3, 611. 
banished, 4, 416. 
suffer during the Black Death 
persecution, 4, 111. 
Maggid, the dream-interpreter, 
of Solomon Molcho, 4, 496. 
of Joseph Karo, 4, 497, 537-8. 
of Moses Chayim Luzzatto, 5, 
236, 237. 
Maghariyites, a Karaite sect, 3, 

151. 
Maghreb. See Kairuan. 
Magi, the, practices of, forbid- 
den by Rab, 2, 521. 
recover credit under Ardashir, 
2, 524. 



Magi, tiie (coiitiiiuctl), persecute 
the Christians, 2, 524. 
molest the Jews of Babylonia, 

2, 524-5. 

fanaticism of, diminishes, 2, 

525-6. 
and Ashi, 2, 605. 
and Jezdijird, 2, 609-10. 
influence of, over the Sassa- 

nian monarchs, 2, 627. 
and the Jews* of Isp:ih:ni, 2, 

620. 
religion of, reformed by ^liv/,- 

dak, 3, 1-2. 
cause a persecution of the 

Jews, 3, 8. 
Magian influence on Judaism, 

1, 402-5. 
Magister Judaeorum^, officer in 

the Frankish empire, 3, 161. 
Magisterial offices, certain 

classes of Jews exempt 

from, under Constantine, 2, 

561, 563, 616. 
Jewish exemption from, abol- 
ished by Theodosius I, 2, 615. 
Jews exempt from, under Ar- 

cadius, 2, 616. 
Jews forced to assume, by 

Justinian, 3, 13. 
Jews excluded from, by the 

Council of Paris, 3, 40. 
Jews exempt from, in Cologne, 

3, 41. 

Sfc Civil ofiices. 

Magnus, Marcus, court Jew of 
Frederick William I, 5, 219. 

Magona, the Jews of, forced 
into Christianity, 2, 619-20, 

Magyars, the, made intolerant 
by the papacy, 3, 614. 

Mahadia. See Kairuan. 

Mahanaim, seat of Saul's fam- 
ily after his death, 1, 108, 
110. 
battle of, in the war with Ab- 
salom, 1, 144. 



424 



HISTORY OF THE |E\VS. 



Mahanaim (coittitutal), David 

welcomed at, 1, 111. 
Maharil. See Jacob ben Moses 

.Molin Halevi. 
Malidi, the founder of the Fati- 

niide dynasty. 3, 212. 
Malier-Shalal-Chash-Baz, son of 

Isaiah, 1, 2J!). 
Mahomet, inspired by Judaism, 

3, 71-2. 
revelations to, from Gabriel, 3, 

71. 
declaims against idolatry and 

immorality, 3, 72. 
tries to \vin over the Jews of 

Yathrib, 3, 7.'i. 
character of, 3, 74. 
Jewish opponents of, 3, 71-5. 
g-ives up Jewish ceremonies, 3, 

75-G. 
antagonism of, to Jews, 3, 70. 
victorious at Bedr, 3, 7(J. 
drives the Benu-Kainukaa 

from Arabia, 3, 76-8. 
victorious over the Benu-Nad- 

hir, 3, 78-80. 
exterminates the Benu-Kurai- 

za, 3, 80-1. 
victorious over the Jews of 

Chaibar, 3, 81-;). 
attempt to poison, 3, 8:i-l. 
the Jews of ^Medina intrigue 

against, 3, 84. 
death of, 3, 84. 
acknowledged as the pro^ihet 

by conquered nations, 3, 80. 
as viewed b^' Anan ben David, 

3, i:i4. 
Mahomet II, Turkish conqueror 

of the B^^zantine empire, 

threatens Christendom, 4, 

207. 
friendly to the Jews, 4, 208. 
Mahomet IV, sultan, influence 

of Jewish women under, 4, 

629. 



Mahomet IV, sultan {continued), 
considers the case of Sabba- 
tai Zevi, 5, 153. 

receives Sabbatai into Iskim, 
5, 154. 
Mahomet Alemin, son of Ha- 
rnun-Alrashid, war of, with 
his brother, 3, 145. 

death of, 3, 146. 
Maliomet Almansur, Ilajib of 
llisham, and Jacob Ibn-Jau, 
3, 239, 240-1. 
Mahomet Alm.uktafi, Abbasside 
Caliph, revives the Exilarch- 
ate, 3, 428. 
Mahomet Bey, vizir, attacks 

Aclimcd Shaitan, 4, 396. 
Mahomet Sokolli, vizir, antago- 
nizes Joseph Nassi, 4, 596, 
599, 002. 

favorable to Venice, 4, 600. 

employs a Jewish agent, 4, 
603, 605. 

supplants Joseph Nassi, 4, 
027. 

advises the confiscation of Jo- 
seph Nassi's property, 4, 
02S. 
Mahometan (pseudo) Jews, des- 
pair of, 3, 452. 

exhorted to remain true to 
Judaism, 3, 452. 

condemned as apostates and 
idolaters, 3, 453-4. 

defended bj'^ Maimonides, 3, 
454-0. 
Mahometans, the, looked upon 
by the Jews as liberators 
from the Christian yoke, 3, 
88-9. 

conspire with the Jews to 
overthrow Ihe Visigothic- 
Spanish empire, 3, 108. 

conquer Visigothic Spain, 3, 
109. 

culture of, in Spain under the 
Ommiyyade caliphs, 3, 214. 



INDEX. 



425 



Mahometans, the {continued). 

traditions of, used by Hai 

Gaon, 3, 251. 
in Spain, crusade against, 3, 

507. 
condition of, in Hungary, 3, 

520-1. 
proscribed in Hungary, 3, ()15. 
distrusted by Argun, khan of 

Persia, 3, 047. 
intrigue against Saad-Addaula, 

3, 648-9. 
usurers in Castile, 4, SO. 
the crusades against, begin 

with massacres of Jews, 4, 

222. 
placed under restrictions by 

Eugenius IV, 4, 250. 
persecuted, 4, 251. 
protected by Juan II of Cas- 
tile, 4, 252. 
the Jews under, 5, 72G-7. 
Mahon. See ]\Iagona. 
Maillotins, the, attack the Jews 

of France, 4, 152. 
Maimaran, Joseph, adviser of 

Muley Ismail, 5, 1G8. 
Mainii, Simon. See Simon Maimi. 
Maimon, Solomon (1753-1800), 

on Hirsch Janow, 5, 331. 
philosophical thinker, 5, 405, 

407-9. 
character and studies of, 5, 

407, 408. 
goes to Germany, 5, 407-8. 
wanderings of, 5, 408. 
autobiography of, 5, 409. 
fame of, 5, 409. 
Maimonides, Moses. See Moses 

ben ]\raimun. 
Maimun ben Joseph, father of 

IMaimonides, Talmiidist and 

scientist, disciple of Joseph 

Ibn-]\rigash, 3, 317, 447. 
influence of, on his son, 3, 

447. 



Maimun ben Joseph {eontinued), 
a fugitive from the Almo- 
hades, 3, 448. 

teacher of his son, 3, 448. 

emigrates to Fez, 3, 451. 

family of, assumes Islam, 3, 
451. 

exhorts the pseudo-Mahome- 
tan Jews to remain true to 
Judaism, 3, 452. 

emigrates to Palestine and 
Egypt, 3, 45G-7. 

death of, 3, 457. 
Maimun Asha, Arabic poet, 
protected by Shoraich, 3, 
70. • 
Maimuni. See Abraham (Al- 
meni) Maimuni; Abraham 
Maimuni II; David ben Mai- 
mun; David Maimuni; Mo- 
ses ben Maimun. 
Maimunist controversy, the, 3, 
530. 

in* verses, 3, 538, 544. 

compromise in, proposed by 
Nachmani, 3, 539-40. 

taken up by the Dominicans, 
3, 542-3. 

causes a division in Judaism, 
3, 54G-7. 

causes the neglect of poetrj-, 
3, 558-9. 

allayed by the burning of the 
Talmud, 3, 579-80. 

breaks out anew in the time 
of Solomon ben Adret, 3, 
623-4. 

in Germany, Italy, and Pales- 
tine, 3; 624-34. 

in Accho, 3, 631, 632-3. 

solution of, proposed by Hillel 
of Verona, 3, 631-2. 

revived by the Tibbonide par- 
ty in Montpellier, 4, 32-3, 
42. 

See also Anti-Maimunists, the; 
]\lainiunists. the. 



426 



HISTORY OF THE JE^VS. 



Maimunists, the, partisans of 
Moses ben Maimiin, 3, 523; 
5, 728. 

war declared ag^ainst, by Sol- 
omon ben Abraham, 3, 527. 

excommunicated by Solomon 
ben Abraham, 3, 528-9. 

excommunicate Solomon of 
Montpellier, 3, 530. 

trj' to alienate the French 
rabbis from Solomon of 
Montpellier, 3, 539. 

denounce Solomon of Mont- 
pellier, 3, 543-4. 

opposed to the Kabbalists in 
the explanation of ceremo- 
nies, 3, 554. 

break away from the Talmud, 
3, 557-8. 

in Perpignan, 4, 25. 

in Montpellier, 4, 32-3. 

See also Auti-Maimunists, the; 
IMaimunist controversy, the. 
Maimunists, list of: 

Aaron ben IMeshullum, 

Abraham ben Cliasdai, 

Bachiel Ibn-Alkonstantiiii, 

David ben Daniel, 

Da\i(l Kiinflii, 

Hillel bt'n Sainuc^l of Verona, 

.Jacob ben Abba-Mari ben Simon 

Anatoli, 
Jonathan Cohen ol' Liincl, 
Levi ben Abraham bcMi Cliaj ini, 
Moses ben Isaac Ahislikar, 
Moses ben Jehuda Cohen, 
Samuel ben Abraham Saporta, 
Samuel Cohen ben Daniel, 
Vishai ben Chiskiya. 

Main(e) district, the, the Jews 
of, under Henry II, 3, 109. 
emigrate, 3, 638. 
find a refuge in Poland, 4, 120. 
Maiora, martyr, 4, 570. 
Majorca, French Jews emigrate 
to, 4, 49. 
quarrel about the cliief rab- 
binate of, 4, 1C2. 



Majorca (continued), forced con- 
verts in, relapse into Juda- 
ism, 4, 180. 
Marranos from, in Algiers, 4, 

199. 
the Inquisition established on, 
4, 332. 

Majorca, the Jews of, jierse- 
cuted, 4, 77, 171. 
take refuge in northern Afri- 
ca, 4, 198. 
converted by Vincent Ferrer, 

4, 206. 
extermination of, 4, 246-7. 

Makariyites, a Karaite sect, 3, 
151. 

Maksen, leader of the Sinhajas, 
3, 256. 

Malabar, the coast of, Jews em- 
igrate to, 2, 630. 

Malach, Chayim. See Chayim 
Malach. 

Malach ham-Maveth, angel of 
death, 1, 403. 

Malache Chabalah, evil spirits, 
introduced into Jiulaism 
from Magianism, 1, 403. 

Malachi, last of prophets, 1, 
384-5. 

Malaga, Jews masters of, 3, 109. 
Samuel Ibn-Nagrela at, 3, 255. 
Berber city, 3, 256. 
family of Ibn-Gabirol emi- 
grate to, 3, 268. 
suffering of the Spanish exiles 
in, 4, 369-70. 

Malchishua, son of Saul, death 
of, 1, 103. 

Malchus. Srr Porphyry. 

Malchutli Sliamayim. Sec King- 
dom of Heaven, the. 

Malcom. See Milcom. 

Malesherbes, institutes a Jew- 
ish commission to amelior- 
ate the condition of the 
Jews, 5, 431. 



INDEX. 



427 



Malich., king of the Naba- 
thneans, at war with Herod, 
2, 94-5. 
vassal of Herod, 2, 95. 

Malich, counselor of Hyrcanus 
II, poisons Antipater, 2, 80. 
assassinated by Herod, 2, 80. 

Malka bar Acha (771-773), prin- 
cipal of the Pumbeditha 
academy, 3, 37. 

Malka Kadisha, Kabbalistic 
term, the Messiah, 5, 143. 

Malic, Portiiguese inquisitor, 4, 
521. 

Maimed, collection of sermons 
by Jacob Anatoli, 3, 56G. 
attacked by the party of 

Abba-Mari, 4, 32. 
read by the Tibbonides, 4, CO. 
falls under the ban, 4, 40. 

Malshim. (Malsin), traitors, 4, 
156. 

Malta, ^larranos transported to, 
4, 570. 

Malta, the Knights of, attack 
Jewish exiles, 4, 592. 
forbidden to make slaves of 
Jews, 4, 656. 

Malthace, the Samaritan, wife 
of Herod, 2, 119. 

Mamal (Mamala), citj^ of Gali- 
lee, inhabitants of, of the 
family of Eli, 2, 575. 

Mammsea, mother of Alexander 
Severus, admires Christiani- 
ty, 2, 481. 

Mammon, scorn of, taught by 
the Essenes, 2, 145. 
taught by Jesus, 2, 150. 

Mamson, suspected of well poi- 
soning, 4, 104. 

Manasseh, king of Jndah, son 
of Hezekiah, 1, 280. 
state of the kingdom under, 1, 

281-4. 
idolatry introduced under, 1, 
282-3. 



Manasseh, king of Judah (coh- 
tlnned), taken prisoner by 
Esarhaddon, 1, 285. 

death of, 1, 285. 
Manasseh, the tribe of, claims 
the central lands of Canaan, 
1, 35-6. 

holds assemblies at Shiloh, 1, 
41. 

opijosed to intermarriage with 
the heathen, 1, 56. 

members of, join Gideon, 1, G2. 

in conflict with Ephraim, 1, 
63. 

appeals to Samuel for help 
against Ainmon, 1, 80. 

territory of, taken by Ilazael, 
1, 220. 

descendants of, in Chaibar, 3, 
437. 
Manasseh, member of Eliashib's 
household, marries a daugh- 
ter of Sanba-llat, 1, 383. 

banished by Nehemiah, 1, 386. 

Manasseh, relative of Simon the 

Just, acts as high priest, 1, 

, 423. 

Manasseh ben Israel (1601- 

1657), emigrates to the 

Netherlands, 4, 671, 

member of the Amsterdam 
rabbinical college, 4, 682. 

characterized by Antonio 
Vieira, 4, 683. 

education of, 4, 683. 

characterization of, 4, 683-4. 

qualifications of, for effecting 
the re-settlement of Jews in 
England, 5, 19-20. 

attainments of, 5, 20. 

as a preacher, 5, 20. 

esteemed b}"^ Jews and Chris- 
tians, 5, 20. 

treatises of, welcomed by 
Christian scholars, 5, 22. 

consulted by Christian schol- 
ars, 5, 22-3. 



428 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Manasseh ben Israel {contiuitcd), 
soiig-ht b3' Christian vision- 
aries, 5, 2'.]-^). 

and Messianic expectations, 5, 
24. 

reasons adduced by, for the 
re-settlement of Jews in 
England, 5, 28, ;!9-42. 

enconrag-ed by English writ- 
ings, 5, 28-30. 

on the fortunes of the Ten 
Tribes, 5, .30-3. 

publishes " Israel's Hope," 5, 
31-2. 

describes tlie terrors of the 
Inquisition, 5, 31-2. 

submits " Israel's Hope " to 
Parliament, 5, :!:i. 

negotiations of, interrupted, 
5, 34, 

receives a safe-conduct to Lon- 
don from the Short Parlia- 
ment, 5, 34-5. 

war delays the departure of, 
5, 35. 

petitions Parliament to per- 
mit Jews to settle in Eng- 
land, 5, 35. 

the Messianic work by Fel- 
genhauer dedicated to, 5, 
36-7. 

expounds Jewish Alessianic 
ideas, 5, 37-8. 

invited to England by Crom- 
well, 5, 38. 

petition presented by, to Crom- 
well, 5, 38-9. 

acts as the representative of 
European Jews, 5, 39. 

on the trade of the Jews, 5, 
40-1. 

defends the Jews against three 
charges. 5, 41-2. 

proposal by, for the admission 
of Jews into ICngland, 5, 
44. 



Manasseh ben Israel (continued) 
refutes theological objections 
to the admission of Jews, 5, 
45. 

defends his course before the 
Dutch government, 5, 46. 

disappointment of, 5, 46-7. 

defends the Jews against the 
blood accusation, 5, 47-9. 

honorabl.y dismissed by Crom- 
well, 5, 49. 

death of, 5, 50. 

devotee of the Kabbala, 5, 55. 

teacher of Spinoza, 5, 86, 87. 

outlines a historj' of the Jews, 
5, 202. 

\vork by, translated by ]\[ar- 
cus Herz, 5, 362. 

oath of, concerning the blood 
accusation taken by the 
London rabbis, 5, 655. 
Manchester, the Jews of, hold 
meetings for the Damascus 
affair, 5, 654, 657. 
Manessier de Vesoul, negotiates 
the return of the Jews to 
France, 4, 129. 

appointed receiver-general, 4, 
130-1, 132, 133. 

active in behalf of the Jews, 

4, 132. 

death of, 4, 150. 
sons of, 4, 150, 151, 152. 
Manetho, an Egyptian priest, 

libels the Jews, 1, 511. 
Manichaeans, persecuted by Jez- 

dijird III, 2, 627. 
Manna, description of, 1, 20. 
Mannheim, Moses Meir Kamen- 

kcr in, 5, 229. 
Mannheimer, Isaac Noali (1793- 
1864), intellectual qualities 
of, 5, 578. 
attractiveness of, 5/ 578. 
dignity of, 5, 579. 
fitted for his work in Vienna, 

5, 580. 



INDEX. 



429 



Mannheimer, Isaac Noah (roii- 
tinued), attitude of, towards 
Reform Judaism, 5, 580. 
changes sanctioned by, 5, 580. 
as a pulpit orator, 5, 581. 
personality of, 5, 582. 
influence of, in Germany, 5, 

582. 
compared witli Sachs, 5, 690. 
helps to reorganize Austria, 5, 
697. 
Manoel the Great, of Portugal, 
releases the Spanish exiles, 
4, .372. 
emjoloys Abraham Zacuto, 4, 

372. 
kindly disposed towards the 

Jews, 4, 372. 
sues for the hand of Isabella 

n of Castile, 4, 372-3. 
banishes the Jews, 4, 374. 
orders Jewish children to be 

baptized, 4, 375-6. 
cruelty of, 4, 376. 
limits the Jews to one port of 

departure, 4, 376. 
tries to force the Jews into 

Christianity, 4, 377. 
adopts milder measures to- 
wards the Portuguese Mar- 
ranos, 4, 379. 
delivers Spanish Marranos to 

the Inquisition, 4, 879-80. 
permits the last Jews to leave 

Portugal, 4, 380-1. 
grants freedom from molesta- 
tion to the Jews for a term, 
4, 485. 
checks the emigration of Mar- 
ranos, 4, 485-0. 
forbids the use of insulting 
names for Marranos, 4, 486. 
orders of, concerning Marra- 
nos, 4, 488. 
counselors of, protect the 
Marranos, 4, 488. 



Manrique, Inigo, chief judge of 
appeals for Marrano cases, 
4, .rjo. 
Mansfeld, general, plunders the 

Jews, 4, 701. 
Mantin, Jacob (1490-1549), phy- 
sician and scholar, ambition 
of, 4, 411. 
instructs Christians in He- 
brew, 4, 473. 
persecutes Jlolcho, 4, 506-7. 
physician to Paul III, 4, 515. 
Mantua, Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, 
3, 371. 
the Talmud burnt in, 4, 5(J5. 
refuge of the Jewish exiles 
from the Papal States, 4,. 
592. 
rabbis of, forbid young men 
to read Azarya dei Rossi's 
works, 4, 016. 
Jews beg for shelter in, 4, 060. 
the rabbi of, opposes the Re- 
form movement, 5, 571. 
Mantua, the Jews of, in the 
twelfth century, 3, 424. 
in the seventeenth century, 4, 

653. 
appeal for permission to own 
the Talmud, 4, 658. 
Maoga-Malka. See IMachuza. 
Maonites, the, subjugated by 

Uzziah, 1, 230. 
Maor, Talmudical work by Se- 
rachya Halevi Gerundi, 3, 
389. 
" Mappa," Moses Isserles' com- 
mentary on Karo's code, 4, 
637. 
Mar-Aaron ben Samuel, candi- 
date for the principalship of 
the Pumbeditha academy, 3, 
15^. 
Mar-Abraham ben Sherira (816- 
828), mystic, principal of the 
Pumbeditha academy, 3, 
154-5. 



430 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Mar-Abraham ben Sherira {con- 
t'unicd). deposed, 3, 155. 
re-instated, 3, luG. 
death of, 3, 15(). 
Mar-Amram ben Sheshna (Sfii)- 
8S1), Gaoii of Sora, compiler 
of the liturgy of European 
Jews, 3, 178. 
Mar bar Ashi (Tabyome), Amo- 
ra, principal of the Sora 
academy, 2, 62G-7. 
finishes the compilation of the 

Talmud, 2, 628. 
conscientiousness of, 2, C2S. 
death of, 2, C28. 
Mar bar Huna (600-620), princi- 
pal of the Sora academy, 3, 
10. 
Marburg, the university of, ai)- 
liealed to in the contest be- 
tween the Senate and the 
Jews of Frankfort, 5, 520. 
Marcellus II, pope, reactionary, 

4, 5G6. 
Mar-Chanina, effects Mar-Zu- 
tra II's investiture as Exil- 
arch, 3, 3. 
executed, 3, 4. 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 
emperor, war with Parthia 
imder, 2, -147. 
and Simon ben Yochai, 2, 449. 
appealed to by Jews and 

Christians, 2, 449. 
famine and plague under, 2, 

451. 
permission of, required to 

pray at Jerusalem, 2, 458. 
hostility of, to the Jews, 2, 
AiV.i. 
Mardeliar, chief of the Jews of 

India, 2, OliO. 
Mardochai, Francis, Egyptian 

tax farmer, 4, CIS. 
Mar-Elia I, Patriarch of the 
Eastern Christians, consult- 
ed by Hai Gaon, 3, 250. 



Mareshah (Marissa), scene of 
Asa's victory over an Ethio- 
pian army, 1, 190. 
Idunuean fortress, demolished, 
2, s. 

Margalita, Aaron, apostate, re- 
viles the Agada, 5, 194. 

Margaret, empress, has the 
Jews of Vienna banished, 5, 
170. 

Margaritha, Anton, apostate, 
writes against the Jews, 4, 
551. 

Marhab, a Himjarite, hero in 
the Chaibar war, 3, 82. 
beaten and killed by Ali, 3, 82. 
sister of, tries to jioison Ma- 
homet, 3, 8o-4. 

Mar-Huna, Exilarch. See Huna. 

Mari bar Mar, fountls an acade- 
my at Firuz-vShabur, 3, 8, 9. 

Maria of the Netherlands, pat- 
roness of Joseph Nassi, 4, 
572. 

Maria, Infanta of Spain, em- 
press, Marrano confessor of, 
5, 109. 

Maria, wife of Alfonso XI, ill- 
treated by her husband, 4, 
114. 

Maria de Molina, queen of Cas- 
tile, employs a Jewish phy- 
sician, 4, 2. 
dowager queen, antagonizes 
the Jewish treasurer, 4, 51- 
2 

protects the Jews of Castile, 
4, 52. 
Maria de Medici, employ's a 

Jewisli physician, 4, 673. 
Maria de Padilla. supposed 
wife of Pedro the Cruel, 4, 
116. 
party of, 4, 117. 
acknowledged as the wife of 

Pedro, 4, 122. 
said to be a Jewess, 4, 123. 



INDEX. 



431 



Maria Anna, of Austria, ban- 
ishes the last remnant of 
Jews from the Spanish prov- 
inces, 5, 1G9. 
Maria Juliana, queen of Den- 
mark, interested in Eibe- 
schiitz, 5, 2G7-8. 
Maria Theresa, empress, at war 
with Prussia, 5, 251. 
revokes the decree against 

the Jews of Moravia, 5, 252. 
banishes the Moravian and 

Bohemian Jews, 5, 252. 
revokes the decree of banish- 
ment, 5, 253. 
Mariamne, daug-hter of Agrippa 

r, immorality of, 2, 235. 
Mariamne, granddaughter of 
Ilj-rcanus II, betrothed to 
llerod, 2, 81. 
under the guardianship of 

Herod's brother, 2, 83. 
married to Herod at Samaria, 

2, 87. 
under the guardianship of 
Herod's brother-in-law, 2, 93. 
calumniated b.y Salome, 2, 

93-4. 
confined in Alexandrion, 2, 9n. 
murder of, 2, 104-5. 
sons and d;Tughters of, 2, 112- 
13. 
Mariamne, Herod's second wife 
of that name, 2, 107. 
son of, disinherited, 2, 119. 
Mariamne, tower of, retreat of 
the lioman garrison of Je- 
rusalem, 2, 2G0. 
left undemolished by Titus, 2, 
309. 
Mariba, trading station under 

the kings of Judah, 3, 54. 
Marini, Israel, disciple of Moses 

Chayim Luzzatto, 5, 237. 
Mar-Isaac, head of a college at 
Firuz-Shabur, does homage 
to Ali, 3, 90. 



Mar-Isaac (continued), Gaon of 

Sora, 3, 90, 92. 
Mar-Isaac, Jew of Cologne, mar- 
tyr, 3, 304. 
Mar-Isaac, principal of a Baby- 
lonian academy, the murder 
of, 3, 3. 
Marissa. See IMareshah. 
Mar-Kahana, Exilarch, subordi- 
nates himself to Ashi, 2, 
606. 
" Mar Mar Jesu," anti-Chris- 
tian work forbidden by Ben- 
edict XIII, 4, 215. 
Mar-Eaba (670-680), principal 
of the Pumbeditha academy, 
reforms the divorce laws, 3, 
92. 
Marranos, the, or new-Chris- 
tians, origin of, 4, 179-SO; 5, 
729. 

meaning of, 4, 180. 

secretly Jews, 4, 180. 

in Sicily, protected by the 
people, 4, 319-20. 

protected in Tudela, 4, 357. 

permitted to settle in Ancona, 
4, 408. 

flee from Spain and Portugal, 
4, 529. 

return of, to Judaism, reason 
for the revival of a Synhe- 
drion, 4, 535. 

of Naples threatened with the 
Inquisition, 4, 543. 

of Marseilles aid the Neapoli- 
tan Jews, 4, 544. 

of Ferrara consoled by Sam- 
uel Usque, 4, 558, 560. 

of Ancona protected by the 
popes, 4, 568. 

of Ancona, persecuted by 
Paul IV, 4, 568-9, 570-1. 

at Pesaro and Ferrara, 4, 5G9, 
578-81. 

persecuted by Paul IV, 4, 
581-2. 



432 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Marranos, the {continued), vic- 
tims of the Italian Inquisi- 
tion, 4, G54. 

deprived of Ferrara as a ref- 
uge, 4, ()61. 

England designed as an as\-- 
lum for, 5, 46. 

condemned to the stake in the 
seventeenth centurj^ 5, 91-2. 

^cc also Spanish exiles; Inqui- 
sition, the. 
Marranos, the Portuguese, buj^ 
the favor of Alexander VI, 
4, 378-9. 

milder measures towards, 
adopted bj- Manoel, 4, 379. 

Samuel Usque on, 4, 3S0. 

descendants of, in Africa, 4, 
381. 

the Inquisition established 
for, at Benevento, 4, 385. 

manufacture fire-arms and am- 
munition in Turkey, 4, 401. 

suffering of, 4, 483. 

follow Jewish observances 
openh', 4, 4S5. 

instruct their children in Ju- 
daism, 4, 48"). 

emigration of, cluM-ked by 
Manoel, 4, 485-0. 

hated by the Christ i;ms, 4, 
486. 

accused of causing scarcity of 
grain, 4, 486. 

ruin of, determined by the 
Dominicans, 4, 486-7. 

Manoel's orders concerning, 
4, 4S8. 

protected by ^lanoel's coun- 
selors, 4, 488. 

usefulness of, 4, 488. 

life of, inquired into b}' Joao 
III, 4, 489. 

observe Jewish and Christian 
rites, 4, 489. 

spied upon by Henrique 
Nunes, 4, 489. 



Marranos, the Portuguese (con- 
tin ucd), treatment of, im- 
proves with Reubeni's ap- 
pearance, 4, 493-4. 

consider Reubeni the forerun- 
ner of the Messitili, 4, 494, 
497-8. 

not encouraged by Reubeni to 
acknowledge Judaism, 4, 495. 

burnt by the Bishop of Ceuta, 
4, 499. 

defended bj' the Bishop of 
Algarve, 4, 500. 

defended by Lorenzo Pucci, 4, 
505. 

suffering of, at the introduc- 
tion of the Inquisition, 4, 
50S-9. 

complain of the inhumanity of 
the Inquisition, 4, 509. 

represented,- at Rome by Du- 
arte de Paz, 4, 512. 

absolved for defection from 
the Church, 4, 513-14. 

protected by Clement VII, 4, 
514. 

absolution of, enforced by 
Paul in, 4, 510. 

protected by a bull of Paul 
III, 4, 510, 517. 

unable to pay the bribes 
promised bj' Dnarle de Paz, 
4, 518. 

gentle measures towards, rec- 
ommended bj' Paul III, 4, 
518. 

steadfastness of, 4, 519, 528. 

try to have the Incjuisition re- 
voked, 4, 519. 

complain to Paul III of the 
cruelty of the Inquisition, 
4, 519-20. 

protected by Paul III, 4, 520. 

endangered by Emanuel da 
Costa, 4, 521. 

granted the right of appeal to 
the Jiope, 4, 521. 



INDEX. 



433 



Marranos, the Portuguese (con- 
tiinnd), siilVcriiig' of, from 
the Inquisition, 4, 522-,'!. 

delinquencies of, reported to 
the pojjc, 4, 523. 

draw up a memorial to the 
pope, 4, 524. 

forbidden to emigrate, 4, 524. 

right of, to emigrate defended 
before the Council of Trent, 
4, 526. 

liberated from the Inquisition 
prisons, 4, 527. 

forced to abjure their Judaiz- 
ing tendencies, 4, 527. 

mild treatment of, requested 
by Paul III, 4, 527. 

a profitable population to 
Portugal, 4, 527-8. 

absolution granted to, by 
popes, 4, 528. • 

look to the Netherlands as a 
refuge, 4, 662-3. 

admission of, into Zealand op- 
posed, 4, 663. 

first to emigrate to the Neth- 
erlands, 4, 664-5. 

in Amsterdam, 4, 665. 

taken to Holland by the Earl 
of Essex, 4, 665. 

capital of, acceptable to the 
Netherlands, 4, 667-8, 

revert to Judaism, 4, 669. 

suffering of, from the Inquisi- 
tion, 4, 670. 

Philip III debtor of, 4, 670. 

granted absolution by Cle«i- 
ent VIII, 4, 671. 

emigrate to the Netherlands, 
4, 671. 

invited bj' Christian princes 
to settle in their countries, 
4, 675. 

devotion of, to Judaism, 4, 
678-9. 

Catholic tendencies of, 4, 679- 
80. 



Marranos, the Portuguese (co«- 
tlintrd), in llaml)urg as 
" traders," 4, 686-7. 

objected to by Lutherans, 4, 
686, 687. 

admitted into Hamburg as 
Jews, 4, 6SS. 

importance of, for trade, 4, 
689. 

transported to Brazil, 4, 693. 

refused permission to settle 
in Frankfort-on-tlie-lMain, 4, 
695. 

culture of, 5, 109-18. 

in Bordeaux, 5, 341-2. 

See also i^iidcr Amsterdam; 
Inquisition, the. 
Marranos, the Spanish, hated 
by the jjopulace, 4, ISO. 

endanger the existence of the 
Spanish Jews, 4, 180-1. 

propagandists for Christiani- 
ty, 4, 181-2. 

take refuge in northern Afri- 
ca, 4, 197. 

protected by. Saul Astruc Co- 
hen and Isaac ben Sheshet, 
4, 199. 

the Christian confession ex- 
torted from, by Vincent 
Ferrer, 4, 202. 

troublesome to the Church, 4, 
255-6. 

true to Judaism in secret, 4, 
256. 

inquisitors apijointed for, 4, 
256. 

equal rights denied to, 4, 
256-7. 

plundered under Henry IV of 
Castile, 4, 274. 

return to Judaism under Hen- 
ry IV, 4, 276. 

promoted to the highest offi- 
ces in Castile, 4, 280. 

attacked at Valladolid, 4, 
280-1. 



434 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Marranos, the Spanish [con- 
tinued), accused of Judaiz- 
ing, 4, 2S1. 

attacks upon, grow frequent, 
4, 2Sl-:i. 

high i^ositions and character 
of, 4, 309. 

Judaizing tendencies of, 4, 309. 

the Inquisition for, proiiosed, 
4, 310. 

catechism for, 4, 1111. 

lose favor with Isabella, 4, 
311-12. 

the Inquisition for, estab- 
lished in Seville, 4, 312. 

adopt measure* of defense 
against the Inquisition, 4, 
313. 

fugitive, burnt by the Inqui- 
sition, 4, 311. 

the Edict of Grace issued for, 
4, 315. 

asked to denounce Judaizing 
!Marranos, 4, 315. 

victims of the Inquisition, 4, 
317-18. 

flee from the Inquisition, 4, 318. 

complain of the Inquisition to 
Sixtus IV, 4, 318. 

a chief judge of appeals ap- 
pointed for cases against, 4, 
320. 

excluded from the office of 
heresy judges, 4, 321. 

appeal to Sixtus IV to modify 
the rigors of the Inquisi- 
tion, 4, 322. 

Torqueniada's code for, 4, 
326-8. 

try to suppress the Inquisi- 
tion in Aragon, 4, 329. 

plot against I'edro Arbues, 4, 
329-30. 

slaughter of, in Saragossa, 4, 
3.31—2 

origin of the per.secution of, 
4, 333. 



Marranos, the Spanish (con- 
tinned), intimate relations 

of, with the Jews, 4, 334-5. 
helped by the Jews of Castile, 

4, 344. 
of Granada, protected by the 

secret treaty of Boabdil, 4, 

345. 
flee to Granada, 4, 351. 
help the exiled Jews, 4, 354. 
deliver up enemies of the 

Jews to the Inquisition, 4, 

355. 
care exercised by, after the 

expulsion of the Jews, 4, 355. 
concerned in the murder of 

Arbues protected in Tudela, 

4, 357. 
delivered up to the Inquisi- 
tion in Portugal, 4, 368, 379- 

80. 
the Inquisition established 

for, at Benevento, 4, 385. 
manufacture fire-arms and 

ammunition in Turkey, 4, 

401. 
suffering of, 4, 483. 
oppressed by Ximenes de Cis- 

neros, 4, 484. 
try to escape to Portugal, 4, 

486. 
Messianic expectations of, 4, 

494. 
flee to Portugal, 4, 491. 
take David Reubeni to be the 

forerunner of the Messiah, 

4, 497-8. 
attack Badajoz, 4, 498. 
denounced bj' David Reubeni, 

4, 511. 
See also Spanish exiles, the; 

Inquisition, the. 
Marriage, unlawful degrees of 

relationship for, established 

by Sopherim, 1, 397. 
MaiTiage laws, the, revised by 

Abba-Areka, 2, 516. 



INDEX. 



435 



Marriage laws, the (conlinued), 
among the Karaites, 3, l.'!2, 
158, 159. 
regulated by the Mayence rab- 
binical sj^nod, 4, 135. 
changed by ^Menachem of 

IMersebnrg, 4, 228. 
modified by the synod of Lub- 
lin, 5, 1.3. 
abolition of, advocated by 
Iloldheim, 5, 680. 
Marriages, civil, discussed bj^ 
the Assembly of Notables, 
5, 491. 
by the Synhedrion, 5, 496, 497. 
Marriages, Jewish, in Austria, 

restricted, 5, 509. 
Marriages, mixed. See Inter- 
marriages. 
Mar-Sacharya, of Haleb, attacks 

Maimonides, 3, 477. 
Mar-Sam.uel. See Samuel, son of 

Abba. 
Marseilles, Jews in, in the sixth 
century, 3, 35. 
the Jews of Clermont flee to, 

3, 39. 
Jewish physicians at, 3, 582. 
Jews remain in, after the ban- 
ishment by Charles VI, 4, 
177. 
Neapolitan Jews carried to, 4, 
544. 
Marseilles, the Jews of, in the 
twelfth century, 3, 400. 
order a Hebrew translation of 
Maimonides' Mishna com- 
mentary, 3, 492. 
show honor to the Jewish en- 
voys to Egj^pt, 5, 658. 
Marshall, Lord Mayor of Lon- 
don, calls a meeting of pro- 
test against the Damascus 
affair, 5, 655-6, 657. 
Mar-Sheshet, a Babylonian Am- 
ora, 2, 545. 
memory of, 2, 553. 



Mar-Sheshet (eontinurd), and 

Chasda, 2, 553-4. 
opposed to Judah ben Ezek- 

iel's dialectics, 2, 554. 
rebukes the Exilarch, 2, 554. 
founds a school at Silhi, 2, 

554. 
Marsus, Vibius, governor of 

S^-ria, prevents Agrippa I 

from fortifying Jerusalem, 

2, 195. 
disperses the conference of 

princes summoned by 

Agrippa I, 2, 196. 
hostile to the Judseans, 2, 197. 
soldiery of, banished to Pon- 

tus, 2, 197. 
Marten, Harry, employed by 

Cromwell to dispose the 

English in favor of the Jews, 

5, 43. 
Martha. See Domna, Julia. 
Martha, sister of Lazarus, fol- 
lower of Jesus, 2, 160. 
Martha, wife of Joshua ben 

Gamala, obtains the high 

l^riestliood for her husband, 

2, 249. 
suffering of, during the siege 

of Jerusalem, 2, 306. 
Martin V, pope, elected by the 

Council of Constance, 4, 219. 
discourteous to the Jews of 

Constance, 4, 219. 
confirms the privileges of the 

Jews of Germany and Savoy, 

4, 219. 
waited on by Jewish delegates 

from Italy and Spain, 4, 219. 
issues a bull against forced 

conversions, 4, 219-20. 
issues a bidl protecting the 

Jews from Dominican de- 
nunciations, 4, 226-7. 
privileges granted by, to Jews 

confirmed by Eugenius IV, 

4, 249. 



436 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Martin, Fernan, chief of police, 
assists the Jews against Jo- 
seph Pichon, 4, 156. 

punished b3' Juan I of Castile, 
4, 157. 
Martin, Raymund, Dominican, 
rescues the Talmud from 
the llames in Aragon, 3, 
C03. 

anti-Jewish writings of, 3, (522. 

influence of, 3, 622-3. 

refuted by Solomon ben Adret, 

3, 623. 

Martinet, Adam, admiration of, 

for neo-IIebraic poetry, 5, 

028, 629. 
Martinez, Ferdinand (Ferran), 

agitates against the Jews in 

Seville, 4, 167. 
stirs up Seville a second time, 

4, 168-9. 

punished by Henry III of Cas- 
tile, 4, 193. 
Martinez, Gonzalo, de Oviedo, 

favorite of Alfonso XI of 

Castile, 4, 8.3-4. 
causes the death of Joseph of 

Ecija and Samuel Ibn- 

Wakar, 4, 84. 
proposes to deprive the Jews 

of their wealth, 4, 84-5. 
wins a battle over the Moors, 

4, 85. 
accused of treason by Leonora 

de Guzman, 4, 85. 
allies himself with the enemies 

of Alfonso XI, 4, 85-0. 
deserted by his Order, 4, 86. 
executed, 4, 86. 
Martyrdom, when compulsory, 

2, -123-4. 
Martyrology, by Ephraim ben 

Jacob of Bonn, 3, 419. 
Mar-Ukba (918), Exilarch, forced 

to remove from Bagdad, 2, 184. 
the Arabic poetry of, plea.ses 

the Calii?!;, 3, 184-5. 



Mar-Ukba {continued), restored 
to his office; 3, 185. 
banished to Kairuan, 3, 185, 
210. 

Mar-Ukba, judge in Cafri, 2, 
512. 

Mar-Ukban, grandson of Abba- 
Areka, Exilarch, 2, 544, 579- 
80. 

Maruni, priest, incites a crusade 
against the Damascus Jews, 
5, 662. 

Mary, sister of Lazarus, fol- 
lower of Jesus, 2, 160. 

Mary Magdalene, follower of 
Jesus, 2, 154. 

Mar-Yanka. See Xatronai ben 
Nehemiah. 

Mar-Zemach I ben Paltoi (872- 
890), Gaon of Pumbeditha, 
arranges the " Aruch," 3, 
178-9. 

Mar-Zutra, Amora, subordinates 
himself to Ashi, 2, 000. 
at the court of Jczdijird, 2, 
010. 

Mar-Zutra I, Exilarch, subordi- 
nates himself to Ashi, 2, 
600. 

Mar-Zutra II (490-520), Exil- 
arch, leader of the Baby- 
lonian Jews against the 
Zendik, 3, 3-4. 
kept out of his office by 

Pachda, 3, 3, 
executed, 3, 4. 
son of, 3, 4. 

Mar-Zutra III, a distinguished 
scholar in Judaea, 3, 4. 
president of the Tiberias 
academy, 3, 12. 

Masada, fortress, refuge of 
Mariamne, wife of Herod, 2, 
83. 
besieged by Antigonus, 2, 87. 
refuge of Herod from Cleopa- 
tra, 2, 94. 



INDEX. 



437 



Masada, fortress {continued), 
taken by the Siearii, 2, 25S. 

refuge of the Siearii, 2, 2G1. 

a hot-bed of insurgents, 2, 
292-3. 

holds out against the llonians, 
2, 315. 

under Eleazar ben Jair, 2, 310. 

garrison of, commits suicide, 

2, 316. 

Mascarenhas, John Rodrigo, 

Portuguese iSIarrano, brings 

hatred upon the ISIarranos, 

4, 4SG. 
Masechet-Gerini, tractate in the 

Law, on proselytes, 2, 384. 
Masechta, one of the six divi- 
sions of tlie Mishnic code, 2, 

354. 
Mashal, an allegory-, 1, 158. 
Mashal ha-Kadmoni, by Ibn- 

Sahula, 3, SCO. 
Maskhir, recorder under David, 

1, 122. 
Masserano. five Bezalel ISrasse- 

rano. 
Massora, the, and the vowel 

points, 3, 112. 
studied by Gershom ben Je- 

huda, 3, 244. 
the division of the Scriptures 

into verses by, criticised, 3, 

290. 
importance of, according to 

Abraham Ibn-Ezra, 3, 371. 
studied by Wolf Heidenheim, 

5, 400. 

as viewed by Samuel David 
Luzzatto, 5, 624. 
Massorets, the, list of: 

Aaron ben Asher, Ren-Naphtali, 

Moses ben Asher. 

Masuel, Eugene, founder of the 
" Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle," 5, 701. 

Mata-Mechasia. See Sora. 



Matatoron, name of an angel, 1, 
403. 

Mathematical knowledge, the, 
of the teachers of the Law, 
2, 357. 

Mathematicians, Jewish. Sec 
Astronomers. 

Mathematics, studied in Portu- 
gal, 4, 367. 

Matiah ben Charash, teacher of 
the Law in Rome, 2, 443. 

Matnita boraita, supplements to 
the Mishna, 2, 470. 

Matri, a family of the tribe of 
Benjamin, 1, 83. 

Matronita, Kabbalistic term in 
the Zohar, 4, IS. 

Mattachery, Jews' town, 2, 630. 

Mattan, high priest of Baal, un- 
der Athaliah, 1, 214. 

Mattara, court in the palace at 
Jerusalem, 1, 314. 

Mattathiah. ben Joseph Pro- 
venci, Talmudist, re-estab- 
lishes a college at Paris, 4, 
133. 
exempt from w^earing the 

Jew badge, 4, 133. 
chief rabbi of France, 4, 133. 
death of, 4, 152. 

Mattathias, envoy of Nicanor to 
Judas MaccaboBus, 1, 484. 

Mattathias, the Hasmonaean, 
father of the ]\Iaccabees, 
resists Apelles, 1, 459. 
leader of the Chassidim, 1, 

459-60. 
decides to fight on the Sab- 
bath, 1, 460. 
petty warfare of, against the 

Syrians, 1, 460-1. 
chooses Simon as coiinselor 
and Judas as commander, 1, 
461. 
death of the sons of, 1, 531. 

Mattathias ben Simon Psellus, 
father of Josephus, 1, 502. 



438 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Mattathias, son of Simon 
Tharsi, 1, 520. 
assassinated, 1, 530. 

Mattathias Yizhari, at the dis- 
putation of Tortosa, 4, 208. 

Matthai of Arbela, Pharisee 
leader, 2, 20. 

Matthew (Levi), publican, fol- 
lower of Jesus, 2, 153. 

Matthew Paris, historian, 
charges the Franciscans 
with venality, 3, 591. 

Matthias, emperor, unable to 

punish Fettmilch, 4, 698. 

punishes Frankfort, 4, 709. 

Matthias ben Margalot, I'hari- 
see, instigates an uprising 
against Herod, 2, 115. 
burnt alive, 2, 115. 
death of, avenged, 2, 121. 

Matthias ben Matthias, brotlier 
of JoseiJhus, 2, 270. 

Matthias ben Theophilus, high 
priest, last of those ap- 
pointed under the Ilerod- 
ians, 2, 219. 
summons all .Judieans to Jeru- 
salem for the Passover of 
GG, 2, 251. 
persuades Jerusalem to re- 
ceive Roman troox^s amica- 
bly, 2, 254-5. 
deposed by the Zealots, 2, 294. 

Matthias Boethus, of priestly 
family, executed, 2, 304. 

Maurice of Orange, well dis- 
posed towards the Jews, 4, 
f)74, 678. 

Mauritania, rebels against Ha- 
drian, 2, 399. 

Mauritius, emperor of the East, 
protects Chosru 11, 3, 9. 
the Jews under, 3, 18. 
supplanted b}' Phocas, 3, 18-19. 

Maury, Abbe, opposed to the 
emancipation of the Jews, 5, 
441-2, 44G, 462. 



Maxarquivir, the Jews oi, ban- 
ished b^' order of Maria 
Anna, 5, 169. 
Maximilian I, emperor, the 
Jews recommended to the 
protection of, 4, 413. 

favors Jacob Loans, 4, 414. 

appoints Jose^Jh Loans repre- 
sentative of the German 
Jews, 4, 414. 

indecision of, 4, 414-15. 

permits Nuremberg to expel 
the Jews, 4, 415-16. 

expels the Jews from Austria, 
Styria and Carinthia, 4, 427. 

urged to deliver the Jews to 
the Dominicans of Cologne, 
4, 428. 

issues his first mandate giving 
I'fefferlvorn power over the 
Jews, 4, 429. 

letter to, from Uriel von Gem- 
mingen, 4, 431. 

appoints Reuchlin cotinselor 
of the Suabian League, 4, 
435. 

applied to, for a second man- 
date, 4, 436. 

the Jewish cause iileaded be- 
fore, 4, 436-7. 

appears to favor the Jewish 
side, 4, 437. 

issues a second mandate, 4, 
437. 

homage paid to, by Pfeffer- 
korn, 4, 439. 

directs the Frankfort Senate 
to restore the Hebrew 
books, 4, 439, 

promises to investigate Pfef- 
ferkorn's attaclc on Reuch- 
lin, 4, 446. 

espouses Eeuchlin's cause, 4, 
459, 464. 

abused by the Dominicans, 4, 
459, 



INDEX. 



439 



Maximilian I, emperor (eo«- 
tiiiKcd), protects the Jews of 
Franki'ort, Worms, and Ra- 
tisbon, 4, 4G3-4. 
death of, 4, 467. 
Maximilian II, emperor, pro- 
tects the Jews of Prague, 4, 
587. 
urges his son for the Polish 
crown, 4, 603. 
Maximus, emperor, orders the 
Senate to rebuild a syna- 
gogue, 2, 614. 
Maximus, teacher of Julian the 

Apostate, 2, 595. 
Maximus, Trajan's general in 
the Euphrates district, 2, 
397. 
Mayence, founders of the Jew- 
ish community of, 3, 41. 
Charlemagne brings the Kal- 

onymos family to, 3, 143. 
a Talmud school founded at, 

3, 243, 247. 
Eashi studies Talmud at, 3,286. 
represented at the first rab- 
binical synod, 3, 377. 
a rabbinical synod meets at, 

3, 517-18. 

the congregation of, one of 
the three oldest of Ger- 
many, 3, 518. 

rabbinical synod at, to regu- 
late marriage laws, 4, 135. 

exiles from, in Poland and 
Italy, 4, 294. 

Eeuchlin tried for heresy at, 

4, 450-2. 

the rabbi of, opposes the Ee- 
form movement, 5, 571. 

honor paid to Cremieux at, 5, 
668. 
Mayence, the Jews of, banished 
by Henry II, 3, 245-6. 

perpetuate the memory of Si- 
mon ben Isaac and Gershom 
ben Jehuda, 3, 247. 



Mayence, the Jews of (continued), 
massacred in the first cru- 
sade, 3, 303. 

accuse their persecutors be- 
fore Henry IV, 3, 307. 

charged with the blood accu- 
sation, 3, 636. 

I)Ossessions of, confiscated, 3, 
636. 

emigrate to Syria, 3, 637. 

burn themselves to escape per- 
secution, 4, 109. 

banished, 4, 413. 

well treated during the Thirty 
Years' War, 4, 707. 
Mayence, the university of, to 
counsel regarding the con- 
fiscation of Hebrew books, 
4, 437, 441. 

attacks the Hebrew Bible, 4, 
444-5. 

students of, object to Eeuch- 

lin's heresy trial, 4, 451. 

Mayo, Moses, excommunicated 

by Chayim of Lublin, 5, 261. 

Mazaca-Caesarea (Cappadocia), 

study of the Law in, 2, 358. 

the Jews of, lose life in the 
assault of Shabur I, 2, 520, 
526. 
Mazdak, reformer of Magian- 
ism, 3, 1. 

communistic principles of, 3, 
1-2. 
Mazikim, evil spirits, intro- 
duced into Judaism from 
Magianism, 1, 403. 
Measfim, the, contributors to 
" The Gatherer," in Ger- 
many, 5, 399-400, 

in Holland, 5, 400-1. 

in France, 5, 401. 

in Italy, 5, 402. 

influence of, 5, 402-3, 403-5. 

consider themselves the disci- 
ples of Mendelssohn, 5, 403. 

the best production by, 5, 404. 



440 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Measfim, the (continued), medi- 
oc-rity of, 5, 417. 
effect of the revival of He- 
brew by, 5, 420-1. 
consulted by Jacobson, 5, 502. 
Measfim, the, list of: 

Bcn-Zecb, Heidenhcim, 
Bressclau, Mendel Wolf 

J. Hombcrg', lleiz 

Enshcim, Mosl-s Liiwe, Joel 

Euchel, Isaac Morpurj^o, Elijah 

Abraham Satanow, Isaac 

Friedrichsfeld, AVcssely, Naphtali 

David Hartwij,'- 

AVuH'ssolm, Aaron. 

Meaux, the council of, re-enacts 
anti-Jewish restrictions, 3, 
171-2. 
Mebarsapes, king of Adiabene, 
conquered by Trajan, 2, 
393-4. 
Mebodes, Persian general, puts 
to death the Jews of i\Iachu- 
za, 3, 9. 
Mebo-lia-Talmud, methodology 
of the Talmud, by Samuel 
Ibn-Xagrela, 3, 259. 
Mecca (Alcharam), Jews in, in 
the sixth century, 3, 56. 
holy city of the Arabs, 3, GO. 
a proselyte to Judaism gover- 
nor of, 3, 63. 
Mahomet's flight from, 3, 72-3. 
the pra3'ing Moslem turns to, 

3, 75. 
Jews not allowed to live in, 
3, 436. 
Mecklenburg, the Jews of, 

emancipated, 5, 507. 
Mecklenburg - Schwerin, the 
Jews of, forbidden the earh" 
interment of the dead, 5, 
318. 
apply to ifendelssohn, 5, 318. 
interfered with by the govern- 
ment, 5, 679. 
Medaba, center of the Bene- 
Amri, 1, 491. 



Medaba (continued), taken by 

John Ilyroanus, 2, 7. 
Medeiros, Francisco (Isaac), 
Mendes, I'ortuguese Marra- 
no in Holland, 4, 667. 
builds the second synagogue 
at Amsterdam, 4, 671. 
Medelsheim. Sec Berr, Cerf. 
Medes, the, defeated by the As- 
syrians, 1, 287. 
Media, the Ten Tribes colonized 
in, 1, 265. 
invaded by the Scythians, 1, 

2S7. 
half-Shekel contribution to 

the Temple from, 2, 52. 
visited by Petachya, 3, 421. 
Medici, the, the renascence un- 
der, participated in by Jews, 
4, 289, 290. 
Medicine, prepared by Jews 
prohibited, in the code of 
Alfonso X, 3, 596. 
by Eugenius IV, 4, 250, 252. 
by Henry IV of Castile, 4, 278. 
Medicine, the study of, per- 
mitted bj^ the opponents of 
science, 4, 40. 
among Polish Jews, 4, 633. 
See Physicians, Jewish. 
Medina, Jewish capitalist, in- 
volves Voltaire in financial 
losses, 5, 339. 
Medina (Yathrib), Israelites 
under Joshua settle in, 3, 
54. 
center of the Jewish Arabic 

tribes, 3, 55. 
besieged, 3, 62. 
a proselyte the governor of, 3, 

63. 
Mahomet in, 3, 72-3. 
the center of Islam, 3, 86. 
Jew.s not allowed to live in, 3, 
436. 
Medina, the Jews of, defend the 
city, 3, 62. 



INDEX. 



441 



Medina, the Jews of (continued), 
hated by the Kaihm race, 3, 
67. 

conquered by the Arabs, 3, 
67-8. 

regain importance, 3, 70-1. 

and Mahomet, 3, 7.'?. 

repelled b,y IMahomet, 3, 74. 

intrigue against ^Mahomet, 3, 
84. 
Medina del Campo, the Jews of, 
burnt and jDlundered, 4, 278. 

the cortes of, propose an In- 
quisition for INIarranos, 4, 
310, 313. 
Medina-Celi, Kabbalistic center, 

4, 6. 

the duke of, emploj^s a Jewish 
physician, 5, 116. 

Medina-Sidonia, Marranos flee 
to. 4, 313. 

Megabyzus, satrap of Syria, re- 
volts from Persia, 1, 371. 

Megadef, sobriquet of Joshua 
Lorqui, 4, 217. 

Megerlin, David Frederick, ex- 
plains Eibeschiitz's amulets 
in a Christian way, 5, 270. 
calls on the Danish king to 
protect Eibeschiitz, 5, 271. 

Megiddo, the battle of, Josiah 
defeated at, 1, 297. 

Megilloth, the Five, commen- 
tary on, by Samuel ben 
Meir, 3, 346. 
by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, 3, 370. 

" Mehemenuta de Cola," by 
Chayon, 5, 219-20. 

Mehmed EfPendi, Sabbatai Ze- 
vi's Mahometan name, 5, 
154. 

Mehmet Ali, Tasha of Egypt, 
conquers Syria, 5, 633. 
supported by Louis Philippe, 

5, 633, 634. 

assents to the execution of the 
Damascus Jews, 5, 640. 



Mehmet Ali {continued), influ- 
enced by the French consul- 
general, 5, 647. 

appealed to by the Jews of 
Alexandria, 5, 647. 

letter to, from ]\Ietternich, 5, 
647, 

forms a court of justice for 
the Damascus affair, 5, G4S. 

breaks up the consular court, 
5, 649. 

grants Montefiore audience, 5, 
659. 

in awe of the European pow- 
ers, 5, 659. 

orders the release of the Da- 
mascus prisoners, 5, 660. 

thanked by the Jews of Alex- 
andria, 5, 660. 

subterfuge of, discovered by 
IMunk, 5, 660. 

changes his firman, 5, 660. 

officially states the ground- 
lessness of the blood accusa- 
tion, 5, 661. 

surrenders territory to Tur- 
key, 5, 661. 
Meil Zedek. ^ce IMenachem of 

INIerseburg. 
Meinhard of Gorz, captor of 

Mftir of Rothenburg, 3, 639. 
Meiningen, the "hep, hep!" 

persecutions in, 5, 530. 
Meir, disciple of Akiba, returns 
to Judsea, 2, 433. 

originality of, 2, 435. 

said to be a convert, 2, 435. 

copyist of Holy Writ, 2, 435-6. 

wife of, 2, 436. 

disciple of Ishmael ben Elisha, 
2, 436. 

writer of fables, 2, 436. 

death of the sons of, 2, 436. 

modesty and wisdom of, 2, 437, 

and Elisha ben Abuj'a, 2, 437. 

and Euonymus of Gadara, 2, 
437-8. 



442 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Meir (conlinued), and the Stoic 
philosoph}', 2, 4:!S. 
dialectics of, 2, 438-40. 
completes the collection of the 

Mishnas, 2, 439-40, 4G0. 
an Agadist, 2, 440. 
and Simon II, 2, 440. 
Chacham of the Usha Synhe- 

drion, 2, 434, 445. 
conspires to deprive Simon II 

of the Patriarchate, 2, 445. 
proposed for the vice-presi- 
dency of the Synhedrion, 2, 
445. 
expelled from the Synhedrion, 

2, 445. 
excommunicated, 2, 446. 
death of, 2, 446. 
a casuist, 2, 476. 
decision of, concerning the 
Samaritans, 2, 534. 
Meir, son-in-law of Abraham 
Senior, accepts baptism, 4, 
351. 
Meir, teacher of the IMislma, 
quoted by Maimonides, 3, 
454. 
Meir de Malea, Almoxarif un- 
der Alfonso X, 3, 593. 
Meir ben Baruch of Rothen- 
burg (1220-1293), Talmudist, 
elegy of, on the burning of 
the Talmud, 3, 579. 
piety of, 3, 625. 
heads the emigration of Ger- 
man Jews to Syria, 3, 637. 
taken prisoner, 3, 638-9. 
refuses to be ransomed, 3, 

639-40. 
death of, 3, 640. 
body of, ransomed, 3, 640. 
disciple of, 4, 34, 74. 
ransom of, demanded from 
Asheri, 4, 37. 
Meir ben Baruch Halevi (Segal, 
1370-1300), rabbi of Vienna, 
enforces the Morenu, 4, 131. 



Meir ben Baruch Halevi (con- 
tinued), compiles the customs 
of various communities, 4, 
134. 
assumes authority over the 
French communities, 4, 152-3. 
Meir ben Gabbai, Spanish exile, 

Kabbalist, 4, 4S1. 
Meir ben Joseph Ibn-Migash, 
Talmudist, 3, 317. 
emigrates to Toledo, 3, 361. 
opens a Talmud academy in 
Toledo, 3, 362. 
Meir ben Samuel of Kameru, 
s'on-in-law of Rashi, Tossa- 
fist, 3, 289, 345. 
sons of, 3, 345. 
Meir ben Simon, denounces the 

Bahir as a forgerj', 3, 556. 
Meir ben Todros Halevi Abula- 
fia (llSO-1244), attacks Mai- 
monides' doctrine of immor- 
tality, 3, 524. 
friends and opponents of, 3, 

524-5. 
and Nachmani, 3, 535. 
assures Nachmani of his oppo- 
sition to the Maimunists, 3, 
537-8. 
deplores Dominican interfer- 
ence in the Maimunist con- 
troversy, 3, 544. 
nephew of, 4, 2. 
Meir Alguades, physician, chief 
rabbi of Castile, and Solo- 
mon Levi, 4, 185. 
and Trofiat Duran, 4, 190. 
iniiuences the king favorably 

towards the Jews, 4, 190. 
as philosopher, 4, 193. 
tortured on the accusation of 

host desecration, 4, 195. 
forced confessions by, 4, 196. 
death of, 4, 196. 
Meir Eisenstadt, teacher and 
confidant of Eibeschiitz, 5, 
250. 



INDEX. 



443 



Meiri. Sec Vidal Menachem beu 
Solomon. 

Meiron, grave of Simon ben 
Yochai at, 4, 623. 

Meisels, rabbi, helps to reor- 
ganize Austria, 5, 697, 

Meissen, adopts the Jewish 
statute of Frederick the 
Valiant, 3, 569. 

Mekor Chayim, philosophical 
work by Ibn-Gebirol,3,270-1. 

Meldola, David, rabW of Lon- 
don, repeats ISIanasseh ben 
Israel's oath denjang the 
blood accusation, 5, 654-5. 

Melo, Francisco, millionaire in 
Amsterdam, 5, 205. 

Memnon, governor of Coelesyria, 
1, 414. 

Mem.ra, the, decisions of the 
Amoraim, 2, 515. 
expounded by Rabba bar 
Nachmani, 2, 578. 

" Men of Faith," a sect of Jew- 
ish m3'stics, 3, 153-4. 

Menachem of Merseburg (Meil 
Zedek), Talmudist, changes 
the Talmudic marriage law, 
4, 227-8. 

Menachem ben Aaron ben Ze- 
rach (1310-1385), rabbi of 
Toledo, early trials of, 4, 78, 
144. 
studies of, 4, 144-5. 
mediocrity of, 4, 145. 
work bj', 4, 145. 

Menachem ben Perez, of Joignj^ 
at the first rabbinical syn- 
od, 3, 377. 

Menachem ben Saruk (910-970), 
grammarian, founder of Ju- 
dseo-Spanish culture, 3, 215. 
writes the introductory verses 
of a letter to the king of 
the Chazars, 3, 220. 
makes Hebrew the object of 
research, 3, 223. 



Menachem ben Saruk (con- 
tinued), patrons of, 3, 224, 

lexicographical work by, 3, 
224-5. 

verse of, awkward, 3, 225. 

traduced to Chasdai Ibn-Shap- 
rut, 3, 226-7. 

defended by his disciples, 3, 
227. 

disciples of, 3, 237, 

grammar of, known to Rashi, 

3, 2S9. 
unhappiness of, 3, 313. 

Menachem. Bashyasi, Karaite, 
permits lights on the Sab- 
bath, 4, 269. 

Menachem Maroli, Karaite, pei'- 
mits lights on the Sabbath, 

4, 269. 

Menachemists, followers of Da- 
vid Alrui, 3, 433. 
Menahem (768-758), king of Is- 
rael, murders Shallum, 1, 
244. 

abolishes Baal worship, 1, 244, 

submits to Pul, 1, 246-7. 

power of the kingdom under, 
1, 247. 

introduces the worship of My- 
litta, 1, 247. 

death of, 1, 248. 
Menahem, an Essene, Hillel's 
deputy in the Synhedrion, 2, 
100. 
Menahem ben Jair, grandson of 
Judas of Galilee, leader of 
the Sicarii, 2, 239. 

takes Masada, 2, 258. 

kills the Roman garrison at 
Jerusalem, 2, 260. 

cruelty of, 2, 260-1. 

disagrees with the Zealot 
leader, 2, 261. 

executed, 2, 261, 
Menahem ben Solomon. See 
David Alrui. 



444 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Mendelssohn, Dorothea, culture 
of, 5, 413. 

marriage of, to Simon Veit, 5, 
424. 

and Frederick Schlegel, 5, 424. 

apostasy- of, 5, 424. 
Mendelssohn, Henrietta, ac- 
cepts Catholicism, 5, 424. 
Mendelssohn, Joseph, approves 
of the " Society of Friends," 
5, 418. 
Mendelssohn, Moses (172S- 
ITSfi), causes the renaissance 
of the Jewish race, 5, 292-3. 

youth of, 5, 293. 

arrival of, in Berlin, 5, 293. 

under the influence of David 
Frjinkel, 5, 293-4. 

poverty of, 5, 294. 

under the influence of Mai- 
monides, 5, 295. 

secular studies of, 5, 295. 

self-master^^ of, 5, 295. 

Hebrew style of, 5, 295-6. 

as tutor, 5, 296. 

becomes acquainted with Lea- 
sing, 5, 297. 

admiration of, for Lessing, 5, 
297-8. 

acquires a German style, 5, 
298. 

writes the " Philosophical 
Conversations," 5, 298-9. 

introduced to the learned cir- 
cles of Berlin, 5, 299. 

contributes to the " Library 
of the Fine Arts," 5, 300. 

appreciation of the Bible by, 
5, 301. 

delicacy and modesty of, 5, 
301. 

lacks appreciation of history-, 
5, 301. 

criticises Frederick the Great's 
poetry, 5, 302. 

justifies himself before the 
king, 5, 302-3. 



Mendelssohn, Moses {continued)^ 
as bookkeeper. 5, 303. 

wins the prize of the Berlin 
Academy, 5, 303-4. 

made a " Schutzjude," 5, 304. 

writes the " Phsedon," 5, 
304-8. 

honors paid to, 5, 308. 

physiognomy of, analyzed by 
Lavater, 5, 308-9. 

letter from, to Lavater, 5, 311- 
13. 

reconciled with Lavater, 5, 
314. 

criticises Bonnet's " Palinge- 
nesie," 5, 314-15. 

pamphlets on, and Lavater, 5, 
315-16. 

attacked by Kolbele, 5, 316-17. 

offends i^ious Jews, 5, 317. 

intercourse of, with Polish 
Jews, 5, 317-18. 

opposed to hasty burial, 5, 
318. 

oi:)inion of, on the " Frag- 
ments of an L'nknown," 5, 
320. 

the " Fragments of an Un- 
known " attributed to, 5, 
322. 

the hero of " Nathan the 
Wise," 5, 323. 

mourning of, for Lessing, 5, 
327. 

translates the Pentateuch for 
his children, 5, 328. 

jjublishes his Pentateuch 
translation, 5, 328-9. 

mildness of, in the face of op- 
position, 5, 332. 

appeals to the Danish royal 
house, 5, 333-4. 

assistants of, 5, 334. 

inspires the young, 5, 334-5. 

helps the Jews of Switzerland 
and Dresden, 5, 344. 



INDEX. 



445 



Mendelssohn, Moses (continued), 
requested by the Alsatian 
Jews to draw up a memo- 
rial, 5, 351. 

and Dohm, 5, 351-2. 

attractive to Christians, 5, 352. 

inspires Dohm, 5, 356, 361, 366. 

on Dohm's " Apology," 5, 
3C1-2. 

objects to excommunication, 
5, 362-3. 

writes " The Salvation of the 
Jews," 5, 3G2-3. 

charged with ajiostasy, 5, 363. 

publishes " Jerusalem," 5, 
364-6. 

adherence of, to Judaism, 5, 
364. 

on the ceremonial law, 5, 365. 

inspires Wessely, 5, 366. 

compared with Wessely, 5, 
367. 

addressed by the Jews of 
Trieste, 5, 369. 

death of, 5, 371-2. 

objections of, to Spinozism, 5, 
372. 

defends Lessing, 5, 372. 

mourning for, 5, 372. 

statue of, 5, 372-3. 

reception of, at Konigsberg, 
5, 398. 

contributes to Ha-Meassef, 5, 
399. 

and Herz Homberg, 5, 401-2. 

recommends the study of the 
sciences, 5, 402. 

glorified by the jNIeasfim, 5, 
403. 

daughters of, cultured, 5, 412, 
413. 

house of, the center of cul- 
ture, 5, 412. 

misunderstood by his family 
and his disciples, 5, 417. 

daughters of, 5, 423, 424, 425. 

influences Mirabeau, 5, 432. 



Mendelssohn, Moses (continued), 
resemblance between and 
Borne, 5, 538. 
criticised by Bernays, 5, 575. 
the ideal of Krochmal, 5, 608. 
influence of, on Erter, 5, 613. 
repeats !Manasseh ben Israel's 
oath denying the blood ac- 
cusation, 5, 655. 
Mendelssohnians, the, in oppo- 
sition to Eabbinical Juda- 
ism, 5, 375. 
oppose Chassidism, 5, 391. 
Mendes, David Franco (1713- 
1792), dramatic poet, influ- 
enced by Luzzatto, 5, 244. 
devoted to Hebrew, 5, 401. 
Mendes, Franco, Portuguese 
INIarrano, family of, in Hol- 
land, 4, 667. 
Mendes, Manuel, Portuguese 

Marrano leader, 4, 516. 
Mendes-Nassi, Diogo, Marrano 
banker at Antwerp, 4, 572. 
death of, 4, 572. 
accused of Judaizing, 4, 573. 
Mendes-Nassi, Francisco, hus- 
band of Gracia Mendesia, 
banker at Antwerp, 4, 571-2. 
Mendes-Nassi, Gracia, the 
younger, daughter of Diogo, 
4, 572. 
married to Samuel Nassi, 4, 
577. 
Mendes-Nassi family, the, debt 
owing to, repudiated by 
Henry II of France, 4, 596, 
597. 
Mendesia (Nassi) Gracia (Bea- 
trice, 1510-1568), Marrano 
philanthropist, marriage of, 
4, 571. 
at Antwerp, 4, 572. 
head of a banking house, 4, 

572-3. 
property of, confiscated by 
Charles V, 4, 573. 



446 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Mendesia (Nassi) Gracia (con- 
ti)U(vd)., at Venice, 4, 574. 

informed against by her sis- 
ter, 4, 574, 

property of, in France confis- 
cated, 4, 574. 

cause of, espoused by the sul- 
tan, 4, 574-5. 

protected by Hercules d'Este 
II, 4, 575. 

described bj' Samuel Usque, 4, 
575-6. 

the Ferrara Spanish Bible 
dedicated to, 4, 577. 

reconciled with her sister, 4, 
577. 

goes to Constantinople, 4, 577. 

beneficence of, 4, 577. 

enlists the sultan's aid in be- 
half of Turkish Jews at An- 
cona, 4, 579-SO. 

influences rabbis against trade 
with Ancona, 4, 5S0. 
Mendoza, cardinal, archbishop 
of Seville, prepares a cate- 
chism for Marranos, 4, 311. 
Menelaus (Onias), the Benja- 
mite, Hellenist, opposed to 
Onias III, 1, 437. 

made high priest by Anti- 
ochus Epiphanes, 1, 447. 

despoils the Temple, 1, 448. 

instigates the murder of 
Onias III, 1, 448. 

exonerated from the charge of 
Temple desecration, 1, 449. 

maligns the Law, 1, 449-50. 

takes refuge in the Acra, 1, 
451. 

desecrates the Temple, 1, 451. 

tries to abolish Judaism, 1, 
454-5. 

executed, 1, 480. 
Meni, Chahhean goddess, wor- 
shiped by Jiida?ans in Baby- 
lon, 1, 310. 



Menz. Sec Abraham; Judah; 
Moses. 

Meonenim, Philistine sooth- 
saj'ers, 1, 55. 

Mephiboslieth, son of Jonathan, 
lamed, 1, 104. 
jjrotected by David, 1, 123. 
at Jerusalem with David, 1, 124. 

Merab, daughter of Saul, offered 
to David as wife, 1, 99. 
son of, killed by the Gibeon- 
ites, 1, 123. 

Merari, Moses Menachem, rabbi 
of Venice, exacts a promise 
from Luzzatto not to teach 
the Kabbala, 5, 239. 

Merbal, a Phoenician, rules his 
own country, 1, 342. 

Merida, early settlement of 
Jews in, 3, 43. 
home of Samuel Ibn-Nagrela's 
father, 3, 255. 

Merilhou, French minister of 
education, projooses the com- 
plete emancipation of the 
Jews, 5, 597. 

Merinos, the, a powerful famil}^ 
of Fez, 4, 390. 

Merkel, Christian, member of 
the Westphalian Jewish 
consistory, 5, 502. 

Merlato, Austrian consul at Da- 
mascus, protects Picciotto, 
5, 639. 
abused, 5, 039, 646. 
issues a report on the Damas- 
cus affair, 5, 646. 
thanked by the London meet- 
ing, 5, 653. 
thanked by the Jews of Alex- 
andria, 5, 660. 

Merlo, Diego de, commissioner 
to frame the statute of the 
Inquisition, 4, 312. 

Merodach-baladan, king of 
I'abylnn. embassy of, to 
Hezekiah, 1, 278-9. 



INDEX. 



447 



Merom, lake, battle of, 1, 57. 

Merovingians, the, the Jews un- 
der, 3, ;5G-10, 143. 

Merseburg, Jews in, in the 
ninth century, 3, 144. 
the Jews of, presented to the 
bishop, 3, 243. 

Merv, a scientific center in the 
ninth century, 3, 146. 

Mervan II, last of the Om- 
miyyade caliphs, rebellion 
against, 3, 125. 

Merwan, father of the poetess 
Asma, 3, 7G. 

Mesa (Mesha), king of Moab, 
defeated, 1, 208-9. 

Meshershaya bar Pacod, Amora, 
executed by Firuz, 2, 629. 

Meshullam of Beziers, de- 
nounces the Bahir as a for- 
gery, 3, 556. 

Meshullam of Home, announces 
Innocent VII's opi^osition to 
the expulsion of the Jews, 
4, 346-7. 

Meshullam ben Jacob (1170), 
patron of Jewish learning in 
Liinel, 3, 396. 
sons of, 3, 396-7. 
encourages Judah Ibn-Tibbon 
to make translations into 
Hebrew, 3, 397. 
encourages Abraham ben Da- 
vid to write a Mishna com- 
mentary, 3, 399. 
descendant of, 4, 30. 

Meshullam, son of Berechiah, 
marries his daughter to an 
Ammonite, 1, 362. 

Meshullam En-Vidas Dafiera, 
poet, on Nachmaui, 3, 557. 

Mesopotamia, Judseans own 
large tracts in, 2, 202. 
laid waste by Severus, 2, 464. 

Mesopotamia, northern, a syna- 
gogue in, burnt by monks, 
2, 614. 



Mesopotamia, southern, Jewish 

Babylojiia, 2, 504. 
Mesquito, David Bueno de, mil- 
lionaire in Amsterdam, 5, 
205. 
Messer-Jawaih, of l?assora, phy- 
sician, translates a medical 
work into Arabic, 3, 111. 
Messer Leon. Hre Judah ben 

Yechiel. 
Messiah, the, a descendant of 
David, 1, 528. 

the coming of, foretold by a 
JudfBO-Greek writer, 2, 95, 
143. 

longing for, in the post-exilic 
period, 2, 142-3. 

as conceived by various par- 
ties in Judaea, 2, 144-5. 

Jesus declares himself, 2, 158. 

necessity of a precursor to, 2, 
158. 

expected to come from Beth- 
lehem, 2, 161. 

suffering, objections to, 2, 166. 

warrants in Holy Writ for Je- 
sus as, 2, 166-7. 

expectation of, after the death 
of Jesus, 2, 167-8. 

Jesus believed by the apostle 
Paul to be, 2, 225-6. 

expectation of, in the Roman 
period, 2, 240-1. 

belief in Bar-Cochba as, 2, 
409, 412. 

the advent of, dependent on 
the extinction of the Patri- 
archate and the Exilarchate, 
2, 457. 

to appear in Eome, 2, 498. 

Mar-Samuel's view on, 2, 519. 

appearance of, a condition of 
the restoration of the Jew- 
ish state, 2, 600. 

hope of, suppressed by Ashi, 
2, 610. 



448 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Messiah, the {coutinited), expec- 
tation of, among" the Ara- 
bian Jews, 3, 58. 

expected by the Jews of the 
Caliphate of the East, 3, 145. 

expected b3' the Chazars, 3, 
222. 

expected by the Karaites, 3, 
247. 

expectation of, in Germany 
and France in the eleventh 
century, 3, 298. 

the appearance of, calculated 
by Abraham Albargeloni, 3, 
313. 

hoped for by the Jews of 
northern Africa under Ab- 
dulmumen, 3, 360. 

forerunner of, among the Ye- 
men Jews, 3, 462, 464. 

doctrine of the soul of, in the 
Kabbala, 3, 555. 

David Alrui poses as, 3, 431, 
432. 

characterized by Nachmani, 3, 
GOO. 

the coming of, supposed to be 
heralded by Hulagu's dev- 
astation of Jerusalem, 3, 
606. 

abrogates the Law according 
to Kaymund Martin, 3, 622. 

the appearance of, rumored in 
Syria, 3, 637. 

speculations on, in the Zohar, 
4, 18. 

belief in, set aside by Cliayim 
ben Gallipapa, 4, 149. 

the expectation of, the center 
of the Kabbala, 4, 482. 

the advent of, predicted by 
Isaac Abrabanel and Asher 
Liimmlein, 4, 482-3. 

hope in, aroused by the Kab- 
balists, 4, 483. 

expectation of, aroused by 
David Reubeni, 4, 494, 497-8. 



Messiah, the (continued), expec- 
tation of, nursed by Solomon 
Molcho, 4, 495-7, 529-30. 

hope of, cherished by Joseph 
Karo, 4, 53S-9. 

hope of, aroused by Isaac 
Lurya, 4, 622. 

references to, expunged from 
the Talmud by the censors, 

4, 660. 
hope of, awakened b.y the 

Thirty Years' War, 5, 23. 

of the Jews, as defined by the 
Fifth Monarchy believers, 5, 
23. 

hopes of, entertained by Ma- 
nasseh ben Israel, 5, 24, 28, 
31, 33. 

the advent of. connected with 
the re-settlement of the 
Jews in England, 5, 28, 40. 

hoped for, by Felgenhauer, 5, 
35-6. 

hopes of, entertained by Chris- 
tians, 5, 37. 

the hopes of, entertained by 
Jews, expounded by Manas- 
seh ben Israel, 5, 37-8. 

Cromwell said to be, 5, 45. 

speculations on, in the Kab- 
bala, 5, 120-1. 

Sabbata'i Zevi reveals himself 
as, 5, 122. 

connected with the idea of 
suffering, 5, 122-3. 

Nathan Ghazati on, 5, 131-2. 

according to Sabbatian con- 
ceptions, 5, 142-3. 

announced by Nehemiah Co- 
hen, 5, 152. 

Mordecai of Eisenstadt pro- 
claims himself, 5, 209. 

Jacob Querido reverenced as, 

5, 210. 
Berachya regarded as, 5, 

211. 



INDEX. 



449 



Messiah, the {continued), doc- 
trine of, by Chayon, 5, 219- 
20. 
Moses jMeir Kamenker re- 
garded as, 5, 230. 
Luzzatto proclaimed as, 5, 

245. 
Jacob Frank tlie incarnation 

of, 5, 273, 274. 
expectation of, in Pohmd, 5, 

377. 
belief in, abandoned by the 
Hamburg- Reform Temple 
Union, 5, 5G5. 
doctrine of, given uj) by the 
" Friends of lleform," 5, 
675, 076. 
Holdheim on, 5, GSO. 
attitude of the Berlin Reform 
Association towards, 5, 683. 
Messiah, the, of the branch of 
Joseph, Isaac Lurya consid- 
ers himself, 4, 622, 624. 
Chayim Vital considers him- 
self, 4, 625; 5, 52. 
discussed by Sabbatai Zevi 
and Nehemiah Cohen, 5, 
153. 
Cardoso declares himself, 5, 
207. 
Messiahs, numbers of, appear 
during Roman sovereignty 
in .Judaea, 2, 144. 
Messiahs, the, list of: 
Abraham ben Mordecai of 

Samuel Abulatia, Eisenstadt, 

Avila, the Messiah Moses of Croto, 
of Moses Dotarc'l, 

Ayllon, the Mas- Moses McTr 

siahof Kamenkor, 

Bar-Cochba, Obaiah Abu Isa 

Berachja, ben Ishak, 

Frank, Jacob Sabbatat Zevi, 

Jacob Querido, Serene, 

Jesus, Theudas. 

Luzzatto, Moses Chayim 

Messianic age, the, as con- 
ceived by the educated 
classes, 2, 144-5, 



Messianic age, the (continued), 
believed to be dawning un- 
der Vespasian, 2, 291-2. 

tokens of, according to Abra- 
ham of Granada, 4, 197. 

preparation for, according to 
Maimonides, 4, 530. 

;is described by Isaac Lurya, 

4, r,20. 

Messianic year, the, set for 
1358, 4, 120. 
fixed at 1648 by the Zohar, 5, 

6, 121-2. 
fixed by the Fifth Monarchy 
believers at 1066, 5, 120. 

Messina, the Jewish communi- 
ty in, in the sixth century, 
3, 28. 
the clerk at the mint of, a 

Jew, 3, 567. 
Jews from, form a congrega- 
tion in Constantinople, 4, 402. 

Messina, the Jews of, enjoy 
equal rights with the Chris- 
tians, 3, 423. 
in the twelfth century, 3, 424. 

Mesvi. See Moses of Baalbek; 
IMusa of Akbar. 

Metempsychosis. See Transmi- 
gration of souls, the. 

Meter, introduced into Hebrew 
by Dunash ben Labrat, 3, 
223, 226. 

Metibta, a session of the schools 
in Babylonia, 2, 547. 

Metilius, commander of the Ro- 
man garrison in Jerusalem, 
2, 255. 
spared by the Zealots, 2, 261. 

Metternich, reactionary leader, 

5, 512. 

disapproves of the oppression 
of the Jews in the Hanse 
Towns, 5, 514. 

accepts Humboldt's constitu- 
tion as a basis for discus- 
sion, 5, 514. 



450 



HISTORY OF THE TEWS. 



Metternich (rontinitrd), careless- 
ness of, 5, 519-20. 

the Jews of Austria under, 5, 
523. 

on the emancipation of the 
Jews, 5, 527. 

intolerant of Jews, 5, 579. 

intervention of, in the Damas- 
cus affair, 5, 646, 647. 

writes to Mehmet Ali, 5, 647. 

thanked by the London meet- 
ing, 5, (')')'.'>. 

thanked by the Jews of Alex- 
andria, 5, GGO. 
Meturgeman, the, duty of, in 
the Synhedrion, 2, .'JGl. 

office of, in the time of the 
Amoraim, 2, 541. 

employed by Samuel ben Ali, 
3, 438. 
Metz, rabbis of, Poles, 5, 17. 

the Royal Society of, offers a 
prize on the Jewish ques- 
tion, 5, 434-5. 

the Talmud school of, closed, 
5, 567. 

a rabbinical college at, 5, 700. 
Metz, the Jews of, privileges of, 
renewed by Louis XIV, 5, 
174. 

the blood accusation against, 
5, 174-5. 

elect Eibeschiltz rabbi, 5, 251. 

limited in number, 5, 347-8. 

income from, given away by 
Louis XIV, 5, 348, 44G. 

restrictions against, 5, 348-9. 

number of, 5, 435. 

petition for the removal of 
oppressive taxes, 5, 438. 

relieved of taxes, 5, 446. 

hindered in the celebration of 
the I'assover, 5, 452. 

suffering of, 5, 452. 
Metz, Moses. See Ensheim, Mo- 
ses. 



Metz, Moses, follower of Joseph 
Uelmedigo, 5, 77. 

Meyer, a Jew of Breslau, 
charged with host desecra- 
tion, 4, 261. 

Meyer, Edward, opponent of 
the Jews, 5, 602. 

Meyer, Peter, pastor in Frank- 
fort, permits Pfefferkorn to 
preach, 4, 449. 

Meyerbeer, father of, 5, 563. 
composes songs for the Leipsic 
Eeform service, 5, 573. 

Meyuchas, Mordecai Joseph, 
rabbi of Jerusalem, encour- 
ages opposition to Napoleon, 
5, 459. 

Mezuzzoth, the use of, prohib- 
ited under Hadrian, 2, 424. 

Miasa. See Meir. 

Micah (I), prophet. See Micha- 
iah. 

Micah (II), prophet, prophe- 
cies of, 1, 261-2. 
encourages the people of Ju- 
dah under Hezekiah, 1, 273. 

Michael, name of an angel, 1, 
403. 

Michael of Frankfort, mer- 
chant, the ruin of, urged by 
Luther, 4, 551. 

Michael the Old, Karaite, ijcr- 
niits lights on the Sabbath, 
4, 269. 

Michael ben Kaleb, Jewish 
poet in Thebes, 3, 426. 

Michael Scotus, friend of Jacob 
Anatoli, 3, 566. 
translator of johilosophical 
works. 3, 567. 

Michaelis, John David, profes- 
sor at Ciottiiigen, hostility 
of, to the Jews, 5, 359-60. 
criticised by Mendelssohn, 5, 

361. 
on " Jerusalem," 5, 365-6. 
on " The Gatherer," 5, 404. 



INDEX. 



451 



Michaelis, John David {con- 
tinued), on the Jews, 5, 414. 
refuted by Mirabeaii, 5, -iX]. 
Michaelis, John Henry, exoner- 
ates the Alenu prayer, 5, 191. 
Michaiah, son of Gemariah, re- 
ports Baruch's reading of 
Jeremiah's scroll, 1, 305. 
Michaiah (Micah I), son of Im- 
lah, prophet, hostile to 
Ahab, 1, 205. 
Michal, daughter of Saul, de- 
voted to David, 1, 98. 
marries David, 1, 100. 
returns to David, 1, 110. 
rebukes David, 1, 120. 
Michlol, grammatical work by 

David Kimchi, 3, 394. 
Michmash, Philistine camp at, 

1, 86-8. 

Jonathan Haphus invests the 
fortress of, 1, 494. 

Microcosmos, religio-philosophi- 
cal work by Abu-Amr Jo- 
seph Ibn-Zadik, 3, 314-15. 

Middelburg, admission of Jews 
into, proposed, 4, ()G3. 

Middlesex, Lord, and Manasseh 
hen Israel, 5, 33. 

Middoth, the seven, of Hillel, 
for testing the oral Law, 2, 
98. 

Midian, INioses in, 1, 14. 

Midianites, the, seduce the Is- 
raelites to idolatry, 1, 28. 
routed by Gideon, 1, 61-3. 

Midoth, Mishna of Rabbi Akiba, 

2, 354. 

Midras, academy among the 

Arabian Jews, 3, 59. 
Midrash, method of deducing 

the oral Law from Scripture, 

2, 328, 329. 
Midrash of Simon bar Yochai. 

See Zohar, the. 
Midrash Rabba, the, laid under 

the ban, 5, 195, 



" Migdal Oz," Sabbatai Zevi's 

prison at Abydos, 5, 148. 
Migration, the, of the nations, 

2, 604-5. 
Mikulski, de. Canon, favors the 
conversion of Frankists, 5, 
285. 
arranges for a disputation be- 
tween Frankists and Tal- 
mudists, 5, 285. 
Milan, the Jewish community 
in, under the Ostrogoths, 3, 
28. 
refuge of the exiles from the 
Papal States, 4, 592. 
Milan, the Jews of, letter to, 
from Theodoric, 3, 30. 
appeal for permission to own 
the Talmud, 4, 658. 
Milan district, the, the Jews of, 

expelled, 4, GGO. 
Milchamoth, work by Abraham 

Maimuni, 3, 545. 
Milchamoth Adonai, work by 

Levi ben Gerson, 4, 92. 
Milcom, Baal of the Ammonites, 
1, 55. 
worshiiJed on the IMount of 
Olives, 1, 175. 
Military service, Jews admitted 

to, 3, 36, 293, 384, 592. 
Military service, Jews excluded 
from, by Honorius, 2, 617. 
by Theodosius, 3, 28. 
under Clotaire II, 3, 40. 
in the Byzantine empire, 3, 
425. 
Miller, John, describes the Ham- 
burg Jews, 4, 690. 
objections of, to the Jews, 4, 

691. 
attacks Judaism, 4, 692. 
Millionaires, Jewish, at Amster- 
dam, 5, 205. 
in Berlin, 5, 397, 414. 
Millo, the, northern elevation of 
Jerusalem, 1, 118. 



452 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Millo, the {continued), Solomon's 

palace in, 1, 168. 
Milo, papal legate, humbles 
Raymund VI of Toulouse, 
3, 501-2. 
presides over the Council of 
Avignon, 3, 503. 
Milo, Joseph Nassi made duke 

of, 4, 596. 
Minseans (Minim), the, secta- 
ries, 2, 309. 
the writings of, influence 

Elisha ben Abuya, 2, 377. 
influence of, on Judaism dep- 
recated by Tarphou, 2, 378. 
term for informers, 2, 379. 
curse of, attributed to Gama- 
liel II, 2, 379-80. 
curse of, subject of a charge 
before Alfonso XI of Cas- 
tile, 4, 83. 
Minden, Jews tolerated in, 4, 

GSG. 
Minhagim, compiled by the 
Austrian school of rabbis, 
4, 134-5. 
Minim. See AlinfEans, the. 
Minna of Speyer, tortured dur- 
ing the second crusade, 3, 
352. 
Minorca. See Magona. 
Minorites, the. See Franciscans, 

the. 
Minui. See Ordination. 
Minyan Yavanim (Shetaroth), 
the Seleucidyean era, abol- 
ished, 4, 394-5. 
Miques, Joao. See Nassi, Joseph. 
Mirabeau, count (1749-1791), 
sympathy of, enlisted for 
the Jews by Dohm, 5, 366. 
in intercourse with Henrietta 

Herz, 5, 413. 
on Prussia under Frederick 

William TI, 5, 419. 
inflnenced by Mendelssohn, 5, 
432. 



Mirabeau, count (cuntinued), on 
the Jews, 5, 432-3. 
favors the emancipation of 

the Jews, 5, 433-4, 441. 
protests against a dominant 
religion, 5, 439. 
Miracles, the nature of, as ex- 
plained in " The Guide of 
the Perplexed," 3, 483, 523. 
theory of, by Nachmani, 3, 
533. 
Mirandola. See Pico di Miran- 

dola. 
Miriam, mother of Jesus, 2, 148. 
Miriam, prophetess, member of 

the tribe of Levi, 1, 12. 
Miriam of Peraea, suffering of, 
during the siege of Jerusa- 
lem, 2, 306. 
" Mirror for Admonition, A," 
anti-Jewish pamjihlet by Or- 
tuin de Graes, 4, 425. 
*' Mirror of Morals, The," by 
Solomon Alami, quotation 
from, 4, 154-5. 
" Mirror of the Jews, The," 
anti-Jewish ]):imphlet by 
lliindt, 5, 532. 
Mises, Jehuda Lob, jiatron of 
Jewish students in Leni- 
berg, 5, 612. 
exempt from excommunica- 
tion, 5, 614. 
Mishle Shualim, by Berachya 

ben Natronai", 3, 560. 
Mislma, the, code of the oral 
Law, the first, 2, 343, 354. 
of Akiba, 2, 354. 
treatise of, on proselytes, 2, 

384. 
of Me'ir, 2, 439-40. 
completed by Judah I, 2, 460 
divisions of, 2, 460. 
style of, 2, 460. 
authority of, 2, 461, 462. 
not committed to writing, 2, 
461, 608. 



INDEX. 



453 



Mishna, the {continued), lan- 
f^nage of, 2, 461-2. 

history of the compilation of, 
2, 462. 

supplements to, 2, 470. 

impresses a legal character 
upon Judaism, 2, 471. 

asserts the equivalence of all 
religions commands, 2, 472. 

reward and punishment ac- 
cording to, 2, 472-3. 

on the study of the Law, 2, 
473-4. 

spirituality of, 2, 474-5. 

casuistry in, 2, 475-6. 

not hostile to Christianity, 2, 
476. 

contains laws against inter- 
course with the heathen, 2, 
476-8. 

permits the heathen to glean, 
2, 478. 

completion of, ends the work 
of the Tanaites, 2, 478. 

study of, pursiied by the Pal- 
estinian Amoraim, 2, 489-90. 

not of equal legal force 
throughout, 2, 49,1. 

expounded by Rabba bar 
Nachmani, 2, 578. 

as studied by Raba bar Jo- 
seph bar Chama, 2, 590-1. 

amplifications and explana- 
tions of, arranged by Ashi, 
2, 607-9. See Talmud, the. 

translated into Arabic, 3, 237. 

explained by Maimonides, 3, 
451. 

methodology of, by Gersoni- 
des, 4, 392. 

translated into Latin, 5, 193. 

See also Law, the oral; Tal- 
mud, the; Tanaites, the. 
Mishna, the, commentary on, 
by Maimonides, 3, 458-60, 
492; 4, 60. 

by Abraham ben David, 3, 399. 



Mishna, the, commentary on 
{contiiiurd), by Lipmaiin Hel- 
ler, 4, 704. 
by Obadiah dl Bertlnoro, 4, 704. 
Mishna, Acharona, Aklba's code, 

2, 3r)4. 

Mishna di E-abbi Judah, the 
final code, 2, 461. See Mish- 
na, the. 

Mishna Rishona, the earliest 
code, 2, 343, 354. 

'' Mishne Torah," the, religious 
code, by Maimonides, 3, 
466-72. 
clears the maze of the Tal- 
mud, 3, 466, 467, 468-9. 
place given to philosophy in, 

3, 467-8. 
language of, 3, 469. 
deviates occasionally from the 

Talmudic decisions, 3, 469. 
on Talmudical Judaism, 3, 470. 
helps to ossify Judaism, 3, 470. 
spread of, 3, 471. 
attacked by Talmud ists, 3, 472. 
criticised by Abraham ben 

David, 3, 490. 
the basis of Moses of Coney's 

work, 3, 586. 
adhered to in Spain, 4, 86. 
Turini based on, 4, 88. 
compared with Turim, 4, 89. 
superseded by Turim, 4, 89-90. 
Mishnic rules of interpretation 
used by Anan ben David, 3, 
131. 
Misr, and Misr, New. See Cairo. 
Mithnagdim, opponents of the 

Chassidim, 5, 392. 
Mithridates, king of Pergamus, 

aided by Antipater, 2, 75. 
Mithridates, king of Pontus, 
Pompey's campaign against, 
2, 02. 
suicide of, 2, 65. 
Mixed marriages. See Inter- 
marriages. 



454 



HISTORY OF THE |E\VS. 



Mizpah, Samuel holds popular 
assemblies at, 1, TS. 
fortified by Asa, 1, 191. 
seat of Gedaliah, 1, 320, 321. 
sanctuary at, 1, 321. 
Gedaliah unu-dered at, 1, 322. 
the inhabitants of, taken cap- 
tive, 1, 322. 
Judas Maccabaeus exhorts his 
troops at, 1, 467. 
Mizpeh, mountain, description 

of. 1, 45. 
MizracM. See Elias Mizraehi. 
Mizriczians, a branch of the 

Chassidim, 5, 388. 
'* Mizvoth," a compendium of 
religious duties, by Abulsari 
Sahal ben Mazliach Kohen, 
3, 204. 
Mnevis, white bull, worshiped 

by the Egj-ptians, 1, 9. 
Moabites, the, hostile to the Is- 
raelites in the desert, 1, 28. 
idolatry of, 1, 55. 
relations of, to the Israelites, 

1, 50-9. 
routed by Ehud, 1, 60-1. 
subdued by David, 1, 125-6, 
attracted to Palestine under 

Solomon, 1, 173. 
regain independence, 1, 185. 
tributary to Omri, 1, 194-5. 
defeated by Jehoram and Je- 

hoshaphat, 1, 208-9. 
conquered by Jeroboam II, 1, 

226. 
urge revolt from Nebuchad- 
nezzar upon Zedekiah, 1, 300. 
allies of Nebuchadnezzar, 1,314. 
desirous of friendly relations 

with the Judajans, 1, 362. 
as proselytes, 2, 343, 384. 
Moabitis, invaded by Alexander 

JanniEUS, 2, 44. 
Moawiyah, Ommiyyade Caliph, 
rival of Ali, 3, 90. 
tolerance of, 3, llO. 



Moawiyah, Omniiyj'ade Caliph 
(contiinird). patron of learn- 
ing, 3, 110. 

Mocenigo, Luis, doge of Venice, 
proposes the expulsion of 
the Jews, 4, 600-1. 
banishes the Jews, 4, 606. 

Mocenigo, Pietro, doge of Ven- 
ice, defends the Jews from 
the charge of child-murder, 

4, 299. 

Mochinger, John, mj'stic, ad- 
dresses ]\Ianasseh ben Israel, 

5, 24. 

Mocho, John, Dominican, in- 
cites the mob against the 
Portuguese Marranos, 4, 487. 

Modena. Sre Leo ben Isaac 
Modena. 

Modena, Jews beg for shelter in, 
4, 600. 
Mordecai of Eisenstadt in, 5, 

209. 
rabbi of, opposes the Keform 
movement, 5, 571. 

Modestus, Patriarch at Jerusa- 
lem, demands the annihila- 
tion of the Jews of Pales- 
tine, 3, 22-3. 

Modin, the home of the ^Macca- 
bees, 1, 459. 
Hasmonaean familj' mauso- 
leum at, 2, 14. 

Mohammed, sultan of Turkey, 
death of, 5, 034. 

Mohammed. El-Telli, ojiponent 
of the Damascus Jews, 5, 033. 
employed as a spy by llatti 
Menton, 5, 635, 036, 037-8. 

Moise. See Meir. 

Moisling, the Jews of, trade in 
Liibeck, 5, 506. 
move to Liibeck, 5, 50G. 

Molcho, Solomon (Diogo Pires, 
1501-1532), Marrnno. royal 
secretary, Hebrew education 
of, 4, 495. 



INDEX 



455 



Molcho, Solomon {continued). 
Messianic m3-sticisiu of, 4, 
495-6. 

undergoes circumcision, 4, 
496, 499. 

goes to Turkey, 4, 490. 

among tlie Kabbalists, 4, 496- 
7. 

longs for martj'rdom, 4, 497. 

as a preaclier, 4, 497. 

persecuted at Ancona, 4, 501. 

at Pesaro, 4, 501. 

appears in Rome in Messianic 
equipment, 4, 502. 

vision of, concerning Roine, 4, 
502. 

in intercourse with Clement 
VII and Church dignitaries, 
4, 503. 

preaches at Home, 4, 50^^-4. 

announces an earthquake and 
a flood, 4, 504, 

goes to Venice, 4, 504. 

severs his relation with Eeu- 
beni, 4, 504. 

poisoned, 4, 505. 

influence of, against the In- 
quisition feared by Portu- 
gal, 4, 50G. 

denounced by Jacob Mantin, 
4, 506-7. 

sentenced to be burnt, 4, 507. 

saved by Clement VII, 4, 507. 

leaves Rome, 4, 507. 

petitions Charles V to permit 
the Marranos to arm them- 
selves against the Turks, 4, 
509-10. 

burnt at Mantua, 4, 510-11. 

personality of, 4, 511. 

enthusiasm for, 4, 511-12. 

influence of, in Palestine, 4, 
529-30. 

influence of, on Joseph Karo, 
4, 537. 

a prey to Kabbalistic influ- 
ences, 5, 233. 



T/Cole, count, advi.ses exceptional 
laws for the French Jews, 
5, 479. 
report of, not kindly received 
by Napoleon's council, 5, 
479. 
imperial commissioner to the 
Assembly of Jewish Nota- 
bles, 5, 485, 489. 
announces Napoleon's satis- 
faction with the Notables, 
5, 492. 
probably frames Napoleon's 
Jewish law, 5, 498. 
Moloch worship, under Manas- 
sch, 1, 283. 
under Jehoialvim, 1, 300. 
Moloch Chammon, god of fire, 

altar to, in Samaria, 1, 197. 
Moncado, Abraham de, Mar- 
rano in Pernambuco, 4, 693. 
Moncalvo, French exiles settle 

in, 4, 177. 
Moncilla, the Jews of, attacked 
at the instigation of Pedro 
Olligoyen, 4, 78. 
Mongols (Tartars), the, devas- 
tate Jerusalem, 3, 605-6. 
of Hungary, crusade against, 

3, 614. 
kingdom of, in Persia, 3, 637- 

8. 
of the Persian khanate, con- 
spire against Saad-Addaula, 
3, 649. 
" Moniteur," the, publishes a 
history of the Jews, 5, 485-6. 
Monobaz I, king of Adiabene, 
domestic relations of, 2, 216. 
Monobaz II, regent of Adia- 
bene, circumcised, 2, 217. 
king, presents golden vessels 

to the Temple, 2, 219. 
relatives of, aid Judasa against 
Rome, 2, 264. 
Monopoli (Apulia), Isaac Abra- 
banel at, 4, 384. 



456 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Monotheism, belief held by 

Abraham. 1, 5. 
Mons Judaicus, near ISarboiiiie, 

3, 3->. 
Montalto, Elias. (S'ce Elias Mon- 

talto. 
Montanists, the, persecuted by 

Leo the Isaurian, 3, 122-3. 
Montefiore, Judith, accompanies 
her husband to Egypt, 5, 
654. 
Montefiore, Moses, acts in the 
Damascus affair, 5, G45. 

appeal to, from Uamascus, 5, 
651. 

sent to Egypt on the Damas- 
cus affair, 5, G51-2, 653. 

dignity of, 5, 653. 

sets out for Eg^'pt, 5, 654, ■ 
657-S. 

honors shown to, 5, G58-9. 

supported b^' the English con- 
sul-general in Eg3'pt, 5, 659. 

audience of, with ]\Iehmet Ali, 
5, 659. 

obtains a firman securing 
Turkish Jews against the 
blood accusation, 5, 662. 

honors shown to, on his re- 
turn from the East, 5, 667, 
668. 

obtains the removal of To- 
maso's tombstone, 5, 668. 

received by Louis Philippe, 5, 
668. 

congratulated by (^ueeu \ic- 
toria, 5, 669. 

acknowledgment of the ser- 
vices of, 5, 669-72. 

celebration of the return of, 
in London, 5, 670. 
Montemar, marquis of, friend of 

Isaac Abrabanel, 4, 338. 
Montesquieu, denounces the 
barbarous treatment of the 
Jews, 5, 336. 



Montezinos, Antonio de (Aaron 
Levi), traveler, on the where- 
abouts of the Ten Tribes, 5, 
30. 

Monte-Zion street, occupied by- 
the Jews of Palma, 4, 
171. 

Montiel, the battle of, Henry de 
Trastamare victorious at, 4, 
126. 

Montpellier, the Council of, 
omits all mention of Jews, 

3, nos. 

the Inquisition at, 3, 542. 
]\Iaimonides' works burnt at, 

3, 543. 

Jewish phj'sieians at, 3, 5^2, 
583. 

bigotry of Jewish scholars of, 
4,27. 

synagogue of, sold, 4, 48. 
Montpellier, the Jews of, pros- 
perous in the twelfth cen- 
tury, 3, 395. 

learning of, 3, 395. 

influenced to oppose the study 
of science, 4, 29-30, 31-2, 

refuse support to Abba-Mari, 

4, 39, 40-1. 

forced to wear badges, 4, 54. 
Monzon, the Jews of, excommu- 
nicate the anti-Maimunists, 

3, 537. 

Moore, Dorothea, student of He- 
brew literature, 5, 21. 
Moravia, John of Capistrano in, 

4, 258. 

I'olish fugitives in, 5, 16, 

rabbis of, I'oles, 5, 17. 

the Sabbatian movement in, 

5, 150, 208, 228. 

exiles from Vienna settle in, 

5, 172. 
Jews under restrictions in, 5, 

523. 
rabbis of, oppose the Reform 

movement, 5, 571. 



INDEX. 



457 



Moravia (coniinned), rabbis of, 
protest af^aiiist the liruiis- 
wick rabbinical eouiereiiee, 
5, 682. 

Moravia, the Jews of, suffer 
during" tlie persecution in- 
stigated by Ilartmann von 
Deggenburg, 4, 98. 
urged to emigrate to Turkey, 

4, 271. 

submit questions to tlie Polisli 

Talmudists, 4, G39. 
outbursts against, during tlie 

Austrian War of Succession, 

5, 251-2. 

suspected of treason, 5, 252. 
banislied, 5, 252. 
heavily taxed, 5, 508. 
Mordecai of Eisenstadt, Sabba- 
tian, preaching of, 5, 208. 
gives himself out as the Mes- 
siah, 5, 208-9. 
in Italy and Poland, 5, 209. 
founds a Sabbatian sect, 5, 212. 
Mordecai ben Hillel, Talmudist, 

martyrdom of, 4, 3G. 
Mordecai ben Joseph, of Avig- 
non, obtains the abrogation 
of the lawf on Jew badges, 

3, 612. 

imprisoned for refusing to 
wear the badge, 3, 613. 

Mordecai ben Nissan, writes on 
the history of Karaisni, 4, 
183-4. 

Mordecai Ibn-Alcharbiya. See 
Saad-Addaula. 

Mordecai Jafa (1532-1612), sup- 
posed organizer of the Syn- 
od of the Four Countries, 

4, 645. 

draws up a religious code, 4, 645. 

as rabbi in Poland, 4, 645. 
Mordecai Zemach ben Gershon 
(Soncin), appeals to Pins 
IV for the return of the 
Jews to Prague, 4, 586-7. 



Mordecai Zevi, father of Sabba- 
la'i, prosjjerous, 5, 119-20. 
interested in Messianic specn- 
lations, 5, 120. 
Morea, the, the Jews of, con- 
sider trading with Pesaro, 
4, 579. 
Sabbatai Zevi in, 5, 124. 
Moreh, mountain, description 

of, 1, 44. 
Moreh Nebuchim. See " Guide 

of the Perplexed, The." 
Morenu, ordination of rabbis, 
enforced in Germany, 4, 134. 
rabbi, title bestowed on Cre- 
mieux, 5, 668. 
Moriali, Mount, the Jebusites 
settle on, 1, 114. 
situated on the east side of 

Jerusalem, 1, 115, 119. 
David sacrifices on, 1, 138. 
site of the Temple, 1, 162. 
Morillo, Miguel, inquisitor ap- 
pointed by Sixtus IV, 4, 312, 
314, 323. 
censured by the pope, 4, 318. 
Moriscos, the original Jewish 
inhabitants of Palestine, 4, 
399. 
" Morning Baptists," name 
given to the Essenes, 2, 2(). 
Moro, Joseph (Philip), apostate, 
denounces the Talmud, 4, 
564. 
emplo,yed by Paul IV to an- 
noy the Jews, 4, 581. 
Morocco, taken by Abduljmumen, 

3, 358. 

the Jews of, emigrate or ac- 
cept Islam, 3, 358-9. 

embassy to, under Abraham 
Ibn-Alfachar, 3, 385. 

forced converts emigrate to. 

4, 179. 

Spanish exiles in, 4, 389-90. 
fortunes of the Jews of. 5, 
168. 



458 



HISTORY OF THE JEWS. 



Morpurgo, Elijah, one of the 

Measfim. 5, 102. 
Mortara case, the, 5, 701. 
Morteira, Saul Levi (1596-16C0), 

disciple of Elias Montalto, 

4, 673. 

instructor in the Talmud To- 

rah of Amsterdam, 4, liSl. 
member of the first rabbinical 

colleg-e, 4, GS2. 
mediocrit\' of, 4, 682. 
eulogizes Isaac de Castro- 

Tartas, 5, 32. 
relations of, to Manasseh ben 

Israel strained, 5, 34. 
imposes penance upon Uriel 

da Costa, 5, 63. 
teacher of Spinoza, 5, 87, 88. 
sits in judgment on Spinoza, 

5, 92. 

" Mosaic Law, The," by John 

David Michaelis, 5, 359. 
" Mosaic religion," the, possi- 
l)ility of the development of, 
5, 075, G7G. 
Moselle district, the, the Jews 
of, during the first crusade, 
3, 300. 
Moser, Moses, friend of Heine, 
informed of his conversion, 
5, 551. 
advises against the publication 
of the " Rabbi of Bacha- 
rach," 5, 552. 
founder of the Society for Cul- 
ture, 5, 5S:'). 
staunchness of, 5, 5S7-8. 
Moses, legislator and proi)het, 
member of the tribe of Levi, 
1, 12. 
at the court of Pharaoh, 1, 

13. 
opposes injustice, 1, 13. 
• in Midian, 1, 14. 
met by Aaron on Horeb, 1, 

15. 
the leader of Israel, 1, 17. 



Moses, legislator and prophet, 
(roiitinucd), orders the pun- 
ishment of the idolatrous 
Israelites in the desert, 1, 24. 

teaches the Israelites, L, 25. 

forms the Council of Elders, 1, 
25-6. 

death of, 1, 30-1. 

characterization of, 1, 30-1. 

how regarded by the Essenes, 

2, 28. 

s3-nagogue in Egypt attrib- 
uted to, 3, 445. 
projihetic faculty of, analj'zed 

b3' Maimonides, 3, 483-4. 
prophetic character of, denied 

by the philosophers, 4, 24. 
the Sons of, Baruch Gad's re- 
ports about, 5, 120. 
characterized bj' Heine, 5, 
553-5. 
Moses, rabbi of Saxonjs accused 
of using liuman blood, 4, 
298. 
Moses (Mesvi) of Baalbek, 
founder of a Karaite sect, 3, 
158. 
Moses de Cavarite, sherift" of 

Beziers, 3, 395. 
Moses of Coucy (1200-1260), 
Tossafist, disciple of Judah 
Sir Leon, 3, 409. 
alienates the French rabbis 
from Solomon of Montpel- 
lier, 3, 539. "* 

e.xhorts the Jews of southern 
France and Spain, 3, 545-G. 
ritual and ethical sermons by, 

3, 510. 

at the disputation with Donin, 

3, 576, 578. 
Bible comiuentarj' In-, 3, 586. 
Moses of Crete, a false Messiah, 

2, 610-11. 
Moses de Leon. See Moses ben 
Shem Tob; Zohar, the. 



INDEX. 



459 



Moses de Trani, elisciplc of 
Jacob Berab, rival of Joseph 
Karo, 4, 540. 

appealed to on the question of 
trade with Ancona, 4, 5S0. 
Moses of Trent, refuses to con- 
fess to ritual murder, 4, 298. 
Moses ben Asher, Massoret, cor- 
rects collies of the Bible, 3, 
207. 

works of, criticised by Saa- 
diah, 3, 207. 
Moses ben Chanocli, emissary 
from Sora, taken captive, 3, 
208. 

wife of, drowned, 3, 208-9. 

ransomed by the Cordova 
Jews, 3, 209. 

reveals hims